Lesson Plan Index: Social Studies Standards

Teaching with Historic Places has developed more than 160 classroom-ready lesson plans that together range across American history. All are available on the Web. For more information on lessons plans or our program, contact TwHP. You can also view the entire collection according to location, topic, primary source, skill, U.S. History Standards, and Social Studies Standards.


 
 

I. Culture

Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history.
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124)
Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157)
Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
At a Crossroads: The King of Prussia Inn (119)
Learn how transportation routes affected a local inn, how archeology revealed the inn's use over time, and how preservation efforts saved the historic site from suburban sprawl.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105)
Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107)
Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91)
Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory (68)
Learn how the Civil War created fierce conflicts among American Indian nations who had been moved across the Mississippi River.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures (54)
Consider the complex political and cultural differences that existed between European Americans and American Indians during the early 19th century and learn how these conflicting views ultimately affected the Creeks. (National Park)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90)
Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Oriskany: "Blood Shed a Stream Running Down" (79)
Learn how New York's Mohawk Valley became the setting for a fierce Revolutionary War battle that pitted residents of the area, including the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, against each other. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: A Moravian Settlement in Colonial America (59)
Learn why Moravians immigrated to the New World and how the towns they established embodied their religious beliefs.
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121)
Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Californio to American: A Study in Cultural Change (8)
Evaluate several centuries of dramatic changes to an adobe ranch house and its surroundings in suburban Long Beach to analyze the interaction between Spanish and Anglo culture in California.
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50)
Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17)
Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized (81)
Learn about a famous landscape artist and his efforts to promote conservation and an appreciation for the native plant life of the United States.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27)
Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99)
Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142)
Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Digging into the Colonial Past: Archeology and the 16th-Century Spanish Settlements at Charlesfort-Santa Elena (155)
Discover the site of a 16th-century Spanish town that was founded before Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth, and learn how archeology uncovered the story of Santa Elena. (National Historic Landmark)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86)
Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum, a National Historic Landmark)
Enduring Awatovi: Uncovering Hopi Life and Work on the Mesa (156)
Learn about traditional Hopi culture and farming at Awatovi, a historic pueblo where enduring Hopi traditions and American archeological research reveal much about this important place. (National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136)
Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26)
Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community (31)
Discover why this British settlement was built and how it functioned as Great Britain and Spain each struggled to control land from Charleston to St. Augustine. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans
Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glen Echo Park: Center for Education and Recreation (24)
Trace the evolution of this Maryland site from a chapter of the Chautauqua movement, to an amusement park, to a national park. (National Park)
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117)
Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95)
Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village (66)
Examine the changing lifeways of the inhabitants of this village from the 7th century to the arrival of the Spanish in the early 17th century. (National Park)
The Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change (96)
Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97)
Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132)
Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories (25)
Tour Edison's West Orange complex where his creative combination of research, production, and marketing revolutionized the business of invention. (National Park)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161)
Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58)
Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110)
Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85)
Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147)
Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1)
Discover the complex culture and trading economy of the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes in North Dakota during the 18th century, as seen by anthropologists and artists. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII (146)
Discover how a small town in a remote U.S. territory played a large role in defending the United States and its allies during World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139)
Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108)
Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon (36)
Analyze the influences that shaped the symbolic meaning of the bell, and evaluate the various claims as to how and when it was cracked. (National Park)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127)
Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California
Understand the experience of early Asian immigrants and the obstacles they encountered as they struggled to make a living and find a place in American society. (Locke is a National Historic Landmark)
Log Cabins in America: The Finnish Experience (4)
Consider how simple, functional cabins, like those built by the Finns in Idaho, became symbols in American politics and folklore.
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141)
Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35)
Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil" (39)
Follow this president to the White House and Lindenwald in the rough-and-tumble world of early 19th century politics. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135)
Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76)
Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87)
Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46)
Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84)
Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115)
Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104)
Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
New Philadelphia: A Multiracial Town on the Illinois Frontier (130)
Learn about Free Frank McWorter and how archeology can help tell the story of the interracial town he founded in the years before the Civil War.
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152)
Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61)
Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123)
Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Octagon of Washington, D.C.: The House that Helped Build a Capital (151)
Enter The Octagon of Washington, DC, to discover how a historic brick house offered grandeur and stability to the new capital of the United States in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9)
Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102)
Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112)
Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18)
Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry(137)
Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159)
Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon (48)
Meet one of America's premier artists, a creator of public monuments, and evaluate the importance of art and sculpture in society. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas (2)
Explore a group of 18th-century missions in modern San Antonio to learn about Spanish influence on native peoples and the patterns of Texas culture. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Saratoga: The Tide Turns on the Frontier (93)
Learn about 18th-century warfare and the battle that was a turning point of the American Revolution. (National Park)
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83)
Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133)
Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158)
Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113)
Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82)
Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg (29)
Delve into a superpower meeting and discover how President Eisenhower's brand of diplomacy at this Pennsylvania farm temporarily eased the tensions of the Cold War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
These Honored Dead: The Battle of Rivers Bridge and Civil War Combat Casualties (94)
Learn how veteran soldiers adapted to the technological changes that had increased the deadliness of the battlefield, and understand the cost of the Civil War in human terms.
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92)
Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure (125)
Learn about one of the nation's most important conservation laws--the Antiquities Act of 1906--and how its passage preserved important cultural sites such as Tonto National Monument, which preserves remnants of the Salado culture prior to European contact. (National Park)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118)
Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154)
Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age (78)
Discover how the Vanderbilts became one of the wealthiest families in America and how their lifestyle influenced business, culture, architecture, and society in ways that still affect us today. (National Park)
The Vieux Carré: A Creole Neighborhood in New Orleans (20)
Examine New Orleans's distinctive French Quarter, a vibrant reflection of its Creole heritage, and recall the city's role in American westward expansion. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89)
Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88)
Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106)
Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
When Rice Was King (3)
Investigate early rice plantations in Georgetown, South Carolina, to learn how rice cultivation transformed the native environment and promoted the South's dependence on a plantation economy.
Woodrow Wilson: Prophet of Peace (14)
Examine Wilson's struggle to achieve lasting world peace following World War I. (National Historic Landmark)
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109)
Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Ybor City: Cigar Capital of the World (51)
Discover how immigrant cigar makers in this section of Tampa, Florida, adapted to life in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century while maintaining their ethnic identity. (National Historic Landmark)
Lightning Lessons
Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover Colonel Young's Protest Ride for Equality and Country (Lightning Lesson 2)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)

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II. Time, Continuity, and Change

Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history.
Adeline Hornbek and the Homestead Act: A Colorado Success Story (67)
Discover how Adeline Hornbek, single mother of four, defied traditional gender roles to become the owner of a successful ranch under the Homestead Act. (National Park)
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124)
Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11)
Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157)
Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
At a Crossroads: The King of Prussia Inn (119)
Learn how transportation routes affected a local inn, how archeology revealed the inn's use over time, and how preservation efforts saved the historic site from suburban sprawl.
Attu: North American Battleground of World War II (7)
Examine military maps and photos to better understand why an isolated battle on a remote island in Alaska alarmed the nation. (National Historic Landmark)
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105)
Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107)
Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69)
Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91)
Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory (68)
Learn how the Civil War created fierce conflicts among American Indian nations who had been moved across the Mississippi River.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures (54)
Consider the complex political and cultural differences that existed between European Americans and American Indians during the early 19th century and learn how these conflicting views ultimately affected the Creeks. (National Park)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90)
Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Mill Springs: The Civil War Divides a Border State (72)
Use one of the Civil War's key early battles to understand the conflicts that faced border states such as Kentucky during and after the war. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Prairie Grove: Civilian Recollections of the Civil War (70)
Understand the violence of the Civil War through the eyes of young women whose homes were in the midst of an important battle and continuing conflict.
The Battle of Stones River: The Soldiers' Story (40)
Recall one of the Civil War's bloodiest battles, which raged through the rocky cedar glades of Tennessee, as told in eyewitness and personal accounts. (National Park)
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: A Moravian Settlement in Colonial America (59)
Learn why Moravians immigrated to the New World and how the towns they established embodied their religious beliefs.
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121)
Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Building America's Industrial Revolution: The Boott Cotton Mills of Lowell, MA (21)
Learn how technology applied to textile mills revolutionized industry, in turn affecting mill architecture, city planning, and transportation. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Building of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (10)
Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park)
The Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Assimilation with Education after the Indian Wars (163)
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17)
Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town (52)
Examine how geography and boosterism influenced the placement of rail lines, which then stimulated the growth of towns such as Chattanooga. Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place (53)
Examine the history of this "city-within-a-city," a self-supporting African-American community that prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s.
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (44)
Trace the course of this Civil War battle and consider the wrenching personal choices that were made by soldiers on each side. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99)
Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142)
Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111)
Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
Digging into the Colonial Past: Archeology and the 16th-Century Spanish Settlements at Charlesfort-Santa Elena (155)
Discover the site of a 16th-century Spanish town that was founded before Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth, and learn how archeology uncovered the story of Santa Elena. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160)
Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
Embattled Farmers and the Shot Heard Round The World: The Battles of Lexington and Concord (150)
Walk the road where the “shot heard ‘round the world” sparked the American Revolution, and investigate how works of art both depicted and shaped our memory of these dramatic battles. (National Park)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86)
Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Enduring Awatovi: Uncovering Hopi Life and Work on the Mesa (156)
Learn about traditional Hopi culture and farming at Awatovi, a historic pueblo where enduring Hopi traditions and American archeological research reveal much about this important place. (National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136)
Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence (12)
Study personal accounts of soldiers who fought in the first battle of the Civil War, and discover how the day set the tone for the many bloody battles to come. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26)
Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120)
Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
The Freeman School: Building Prairie Communities (80)
Examine this one-room school in Nebraska and consider the important role it played in the community during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans
Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117)
Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95)
Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Gold Fever! Seattle Outfits the Klondike Gold Rush (55)
Examine how the discovery of gold in the Canada's remote Klondike region touched off the last great gold rush, creating an economic boom that changed the city of Seattle forever. (National Park/Includes Pioneer Building, a National Historic Landmark)
"The Great Chief Justice" at Home (49)
Meet John Marshall, who led the U.S. Supreme Court from obscurity and weakness to prominence and power in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140)
Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
Guilford Courthouse: A Pivotal Battle in the War for Independence (32)
Learn how the deceptive results of this battle in the backwoods of North Carolina helped set the stage for American victory. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Harry Truman and Independence, Missouri: "This is Where I Belong" (103)
Learn why the life of the 33rd U.S. President serves as an example of civic duty and explore the town that helped form his character. (National Park/Includes Harry S Truman Historic District, a National Historic Landmark)
The Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change (96)
Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97)
Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132)
Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories (25)
Tour Edison's West Orange complex where his creative combination of research, production, and marketing revolutionized the business of invention. (National Park)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161)
Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110)
Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85)
Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147)
Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1)
Discover the complex culture and trading economy of the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes in North Dakota during the 18th century, as seen by anthropologists and artists. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII (146)
Discover how a small town in a remote U.S. territory played a large role in defending the United States and its allies during World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139)
Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108)
Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon (36)
Analyze the influences that shaped the symbolic meaning of the bell, and evaluate the various claims as to how and when it was cracked. (National Park)
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (116)
Learn how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. (The SS Red Oak Victory is part of a National Park. The SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS Lane Victory are National Historic Landmarks.)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Forging Greatness during Lincoln's Youth (126)
Meet the people and learn of events that influenced the development of Abraham Lincoln's character and personality as a youth on the Indiana frontier. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127)
Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141)
Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35)
Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil" (39)
Follow this president to the White House and Lindenwald in the rough-and-tumble world of early 19th century politics. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135)
Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76)
Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87)
Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46)
Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128)
Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84)
Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115)
Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Navesink Lighthouse and Robbins Reef Lighthouse: Lighting the Way through New York Bay (131)
Learn about two historic lighthouses that illustrate how technological advancements contributed to maritime safety and about the isolated, often routine, but sometimes heroic lives led by their keepers.(Navesink Light Station is a National Historic Landmark.)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104)
Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
New Philadelphia: A Multiracial Town on the Illinois Frontier (130)
Learn about Free Frank McWorter and how archeology can help tell the story of the interracial town he founded in the years before the Civil War.
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61)
Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152)
Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123)
Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Old Mormon Fort: Birthplace of Las Vegas, Nevada (122)
Learn how an obscure settlement created during Mormon expansion grew into a well-known and prosperous American city, and consider factors that hinder or contribute to the evolution of early settlements into permanent communities, towns, and cities.
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102)
Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)

President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138)
Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18)
Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry (137)
Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159)
Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Saratoga: The Tide Turns on the Frontier (93)
Learn about 18th-century warfare and the battle that was a turning point of the American Revolution. (National Park)
Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site (30)
Unearth the remains of colonial America's first fully integrated ironworks, and consider what reconstruction of the site reveals about daily life for some early European settlers. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83)
Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133)
Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158)
Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Shields-Ethridge Farm: The End of a Way of Life (145)
Investigate sharecropping as a way of life in upland Georgia during the early 20th century and examine the efforts of one farm owner to diversify as market fluctuation and urbanization threatened that life.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113)
Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea (129)
Learn how Spain established a New World empire based on collecting precious metals and goods from the Americas.
La versión en español Las flotas españolas de 1715 y 1733: Desastres en el mar (134)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82)
Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg (29)
Delve into a superpower meeting and discover how President Eisenhower's brand of diplomacy at this Pennsylvania farm temporarily eased the tensions of the Cold War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace of the Modern Presidency (77)
Examine the circumstances under which Theodore Roosevelt first became President of the United States and how his policies and actions modernized the presidency. (National Park)
These Honored Dead: The Battle of Rivers Bridge and Civil War Combat Casualties (94)
Learn how veteran soldiers adapted to the technological changes that had increased the deadliness of the battlefield, and understand the cost of the Civil War in human terms.
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92)
Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Thomas P. Kennard House: Building a Prairie Capital (149)
Explore early Lincoln, Nebraska, to visit the historic Kennard House and to learn about how this grand building set the tone for a new capital city
Thurmond: A Town Born from Coal Mines and Railroads (28)
Examine the complex and often dangerous daily routines at the Thurmond train depot, and learn how rail workers were immortalized by some of the people they served. (National Park)
Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure (125)
Learn about one of the nation's most important conservation laws--the Antiquities Act of 1906--and how its passage preserved important cultural sites such as Tonto National Monument, which preserves remnants of the Salado culture prior to European contact. (National Park)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118)
Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114)
Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)

Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154)
Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
The Vieux Carré: A Creole Neighborhood in New Orleans (20)
Examine New Orleans's distinctive French Quarter, a vibrant reflection of its Creole heritage, and recall the city's role in American westward expansion. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89)
Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62)
Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88)
Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106)
Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
When Rice Was King (3)
Investigate early rice plantations in Georgetown, South Carolina, to learn how rice cultivation transformed the native environment and promoted the South's dependence on a plantation economy.
Woodrow Wilson: Prophet of Peace (14)
Examine Wilson's struggle to achieve lasting world peace following World War I. (National Historic Landmark)
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109)
Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Lightning Lessons
Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover Colonel Young's Protest Ride for Equality and Country (Lightning Lesson 2)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)

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III. People, Places, and Environments


Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history. Alaska's Site Summit: Cold War Defense and its Legacy in the North (153)
Cross the security fences, pass the checkpoints, and discover this Cold War missile defense facility that defended a city and helped grow Alaska's economy.
Adeline Hornbek and the Homestead Act: A Colorado Success Story (67)
Discover how Adeline Hornbek, single mother of four, defied traditional gender roles to become the owner of a successful ranch under the Homestead Act. (National Park)
Allegheny Portage Railroad: Developing Transportation Technology (23)
Follow 19th-century travelers as they cross the treacherous Allegheny Mountains using an innovative inclined railway. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier (101)
Discover how NASA, private industry, and research institutions across the country cooperated to develop and implement the complex technology that enabled man to land on the moon. (National Historic Landmark)
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124)
Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11)
Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157)
Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
At a Crossroads: The King of Prussia Inn (119)
Learn how transportation routes affected a local inn, how archeology revealed the inn's use over time, and how preservation efforts saved the historic site from suburban sprawl.
Attu: North American Battleground of World War II (7)
Examine military maps and photos to better understand why an isolated battle on a remote island in Alaska alarmed the nation. (National Historic Landmark)
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105)
Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107)
Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69)
Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War (42)
Learn how this American Revolution battle spurred colonial unity and sparked the formation of the Continental Army. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91)
Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory (68)
Learn how the Civil War created fierce conflicts among American Indian nations who had been moved across the Mississippi River.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures (54)
Consider the complex political and cultural differences that existed between European Americans and American Indians during the early 19th century and learn how these conflicting views ultimately affected the Creeks. (National Park)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90)
Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Oriskany: "Blood Shed a Stream Running Down" (79)
Learn how New York's Mohawk Valley became the setting for a fierce Revolutionary War battle that pitted residents of the area, including the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, against each other. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Prairie Grove: Civilian Recollections of the Civil War (70)
Understand the violence of the Civil War through the eyes of young women whose homes were in the midst of an important battle and continuing conflict.
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: A Moravian Settlement in Colonial America (59)
Learn why Moravians immigrated to the New World and how the towns they established embodied their religious beliefs.
Birthplace of John F. Kennedy: Home of the Boy Who Would Be President (33)
Visit JFK's birthplace and consider the effects of culture and community in shaping character and personality. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation (56)
Discover how the first arboretum in the United States became part of the burgeoning urban park movement in the second half of the 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121)
Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Bryce Canyon National Park: Hoodoos Cast Their Spell (64)
Explore the natural wonders of this once remote area in Utah and learn how it became a popular tourist destination in the early 20th century and finally a national park. (National Park/Includes Bryce Canyon Lodge, a National Historic Landmark)
Building America's Industrial Revolution: The Boott Cotton Mills of Lowell, MA (21)
Learn how technology applied to textile mills revolutionized industry, in turn affecting mill architecture, city planning, and transportation. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Building of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (10)
Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park)
Californio to American: A Study in Cultural Change (8)
Evaluate several centuries of dramatic changes to an adobe ranch house and its surroundings in suburban Long Beach to analyze the interaction between Spanish and Anglo culture in California.
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Camp Misty Mount: A Place for Regrowth (47)
Inspect a recreational demonstration area (RDA) in western Maryland, created as part of a Great Depression government relief program. (National Park)
Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50)
Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17)
Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town (52) Examine how geography and boosterism influenced the placement of rail lines, which then stimulated the growth of towns such as Chattanooga. Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Chatham Plantation: Witness to the Civil War (45) Learn why this home in Fredericksburg, Virginia, was a center of military activity, and consider the impact the war had on those whose property became part of the battlefield. (National Park)
Chesterwood: The Workshop of an American Sculptor (100) Learn about the life and work of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and about the important role public sculpture played in turn-of-the-20th century America. (National Historic Landmark)
Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place (53) Examine the history of this "city-within-a-city," a self-supporting African-American community that prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s.
Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized (81) Learn about a famous landscape artist and his efforts to promote conservation and an appreciation for the native plant life of the United States.
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (44) Trace the course of this Civil War battle and consider the wrenching personal choices that were made by soldiers on each side. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27) Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99) Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142) Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111) Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
Decatur House: A Home of the Rich and Powerful (19) Inspect Commodore Stephen Decatur's home near the White House, a gathering place for the politically ambitious, and learn why the naval hero felt compelled to fight a fateful duel. (National Historic Landmark)
Digging into the Colonial Past: Archeology and the 16th-Century Spanish Settlements at Charlesfort-Santa Elena (155) Discover the site of a 16th-century Spanish town that was founded before Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth, and learn how archeology uncovered the story of Santa Elena. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
Embattled Farmers and the Shot Heard Round The World: The Battles of Lexington and Concord (150) Walk the road where the “shot heard ‘round the world” sparked the American Revolution, and investigate how works of art both depicted and shaped our memory of these dramatic battles. (National Park)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Enduring Awatovi: Uncovering Hopi Life and Work on the Mesa (156) Learn about traditional Hopi culture and farming at Awatovi, a historic pueblo where enduring Hopi traditions and American archeological research reveal much about this important place. (National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence (12) Study personal accounts of soldiers who fought in the first battle of the Civil War, and discover how the day set the tone for the many bloody battles to come. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120) Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Fiftieth Anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act Learn how the National Historic Preservation Act has affected your community in this lesson, prepared for the History Channel's Make History, Save History outreach initiative.
Fort Morgan and the Battle of Mobile Bay (73) Follow Admiral Farragut's attack on Fort Morgan and Mobile Bay, and consider the human reaction to technologies such as ironclads and underwater mines. (National Historic Landmark)
Fort Pickens and the Outbreak of the Civil War (38) Discover why Fort Pickens was so valuable to both the Union and Confederacy, and follow the actions of the military commanders faced with crucial decisions. (National Park)
Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean (60) Discover how Spanish fortifications on the island of Puerto Rico helped protect Spain's expanding interests in the New World. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
La versión en español Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan: Guardianes del Caribe
The Frankish Building: A Reflection of the Success of Ontario, California (43) Analyze how this local landmark came to symbolize the commercial prosperity of a western town in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Freeman School: Building Prairie Communities (80) Examine this one-room school in Nebraska and consider the important role it played in the community during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glen Echo Park: Center for Education and Recreation (24) Trace the evolution of this Maryland site from a chapter of the Chautauqua movement, to an amusement park, to a national park. (National Park)
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117) Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95) Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Gold Fever! Seattle Outfits the Klondike Gold Rush (55) Examine how the discovery of gold in the Canada's remote Klondike region touched off the last great gold rush, creating an economic boom that changed the city of Seattle forever. (National Park/Includes Pioneer Building, a National Historic Landmark)
Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village (66) Examine the changing lifeways of the inhabitants of this village from the 7th century to the arrival of the Spanish in the early 17th century. (National Park)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Hisroric Landmark)
Growing into Public Service: William Howard Taft's Boyhood Home (15) Visit the home of the only man to serve the country both as president and chief justice, and meet the rest of his public service-oriented family. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Guilford Courthouse: A Pivotal Battle in the War for Independence (32) Learn how the deceptive results of this battle in the backwoods of North Carolina helped set the stage for American victory. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Harry Truman and Independence, Missouri: "This is Where I Belong" (103) Learn why the life of the 33rd U.S. President serves as an example of civic duty and explore the town that helped form his character. (National Park/Includes Harry S Truman Historic District, a National Historic Landmark)
The Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change (96) Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97) Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161) Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58) Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still (65) Meet Bill Keys, a self-reliant 20th-century homesteader whose ingenuity allowed him to thrive in the inhospitable California desert. (National Park)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1) Discover the complex culture and trading economy of the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes in North Dakota during the 18th century, as seen by anthropologists and artists. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII (146) Discover how a small town in a remote U.S. territory played a large role in defending the United States and its allies during World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Life on an Island: Early Settlers Off the Rock-Bound Coast of Maine (16) Discover how early settlers survived on Maine's coastal islands despite harsh living conditions. (National Park)
The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon (36) Analyze the influences that shaped the symbolic meaning of the bell, and evaluate the various claims as to how and when it was cracked. (National Park)
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (116) Learn how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. (The SS Red Oak Victory is part of a National Park. The SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS Lane Victory are National Historic Landmarks.)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Forging Greatness during Lincoln's Youth (126) Meet the people and learn of events that influenced the development of Abraham Lincoln's character and personality as a youth on the Indiana frontier. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127) Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Little Kinnakeet Lifesaving Station: Home to Unsung Heroes (57) Learn about the United States Lifesaving Service daring rescues to save imperiled lives from the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." (National Park)
Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California Understand the experience of early Asian immigrants and the obstacles they encountered as they struggled to make a living and find a place in American society. (Locke is a National Historic Landmark)
Log Cabins in America: The Finnish Experience (4) Consider how simple, functional cabins, like those built by the Finns in Idaho, became symbols in American politics and folklore.
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35) Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87) Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46) Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84) Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Navesink Lighthouse and Robbins Reef Lighthouse: Lighting the Way through New York Bay (131) Learn about two historic lighthouses that illustrate how technological advancements contributed to maritime safety and about the isolated, often routine, but sometimes heroic lives led by their keepers.(Navesink Light Station is a National Historic Landmark.)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
New Philadelphia: A Multiracial Town on the Illinois Frontier (130) Learn about Free Frank McWorter and how archeology can help tell the story of the interracial town he founded in the years before the Civil War.
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61) Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152) Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123) Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Octagon of Washington, D.C.: The House that Helped Build a Capital (151) Enter The Octagon of Washington, DC, to discover how a historic brick house offered grandeur and stability to the new capital of the United States in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
The Ohio and Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio (41) Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9) Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
The Old Mormon Fort: Birthplace of Las Vegas, Nevada (122)M Learn how an obscure settlement created during Mormon expansion grew into a well-known and prosperous American city, and consider factors that hinder or contribute to the evolution of early settlements into permanent communities, towns, and cities.
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112) Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138) Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18) Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Roadside Attractions (6) Follow the highways of the 1920s and 1930s, exploring the whimsical, extravagant architecture that came with American auto culture.
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Baltimore (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159) Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Run For Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 (5) Determine how environmental management, technology, and the actions of 19th-century industrialists contributed to a disaster in Pennsylvania that shocked the nation. (National Park)
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon (48) Meet one of America's premier artists, a creator of public monuments, and evaluate the importance of art and sculpture in society. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas (2) Explore a group of 18th-century missions in modern San Antonio to learn about Spanish influence on native peoples and the patterns of Texas culture. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Saratoga: The Tide Turns on the Frontier (93) Learn about 18th-century warfare and the battle that was a turning point of the American Revolution. (National Park)
Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site (30) Unearth the remains of colonial America's first fully integrated ironworks, and consider what reconstruction of the site reveals about daily life for some early European settlers. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83) Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158) Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Shields-Ethridge Farm: The End of a Way of Life (145) Investigate sharecropping as a way of life in upland Georgia during the early 20th century and examine the efforts of one farm owner to diversify as market fluctuation and urbanization threatened that life.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Siege of Port Hudson: "Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death" (71) Understand the importance of the Mississippi to both the North and South during the Civil War, and the differences between a siege and a regular battle. (National Historic Landmark)
Skagway: Gateway to the Klondike (75) Join the stampede for gold when over 100,000 prospectors set out for the Klondike. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea (129) Learn how Spain established a New World empire based on collecting precious metals and goods from the Americas.
La versión en español Las flotas españolas de 1715 y 1733: Desastres en el mar (134)
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Thomas P. Kennard House: Building a Prairie Capital (149) Explore early Lincoln, Nebraska, to visit the historic Kennard House and to learn about how this grand building set the tone for a new capital city
Thurmond: A Town Born from Coal Mines and Railroads (28) Examine the complex and often dangerous daily routines at the Thurmond train depot, and learn how rail workers were immortalized by some of the people they served. (National Park)
Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure (125) Learn about one of the nation's most important conservation laws--the Antiquities Act of 1906--and how its passage preserved important cultural sites such as Tonto National Monument, which preserves remnants of the Salado culture prior to European contact. (National Park)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118) Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney Examine the historic places associated with two of America's most famous 20th century business people. (National Historic Landmarks)
Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154) Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age (78) Discover how the Vanderbilts became one of the wealthiest families in America and how their lifestyle influenced business, culture, architecture, and society in ways that still affect us today. (National Park)
The Vieux Carré: A Creole Neighborhood in New Orleans (20) Examine New Orleans's distinctive French Quarter, a vibrant reflection of its Creole heritage, and recall the city's role in American westward expansion. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62) Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88) Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Weir Farm: Home of an American Impressionist (22) View the world through an artist's eye and learn how an important art movement was established in America. (National Park)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106) Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
When Rice Was King (3) Investigate early rice plantations in Georgetown, South Carolina, to learn how rice cultivation transformed the native environment and promoted the South's dependence on a plantation economy.
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109) Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Ybor City: Cigar Capital of the World (51) Discover how immigrant cigar makers in this section of Tampa, Florida, adapted to life in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century while maintaining their ethnic identity. (National Historic Landmark)
Lightning Lessons

Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Dig through centuries of Manhattan concrete to uncover a Colonial cemetery in this lesson plan about the African Diaspora, spirituality, and how we honor our origins.
Discover Colonel Young's Protest Ride for Equality and Country (Lightning Lesson 2)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.

Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Discover the Total Solar Eclipse of 1900 in Historic Wadesboro, North Carolina (Lightning Lesson 4)
History and science collide in this lesson about a total solar eclipse event that brought the world's leading astronomers to historic Wadesboro, North Carolina, in May 1900.

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IV. Individual Development and Identity

A Field of Dreams: The Jackie Robinson Ballpark (162)
Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history. Adeline Hornbek and the Homestead Act: A Colorado Success Story (67) Discover how Adeline Hornbek, single mother of four, defied traditional gender roles to become the owner of a successful ranch under the Homestead Act. (National Park)
America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier (101) Discover how NASA, private industry, and research institutions across the country cooperated to develop and implement the complex technology that enabled man to land on the moon. (National Historic Landmark)
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124) Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105) Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107) Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War (42) Learn how this American Revolution battle spurred colonial unity and sparked the formation of the Continental Army. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91) Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory (68) Learn how the Civil War created fierce conflicts among American Indian nations who had been moved across the Mississippi River.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures (54) Consider the complex political and cultural differences that existed between European Americans and American Indians during the early 19th century and learn how these conflicting views ultimately affected the Creeks. (National Park)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: A Moravian Settlement in Colonial America (59) Learn why Moravians immigrated to the New World and how the towns they established embodied their religious beliefs.
Birthplace of John F. Kennedy: Home of the Boy Who Would Be President (33) Visit JFK's birthplace and consider the effects of culture and community in shaping character and personality. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121) Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
The Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Assimilation with Education after the Indian Wars (163)
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark) Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50) Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Chesterwood: The Workshop of an American Sculptor (100) Learn about the life and work of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and about the important role public sculpture played in turn-of-the-20th century America. (National Historic Landmark)
Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized (81) Learn about a famous landscape artist and his efforts to promote conservation and an appreciation for the native plant
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (44) Trace the course of this Civil War battle and consider the wrenching personal choices that were made by soldiers on each side. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27) Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99) Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142) Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111) Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
Decatur House: A Home of the Rich and Powerful (19) Inspect Commodore Stephen Decatur's home near the White House, a gathering place for the politically ambitious, and learn why the naval hero felt compelled to fight a fateful duel. (National Historic Landmark)
Digging into the Colonial Past: Archeology and the 16th-Century Spanish Settlements at Charlesfort-Santa Elena (155) Discover the site of a 16th-century Spanish town that was founded before Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth, and learn how archeology uncovered the story of Santa Elena. (National Historic Landmark)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence (12) Study personal accounts of soldiers who fought in the first battle of the Civil War, and discover how the day set the tone for the many bloody battles to come. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120) Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
Fortieth Anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act Learn how the National Historic Preservation Act has affected your community in this lesson, prepared for the History Channel's Make History, Save History outreach initiative.
Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean (60) Discover how Spanish fortifications on the island of Puerto Rico helped protect Spain's expanding interests in the New World. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
La versión en español Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan: Guardianes del Caribe
The Freeman School: Building Prairie Communities (80) Examine this one-room school in Nebraska and consider the important role it played in the community during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glen Echo Park: Center for Education and Recreation (24) Trace the evolution of this Maryland site from a chapter of the Chautauqua movement, to an amusement park, to a national park. (National Park)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95) Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
"The Great Chief Justice" at Home (49) Meet John Marshall, who led the U.S. Supreme Court from obscurity and weakness to prominence and power in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
Growing into Public Service: William Howard Taft's Boyhood Home (15) Visit the home of the only man to serve the country both as president and chief justice, and meet the rest of his public service-oriented family. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Guilford Courthouse: A Pivotal Battle in the War for Independence (32) Learn how the deceptive results of this battle in the backwoods of North Carolina helped set the stage for American victory. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Harry Truman and Independence, Missouri: "This is Where I Belong" (103) Learn why the life of the 33rd U.S. President serves as an example of civic duty and explore the town that helped form his character. (National Park/Includes Harry S Truman Historic District, a National Historic Landmark)
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161) Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still (65) Meet Bill Keys, a self-reliant 20th-century homesteader whose ingenuity allowed him to thrive in the inhospitable California desert. (National Park)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon (36) Analyze the influences that shaped the symbolic meaning of the bell, and evaluate the various claims as to how and when it was cracked. (National Park)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Forging Greatness during Lincoln's Youth (126) Meet the people and learn of events that influenced the development of Abraham Lincoln's character and personality as a youth on the Indiana frontier. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127) Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35) Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61) Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123) Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Ohio and Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio (41) Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112) Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138) Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18) Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Baltimore (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159) Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon (48) Meet one of America's premier artists, a creator of public monuments, and evaluate the importance of art and sculpture in society. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas (2) Explore a group of 18th-century missions in modern San Antonio to learn about Spanish influence on native peoples and the patterns of Texas culture. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Saratoga: The Tide Turns on the Frontier (93) Learn about 18th-century warfare and the battle that was a turning point of the American Revolution. (National Park)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158) Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Siege of Port Hudson: "Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death" (71)

Understand the importance of the Mississippi to both the North and South during the Civil War, and the differences between a siege and a regular battle. (National Historic Landmark)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82)
Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)

Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg (29) Delve into a superpower meeting and discover how President Eisenhower's brand of diplomacy at this Pennsylvania farm temporarily eased the tensions of the Cold War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
These Honored Dead: The Battle of Rivers Bridge and Civil War Combat Casualties (94) Learn how veteran soldiers adapted to the technological changes that had increased the deadliness of the battlefield, and understand the cost of the Civil War in human terms.
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118) Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney Examine the historic places associated with two of America's most famous 20th century business people. (National Historic Landmarks)
Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154) Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62) Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88) Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Weir Farm: Home of an American Impressionist (22) View the world through an artist's eye and learn how an important art movement was established in America. (National Park)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106) Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
A Woman's Place Is In the Sewall-Belmont House: Alice Paul and Women's Rights (148) Meet activist Alice Paul and visit the headquarters of her National Woman's Party in Washington, DC, to learn about how American women organized to increase their political rights in the 20th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109) Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Lightning Lessons

Discover Colonel Young's Protest Ride for Equality and Country (Lightning Lesson 2)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)

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V. Individuals, Groups, and Institutions

Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history.
America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier (101) Discover how NASA, private industry, and research institutions across the country cooperated to develop and implement the complex technology that enabled man to land on the moon. (National Historic Landmark)
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11) Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124) Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157) Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105) Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107) Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69) Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91) Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Mill Springs: The Civil War Divides a Border State (72) Use one of the Civil War's key early battles to understand the conflicts that faced border states such as Kentucky during and after the war. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Stones River: The Soldiers' Story (40) Recall one of the Civil War's bloodiest battles, which raged through the rocky cedar glades of Tennessee, as told in eyewitness and personal accounts. (National Park)
Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation (56) Discover how the first arboretum in the United States became part of the burgeoning urban park movement in the second half of the 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121) Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Bryce Canyon National Park: Hoodoos Cast Their Spell (64) Explore the natural wonders of this once remote area in Utah and learn how it became a popular tourist destination in the early 20th century and finally a national park. (National Park/Includes Bryce Canyon Lodge, a National Historic Landmark)
Californio to American: A Study in Cultural Change (8) Evaluate several centuries of dramatic changes to an adobe ranch house and its surroundings in suburban Long Beach to analyze the interaction between Spanish and Anglo culture in California.
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50) Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17) Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chesterwood: The Workshop of an American Sculptor (100) Learn about the life and work of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and about the important role public sculpture played in turn-of-the-20th century America. (National Historic Landmark)
Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place (53) Examine the history of this "city-within-a-city," a self-supporting African-American community that prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27) Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142) Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Decatur House: A Home of the Rich and Powerful (19) Inspect Commodore Stephen Decatur's home near the White House, a gathering place for the politically ambitious, and learn why the naval hero felt compelled to fight a fateful duel. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Fort Pickens and the Outbreak of the Civil War (38) Discover why Fort Pickens was so valuable to both the Union and Confederacy, and follow the actions of the military commanders faced with crucial decisions. (National Park)
Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community (31) Discover why this British settlement was built and how it functioned as Great Britain and Spain each struggled to control land from Charleston to St. Augustine. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117) Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95) Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
Harry Truman and Independence, Missouri: "This is Where I Belong" (103) Learn why the life of the 33rd U.S. President serves as an example of civic duty and explore the town that helped form his character. (National Park/Includes Harry S Truman Historic District, a National Historic Landmark)
Herbert Hoover: Iowa Farm Boy and World Humanitarian (34) Follow President Hoover from his boyhood days to his role as administrator of the Belgian Relief Commission during World War I. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97) Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories (25) Tour Edison's West Orange complex where his creative combination of research, production, and marketing revolutionized the business of invention. (National Park)
Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58) Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still (65) Meet Bill Keys, a self-reliant 20th-century homesteader whose ingenuity allowed him to thrive in the inhospitable California desert. (National Park)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (116) Learn how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. (The SS Red Oak Victory is part of a National Park. The SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS Lane Victory are National Historic Landmarks.)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127) Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California Understand the experience of early Asian immigrants and the obstacles they encountered as they struggled to make a living and find a place in American society. (Locke is a National Historic Landmark)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil" (39) Follow this president to the White House and Lindenwald in the rough-and-tumble world of early 19th century politics. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87) Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46) Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84) Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Navesink Lighthouse and Robbins Reef Lighthouse: Lighting the Way through New York Bay (131) Learn about two historic lighthouses that illustrate how technological advancements contributed to maritime safety and about the isolated, often routine, but sometimes heroic lives led by their keepers.(Navesink Light Station is a National Historic Landmark.)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152) Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123) Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Octagon of Washington, D.C.: The House that Helped Build a Capital (151) Enter The Octagon of Washington, DC, to discover how a historic brick house offered grandeur and stability to the new capital of the United States in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9) Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112) Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138) Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159) Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Run For Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 (5) Determine how environmental management, technology, and the actions of 19th-century industrialists contributed to a disaster in Pennsylvania that shocked the nation. (National Park)
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon (48) Meet one of America's premier artists, a creator of public monuments, and evaluate the importance of art and sculpture in society. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83) Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
The Shields-Ethridge Farm: The End of a Way of Life (145) Investigate sharecropping as a way of life in upland Georgia during the early 20th century and examine the efforts of one farm owner to diversify as market fluctuation and urbanization threatened that life.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82) Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg (29) Delve into a superpower meeting and discover how President Eisenhower's brand of diplomacy at this Pennsylvania farm temporarily eased the tensions of the Cold War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure (125) Learn about one of the nation's most important conservation laws--the Antiquities Act of 1906--and how its passage preserved important cultural sites such as Tonto National Monument, which preserves remnants of the Salado culture prior to European contact. (National Park)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118) Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154) Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age (78) Discover how the Vanderbilts became one of the wealthiest families in America and how their lifestyle influenced business, culture, architecture, and society in ways that still affect us today. (National Park)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62) Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
A Woman's Place Is In the Sewall-Belmont House: Alice Paul and Women's Rights (148) Meet activist Alice Paul and visit the headquarters of her National Woman's Party in Washington, DC, to learn about how American women organized to increase their political rights in the 20th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Ybor City: Cigar Capital of the World (51) Discover how immigrant cigar makers in this section of Tampa, Florida, adapted to life in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century while maintaining their ethnic identity. (National Historic Landmark)

Lightning Lessons

Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover the Total Solar Eclipse of 1900 in Historic Wadesboro, North Carolina (Lightning Lesson 4)
History and science collide in this lesson about a total solar eclipse event that brought the world's leading astronomers to historic Wadesboro, North Carolina, in May 1900.

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VI. Power, Authority, and Governance


Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history.
Alaska's Site Summit: Cold War Defense and its Legacy in the North (153) Cross the security fences, pass the checkpoints, and discover this Cold War missile defense facility that defended a city and helped grow Alaska's economy.
America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier (101) Discover how NASA, private industry, and research institutions across the country cooperated to develop and implement the complex technology that enabled man to land on the moon. (National Historic Landmark)
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124) Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11) Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157) Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107) Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69) Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Mill Springs: The Civil War Divides a Border State (72) Use one of the Civil War's key early battles to understand the conflicts that faced border states such as Kentucky during and after the war. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Oriskany: "Blood Shed a Stream Running Down" (79) Learn how New York's Mohawk Valley became the setting for a fierce Revolutionary War battle that pitted residents of the area, including the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, against each other. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Prairie Grove: Civilian Recollections of the Civil War (70) Understand the violence of the Civil War through the eyes of young women whose homes were in the midst of an important battle and continuing conflict.
The Battle of Stones River: The Soldiers' Story (40) Recall one of the Civil War's bloodiest battles, which raged through the rocky cedar glades of Tennessee, as told in eyewitness and personal accounts. (National Park)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121) Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Californio to American: A Study in Cultural Change (8) Evaluate several centuries of dramatic changes to an adobe ranch house and its surroundings in suburban Long Beach to analyze the interaction between Spanish and Anglo culture in California.
Camp Misty Mount: A Place for Regrowth (47) Inspect a recreational demonstration area (RDA) in western Maryland, created as part of a Great Depression government relief program. (National Park)
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50) Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17) Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chesterwood: The Workshop of an American Sculptor (100) Learn about the life and work of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and about the important role public sculpture played in turn-of-the-20th century America. (National Historic Landmark)
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (44) Trace the course of this Civil War battle and consider the wrenching personal choices that were made by soldiers on each side. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27) Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99) Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142) Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
Embattled Farmers and the Shot Heard Round The World: The Battles of Lexington and Concord (150) Walk the road where the “shot heard ‘round the world” sparked the American Revolution, and investigate how works of art both depicted and shaped our memory of these dramatic battles. (National Park)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120) Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Fiftieth Anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act Learn how the National Historic Preservation Act has affected your community in this lesson, prepared for the History Channel's Make History, Save History outreach initiative.
Fort Morgan and the Battle of Mobile Bay (73) Follow Admiral Farragut's attack on Fort Morgan and Mobile Bay, and consider the human reaction to technologies such as ironclads and underwater mines. (National Historic Landmark)
Fort Pickens and the Outbreak of the Civil War (38) Discover why Fort Pickens was so valuable to both the Union and Confederacy, and follow the actions of the military commanders faced with crucial decisions. (National Park)
Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean (60) Discover how Spanish fortifications on the island of Puerto Rico helped protect Spain's expanding interests in the New World. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
La versión en español Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan: Guardianes del Caribe
Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community (31) Discover why this British settlement was built and how it functioned as Great Britain and Spain each struggled to control land from Charleston to St. Augustine. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117) Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95) Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
"The Great Chief Justice" at Home (49) Meet John Marshall, who led the U.S. Supreme Court from obscurity and weakness to prominence and power in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
Harry Truman and Independence, Missouri: "This is Where I Belong" (103) Learn why the life of the 33rd U.S. President serves as an example of civic duty and explore the town that helped form his character. (National Park/Includes Harry S Truman Historic District, a National Historic Landmark)
Herbert Hoover: Iowa Farm Boy and World Humanitarian (34) Follow President Hoover from his boyhood days to his role as administrator of the Belgian Relief Commission during World War I. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97) Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1) Discover the complex culture and trading economy of the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes in North Dakota during the 18th century, as seen by anthropologists and artists. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII (146) Discover how a small town in a remote U.S. territory played a large role in defending the United States and its allies during World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (116) Learn how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. (The SS Red Oak Victory is part of a National Park. The SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS Lane Victory are National Historic Landmarks.)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127) Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Little Kinnakeet Lifesaving Station: Home to Unsung Heroes (57) Learn about the United States Lifesaving Service daring rescues to save imperiled lives from the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." (National Park)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil" (39) Follow this president to the White House and Lindenwald in the rough-and-tumble world of early 19th century politics. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Navesink Lighthouse and Robbins Reef Lighthouse: Lighting the Way through New York Bay (131) Learn about two historic lighthouses that illustrate how technological advancements contributed to maritime safety and about the isolated, often routine, but sometimes heroic lives led by their keepers.(Navesink Light Station is a National Historic Landmark.)
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
Not to Be Forgotten: Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery (123) Learn about the history of Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio, and about the federal government's policies guiding the marking of POW graves during and after the Civil War.
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9) Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)

President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138) Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
Roadside Attractions (6) Follow the highways of the 1920s and 1930s, exploring the whimsical, extravagant architecture that came with American auto culture.
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas (2) Explore a group of 18th-century missions in modern San Antonio to learn about Spanish influence on native peoples and the patterns of Texas culture. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Saratoga: The Tide Turns on the Frontier (93) Learn about 18th-century warfare and the battle that was a turning point of the American Revolution. (National Park)
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83) Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158) Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea (129) Learn how Spain established a New World empire based on collecting precious metals and goods from the Americas.
La versión en español Las flotas españolas de 1715 y 1733: Desastres en el mar (134)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82) Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Thomas P. Kennard House: Building a Prairie Capital (149) Explore early Lincoln, Nebraska, to visit the historic Kennard House and to learn about how this grand building set the tone for a new capital city
Tonto National Monument: Saving a National Treasure (125) Learn about one of the nation's most important conservation laws--the Antiquities Act of 1906--and how its passage preserved important cultural sites such as Tonto National Monument, which preserves remnants of the Salado culture prior to European contact. (National Park)
The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation (118) Understand the factors that contributed both to the forced removal of the Cherokees off their homelands and to painful divisions within the tribe. (The Trail of Tears is a National Historic Trail./The Major Ridge House and John Ross House are National Historic Landmarks.) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62) Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106) Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
A Woman's Place Is In the Sewall-Belmont House: Alice Paul and Women's Rights (148) Meet activist Alice Paul and visit the headquarters of her National Woman's Party in Washington, DC, to learn about how American women organized to increase their political rights in the 20th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Woodrow Wilson: Prophet of Peace (14) Examine Wilson's struggle to achieve lasting world peace following World War I. (National Historic Landmark)
Ybor City: Cigar Capital of the World (51) Discover how immigrant cigar makers in this section of Tampa, Florida, adapted to life in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century while maintaining their ethnic identity. (National Historic Landmark)
Lightning Lessons

Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover Colonel Young's Protest Ride for Equality and Country (Lightning Lesson 2)
Trace the paths an African American cavalry officer took in his life and chart the one he took during World War I, riding horseback from his historic Ohio home to confront racism in Washington, DC.
Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)

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VII. Production, Distribution, and Consumption

Allegheny Portage Railroad: Developing Transportation Technology (23) Follow 19th-century travelers as they cross the treacherous Allegheny Mountains using an innovative inclined railway. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier (101) Discover how NASA, private industry, and research institutions across the country cooperated to develop and implement the complex technology that enabled man to land on the moon. (National Historic Landmark)
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11) Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157) Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
At a Crossroads: The King of Prussia Inn (119) Learn how transportation routes affected a local inn, how archeology revealed the inn's use over time, and how preservation efforts saved the historic site from suburban sprawl.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105) Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: A Moravian Settlement in Colonial America (59) Learn why Moravians immigrated to the New World and how the towns they established embodied their religious beliefs.
Bryce Canyon National Park: Hoodoos Cast Their Spell (64) Explore the natural wonders of this once remote area in Utah and learn how it became a popular tourist destination in the early 20th century and finally a national park. (National Park/Includes Bryce Canyon Lodge, a National Historic Landmark)
Building America's Industrial Revolution: The Boott Cotton Mills of Lowell, MA (21) Learn how technology applied to textile mills revolutionized industry, in turn affecting mill architecture, city planning, and transportation. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Building of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (10) Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park)
Camp Misty Mount: A Place for Regrowth (47) Inspect a recreational demonstration area (RDA) in western Maryland, created as part of a Great Depression government relief program. (National Park)
Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright (50) Discover how and why industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie chose libraries to be among his greatest benefactions to the U.S., and assess the impact of libraries on American society.
Castolon: A Meeting Place of Two Cultures (17) Compare the Spanish and Anglo influences on settlements along the Texas-Mexico border region of the Rio Grande. (National Park)
Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town (52) Examine how geography and boosterism influenced the placement of rail lines, which then stimulated the growth of towns such as Chattanooga. Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Chesterwood: The Workshop of an American Sculptor (100) Learn about the life and work of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and about the important role public sculpture played in turn-of-the-20th century America. (National Historic Landmark)
Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place (53) Examine the history of this "city-within-a-city," a self-supporting African-American community that prospered from the late 19th century until the 1930s.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111) Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120) Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Frankish Building: A Reflection of the Success of Ontario, California (43) Analyze how this local landmark came to symbolize the commercial prosperity of a western town in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117) Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
Gold Fever! Seattle Outfits the Klondike Gold Rush (55) Examine how the discovery of gold in the Canada's remote Klondike region touched off the last great gold rush, creating an economic boom that changed the city of Seattle forever. (National Park/Includes Pioneer Building, a National Historic Landmark) See also Skagway: Gateway to the Klondike (75) another lesson plan on the discovery of gold in the Klondike.
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
The Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change (96) Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97) Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories (25) Tour Edison's West Orange complex where his creative combination of research, production, and marketing revolutionized the business of invention. (National Park)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1) Discover the complex culture and trading economy of the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes in North Dakota during the 18th century, as seen by anthropologists and artists. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War (116) Learn how the United States mobilized a massive construction effort to build a large merchant fleet to serve in war and peace. (The SS Red Oak Victory is part of a National Park. The SS Jeremiah O'Brien and the SS Lane Victory are National Historic Landmarks.)
Life on an Island: Early Settlers Off the Rock-Bound Coast of Maine (16) Discover how early settlers survived on Maine's coastal islands despite harsh living conditions. (National Park)
Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California Understand the experience of early Asian immigrants and the obstacles they encountered as they struggled to make a living and find a place in American society. (Locke is a National Historic Landmark)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87) Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152) Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Ohio and Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio (41) Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112) Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
The Rosenwald Schools: Progressive Era Philanthropy in the Segregated South (159) Discover how community activism and a partnership between a white businessman and a leading black educator built 5,000 schools for African American students in the early 20th century.
Run For Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 (5) Determine how environmental management, technology, and the actions of 19th-century industrialists contributed to a disaster in Pennsylvania that shocked the nation. (National Park)
Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site (30) Unearth the remains of colonial America's first fully integrated ironworks, and consider what reconstruction of the site reveals about daily life for some early European settlers. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Siege of Port Hudson: "Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death" (71) Understand the importance of the Mississippi to both the North and South during the Civil War, and the differences between a siege and a regular battle. (National Historic Landmark)
The Shields-Ethridge Farm: The End of a Way of Life (145) Investigate sharecropping as a way of life in upland Georgia during the early 20th century and examine the efforts of one farm owner to diversify as market fluctuation and urbanization threatened that life.
Skagway: Gateway to the Klondike (75) Join the stampede for gold when over 100,000 prospectors set out for the Klondike. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) See also Gold Fever! Seattle Outfits the Klondike Gold Rush (55), another lesson plan on the discovery of gold in the Klondike.
The Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea (129) Learn how Spain established a New World empire based on collecting precious metals and goods from the Americas.
La versión en español Las flotas españolas de 1715 y 1733: Desastres en el mar (134)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82) Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace of the Modern Presidency (77) Examine the circumstances under which Theodore Roosevelt first became President of the United States and how his policies and actions modernized the presidency. (National Park)
Thurmond: A Town Born from Coal Mines and Railroads (28) Examine the complex and often dangerous daily routines at the Thurmond train depot, and learn how rail workers were immortalized by some of the people they served. (National Park)
Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney Examine the historic places associated with two of America's most famous 20th century business people. (National Historic Landmarks)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age (78) Discover how the Vanderbilts became one of the wealthiest families in America and how their lifestyle influenced business, culture, architecture, and society in ways that still affect us today. (National Park)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88) Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106) Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
When Rice Was King (3) Investigate early rice plantations in Georgetown, South Carolina, to learn how rice cultivation transformed the native environment and promoted the South's dependence on a plantation economy.
Ybor City: Cigar Capital of the World (51) Discover how immigrant cigar makers in this section of Tampa, Florida, adapted to life in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century while maintaining their ethnic identity. (National Historic Landmark)

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VIII. Science, Technology, and Society

Allegheny Portage Railroad: Developing Transportation Technology (23) Follow 19th-century travelers as they cross the treacherous Allegheny Mountains using an innovative inclined railway. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
At a Crossroads: The King of Prussia Inn (119) Learn how transportation routes affected a local inn, how archeology revealed the inn's use over time, and how preservation efforts saved the historic site from suburban sprawl.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105) Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69) Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation (56) Discover how the first arboretum in the United States became part of the burgeoning urban park movement in the second half of the 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Bryce Canyon National Park: Hoodoos Cast Their Spell (64) Explore the natural wonders of this once remote area in Utah and learn how it became a popular tourist destination in the early 20th century and finally a national park. (National Park/Includes Bryce Canyon Lodge, a National Historic Landmark)
Building America's Industrial Revolution: The Boott Cotton Mills of Lowell, MA (21) Learn how technology applied to textile mills revolutionized industry, in turn affecting mill architecture, city planning, and transportation. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town (52) Examine how geography and boosterism influenced the placement of rail lines, which then stimulated the growth of towns such as Chattanooga. Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized (81) Learn about a famous landscape artist and his efforts to promote conservation and an appreciation for the native plant life of the United States.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111) Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Floyd Bennett Field: Naval Aviation's Home in Brooklyn (120) Learn about the vital role played by naval aviators delivering aircraft to combat-bound units in the Pacific during WWII, and the women workers on the home front who helped in one of U.S. history's greatest industrial feats. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Fort Morgan and the Battle of Mobile Bay (73) Follow Admiral Farragut's attack on Fort Morgan and Mobile Bay, and consider the human reaction to technologies such as ironclads and underwater mines. (National Historic Landmark)
The Frankish Building: A Reflection of the Success of Ontario, California (43) Analyze how this local landmark came to symbolize the commercial prosperity of a western town in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Glen Echo Park: Center for Education and Recreation (24) Trace the evolution of this Maryland site from a chapter of the Chautauqua movement, to an amusement park, to a national park. (National Park)
Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest (117) Learn how these remote passes in the mountains influenced the course of the westward expansion of the United States. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Park/Raton Pass is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change (96) Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.
Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-making Plantation (97) Explore how Hopewell functioned as a productive work unit and how work defined social relationships in this early National period community. (National Park)
The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories (25) Tour Edison's West Orange complex where his creative combination of research, production, and marketing revolutionized the business of invention. (National Park)
Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58) Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still (65) Meet Bill Keys, a self-reliant 20th-century homesteader whose ingenuity allowed him to thrive in the inhospitable California desert. (National Park)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Log Cabins in America: The Finnish Experience (4) Consider how simple, functional cabins, like those built by the Finns in Idaho, became symbols in American politics and folklore.
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35) Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87) Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
New Philadelphia: A Multiracial Town on the Illinois Frontier (130) Learn about Free Frank McWorter and how archeology can help tell the story of the interracial town he founded in the years before the Civil War.
The No. 2 Quincy Shaft-Rockhouse: 9,240 Feet into the Earth (152) Enter a historic company town and descend deep into the copper mines of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, where labor unrest upset an industry and changed a community in the early 20th century. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Ohio and Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio (41) Assess the importance of America's early canal system and its economic and social effects. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18) Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Run For Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 (5) Determine how environmental management, technology, and the actions of 19th-century industrialists contributed to a disaster in Pennsylvania that shocked the nation. (National Park)
Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site (30) Unearth the remains of colonial America's first fully integrated ironworks, and consider what reconstruction of the site reveals about daily life for some early European settlers. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83) Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Shields-Ethridge Farm: The End of a Way of Life (145) Investigate sharecropping as a way of life in upland Georgia during the early 20th century and examine the efforts of one farm owner to diversify as market fluctuation and urbanization threatened that life.
The Siege of Port Hudson: "Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death" (71) Understand the importance of the Mississippi to both the North and South during the Civil War, and the differences between a siege and a regular battle. (National Historic Landmark)
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace of the Modern Presidency (77) Examine the circumstances under which Theodore Roosevelt first became President of the United States and how his policies and actions modernized the presidency. (National Park)
These Honored Dead: The Battle of Rivers Bridge and Civil War Combat Casualties (94) Learn how veteran soldiers adapted to the technological changes that had increased the deadliness of the battlefield, and understand the cost of the Civil War in human terms.
Thurmond: A Town Born from Coal Mines and Railroads (28) Examine the complex and often dangerous daily routines at the Thurmond train depot, and learn how rail workers were immortalized by some of the people they served. (National Park)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88) Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106) Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)
When Rice Was King (3) Investigate early rice plantations in Georgetown, South Carolina, to learn how rice cultivation transformed the native environment and promoted the South's dependence on a plantation economy.
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109) Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Lightning Lessons

Discover the African Burial Ground National Monument (Lightning Lesson 3)
Dig through centuries of Manhattan concrete to uncover a Colonial cemetery in this lesson plan about the African Diaspora, spirituality, and how we honor our origins.
Discover the Total Solar Eclipse of 1900 in Historic Wadesboro, North Carolina (Lightning Lesson 4)
History and science collide in this lesson about a total solar eclipse event that brought the world's leading astronomers to historic Wadesboro, North Carolina, in May 1900.

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IX. Global Connections


Alaska's Site Summit: Cold War Defense and its Legacy in the North (153) Cross the security fences, pass the checkpoints, and discover this Cold War missile defense facility that defended a city and helped grow Alaska's economy.
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124) Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11) Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Attu: North American Battleground of World War II (7) Examine military maps and photos to better understand why an isolated battle on a remote island in Alaska alarmed the nation. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream (91) Discover how the Battle of Glorieta Pass ended the Confederacy's dream of expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Oriskany: "Blood Shed a Stream Running Down" (79) Learn how New York's Mohawk Valley became the setting for a fierce Revolutionary War battle that pitted residents of the area, including the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, against each other. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121) Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Digging into the Colonial Past: Archeology and the 16th-Century Spanish Settlements at Charlesfort-Santa Elena (155) Discover the site of a 16th-century Spanish town that was founded before Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth, and learn how archeology uncovered the story of Santa Elena. (National Historic Landmark)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Herbert Hoover: Iowa Farm Boy and World Humanitarian (34) Follow President Hoover from his boyhood days to his role as administrator of the Belgian Relief Commission during World War I. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161) Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII (146) Discover how a small town in a remote U.S. territory played a large role in defending the United States and its allies during World War II. (National Historic Landmark)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest (108) Learn how the 1804-1806 expedition effectively opened the Northwest to the influence of the United States, established relations with numerous American Indian nations, and gathered useful scientific documentation about the West. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Little Kinnakeet Lifesaving Station: Home to Unsung Heroes (57) Learn about the United States Lifesaving Service daring rescues to save imperiled lives from the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." (National Park)
“Making the Desert Bloom”: The Rio Grande Project (141) Discover how the Bureau of Reclamation transformed the arid valley of the Rio Grande by constructing Elephant Butte Dam and the Rio Grande irrigation project and examine some of the problems encountered along the way.
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46) Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War (128) Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." (National Park)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84) Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61) Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9) Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18) Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Savannah, Georgia: The Lasting Legacy of Colonial City Planning (83) Learn about James Oglethorpe and his enduring city plan from the colonial era. (National Historic Landmark)
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea (129) Learn how Spain established a New World empire based on collecting precious metals and goods from the Americas.
La versión en español Las flotas españolas de 1715 y 1733: Desastres en el mar (134)
Springwood: Birthplace and Home to Franklin D. Roosevelt (82) Understand how Springwood was the keystone in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's public as well as private life by playing host to some very dramatic events in American history. (National Park)
Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg (29) Delve into a superpower meeting and discover how President Eisenhower's brand of diplomacy at this Pennsylvania farm temporarily eased the tensions of the Cold War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
The Vieux Carré: A Creole Neighborhood in New Orleans (20) Examine New Orleans's distinctive French Quarter, a vibrant reflection of its Creole heritage, and recall the city's role in American westward expansion. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
Woodrow Wilson: Prophet of Peace (14) Examine Wilson's struggle to achieve lasting world peace following World War I. (National Historic Landmark)
Wright Brothers National Memorial: Site of the First Controlled Powered Flight (109) Discover why the Wright Brothers chose the Outer Banks of North Carolina to conduct their flight experiments, how they achieved controlled powered flight in 1903, and how their accomplishments have been commemorated. (National Park)
Lightning Lessons

Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
Discover the Total Solar Eclipse of 1900 in Historic Wadesboro, North Carolina (Lightning Lesson 4)
History and science collide in this lesson about a total solar eclipse event that brought the world's leading astronomers to historic Wadesboro, North Carolina, in May 1900.

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X. Civic Ideals and Practices

Play ball! This lesson uses the Daytona Beach ballpark where Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier to explore racism and sports in American history.
An American Success Story: The Pope House of Raleigh, NC (124) Meet Dr. Manassa T. Pope, an African-American doctor and entrepreneur in the early 20th century, and learn about his efforts to gain civil rights well before the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp (11) Examine conditions of the Civil War's most notorious prison, and learn how inmates were able to cope. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Arthurdale: A New Deal Community Experiment (157) Welcome to historic Arthurdale, West Virginia, a New Deal village built from the ground-up for coal miners and their families during the Great Depression.
Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (105) Understand the "servant" experience in early 20th-century America, as well as the pros and cons for women working in factories versus domestic service.
The Battle of Bennington: An American Victory (107) Learn how a battle in a tiny valley near the frontier in northern New York helped determine whether the American colonies would become an independent nation.
(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War (69) Understand how battlefield medical care developed during the Civil War, particularly in the Union Army. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War (42) Learn how this American Revolution battle spurred colonial unity and sparked the formation of the Continental Army. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory (68) Learn how the Civil War created fierce conflicts among American Indian nations who had been moved across the Mississippi River.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures (54) Consider the complex political and cultural differences that existed between European Americans and American Indians during the early 19th century and learn how these conflicting views ultimately affected the Creeks. (National Park)
The Battle of Midway: Turning the Tide in the Pacific (90) Discover the important role these tiny Pacific islands played in World War II.(National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Mill Springs: The Civil War Divides a Border State (72) Use one of the Civil War's key early battles to understand the conflicts that faced border states such as Kentucky during and after the war. (National Historic Landmark)
The Battle of Prairie Grove: Civilian Recollections of the Civil War (70) Understand the violence of the Civil War through the eyes of young women whose homes were in the midst of an important battle and continuing conflict.
Birthplace of John F. Kennedy: Home of the Boy Who Would Be President (33) Visit JFK's birthplace and consider the effects of culture and community in shaping character and personality. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation (56) Discover how the first arboretum in the United States became part of the burgeoning urban park movement in the second half of the 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
Brown v. Board: Five Communities That Changed America (121) Learn about the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. (Monroe Elementary School [now Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site] is a unit of the National Park Service/Robert Russa Moton High School, Sumner and Monroe Elementary Schools, Howard High School, and John Philip Sousa Middle School are National Historic Landmarks.)
Bryce Canyon National Park: Hoodoos Cast Their Spell (64) Explore the natural wonders of this once remote area in Utah and learn how it became a popular tourist destination in the early 20th century and finally a national park. (National Park/Includes Bryce Canyon Lodge, a National Historic Landmark)
Discover a historic campus in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where an American military officer's boarding school experiment brought American Indian children from across the continent at the turn of the century. (National Historic Landmark)
Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town (52) Examine how geography and boosterism influenced the placement of rail lines, which then stimulated the growth of towns such as Chattanooga. Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (44) Trace the course of this Civil War battle and consider the wrenching personal choices that were made by soldiers on each side. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Clara Barton's House: Home of the American Red Cross (27) Follow Barton's remarkable career as a leader of charitable causes, from caring for the wounded on Civil War battlefields to founding the American Red Cross. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang (99) Learn how a tradition of outlawry developed in Kansas and how people in Coffeyville fought back.
"Comfortable Camps?" Archeology of the Confederate Guard Camp at the Florence Stockade (142) Learn about the life of the Confederate guards at the Florence Stockade Civil War prison camp and discover how archeology revealed much of this information.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air (111) Discover the early influences that inspired the Wright brothers as inventors and the importance of the Wright Cycle Company Complex where they developed the key mechanical skills that profoundly impacted their invention of the airplane. (National Park/The Wright Cycle Company building is a National Historic Landmark)
Decatur House: A Home of the Rich and Powerful (19) Inspect Commodore Stephen Decatur's home near the White House, a gathering place for the politically ambitious, and learn why the naval hero felt compelled to fight a fateful duel. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Electric Project”: The Minidoka Dam and Powerplant (160) Discover the science and early history of hydroelectric power at the historic Minidoka Powerplant, where rural electrification and irrigation changed the lives of early 20th century homesteaders.
Embattled Farmers and the Shot Heard Round The World: The Battles of Lexington and Concord (150) Walk the road where the “shot heard ‘round the world” sparked the American Revolution, and investigate how works of art both depicted and shaped our memory of these dramatic battles. (National Park)
The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection (86) Learn about Frederick Law Olmsted and his philosophy about parks and cities as well as city life during the Industrial Revolution. (Includes Arnold Arboretum,a National Historic Landmark)
Federal Courthouses and Post Offices: Symbols of Pride and Permanence in American Communities (136) Learn how three buildings restored and maintained by the U.S. General Services Administration illustrate the important role the federal government played and continues to play in communities across the country.
First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence (12) Study personal accounts of soldiers who fought in the first battle of the Civil War, and discover how the day set the tone for the many bloody battles to come. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
First Lady of the World: Eleanor Roosevelt at Val-Kill (26) Examine how Roosevelt's activities at home reflected her interest in humanitarianism, as epitomized by her leadership in the creation of the UN's Declaration of Human Rights. (National Park)
Fort Hancock: A Bastion of America's Eastern Seaboard (37) Examine how changing military technology and U.S. budget debates influenced the development of Fort Hancock and the U.S. coastal defense system. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Fort Pickens and the Outbreak of the Civil War (38) Discover why Fort Pickens was so valuable to both the Union and Confederacy, and follow the actions of the military commanders faced with crucial decisions. (National Park) https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/10cando/10cando.htm
Fiftieth Anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act Learn how the National Historic Preservation Act has affected your community in this lesson, prepared for the History Channel's Make History, Save History outreach initiative.
The Freeman School: Building Prairie Communities (80) Examine this one-room school in Nebraska and consider the important role it played in the community during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park)
From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans Understand the magnitude of the struggle involved in securing equal educational opportunities for African Americans by examining the 1957 attempt to integrate Little Rock's schools, and by examining how Prudence Crandall challenged the prevailing attitude toward educating African Americans in New England prior to the Civil War. (Little Rock Central High School is a National Park and National Historic Landmark/Prudence Crandall Museum is a National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering (95) Learn about some of the practical problems of constructing roads in difficult terrain and about the added challenge of building in such a way as to enhance, rather than damage, fragile and beautiful places such as Glacier National Park. (National Park/National Historic Landmark/Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village (66) Examine the changing lifeways of the inhabitants of this village from the 7th century to the arrival of the Spanish in the early 17th century. (National Park)
"The Great Chief Justice" at Home (49) Meet John Marshall, who led the U.S. Supreme Court from obscurity and weakness to prominence and power in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
“The Greatest Dam in the World”: Building Hoover Dam (140) Learn why the building of Hoover Dam was a triumph for the Bureau of Reclamation and how it came to symbolize what American industry and American workers could accomplish, even in the depths of the Great Depression. (National Historic Landmark)
Growing into Public Service: William Howard Taft's Boyhood Home (15) Visit the home of the only man to serve the country both as president and chief justice, and meet the rest of his public service-oriented family. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Herbert Hoover: Iowa Farm Boy and World Humanitarian (34) Follow President Hoover from his boyhood days to his role as administrator of the Belgian Relief Commission during World War I. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)<
"The Honor of Your Company is Requested": Lincoln's Second Inaugural Ball at the Patent Office (143) Attend President Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural ball and explore how American citizens celebrate their leaders taking office. (National Historic Landmark)
Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom (132) Learn about Independence Hall and about how the international influence of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution led to the designation of the building in which they were adopted as a World Heritage Site. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Iolani Palace: A Hawaiian Place of History, Power, and Prestige (161) Explore the palace, a symbol of independence, where the last Hawaiian monarchs lived and fought for Native sovereignty in the face of European and American colonization. (National Historic Landmark)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada's Snake Range (110) Explore both how tungsten was mined and used at the turn of the 20th century and also how archeologists piece the past together from artifacts and other archeological evidence. (National Park)
The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (85) Examine the influence of Reverend Joseph Bellamy, a leading preacher in New England from 1740-1790, in colonial American religion, and learn about the role of religion in 18th-century life as well as the resurgence of religious fervor known as the Great Awakening.
"Journey from Slavery to Statesman": The Homes of Frederick Douglass (147) Follow Frederick Douglass on his journey from life as a slave to that of a respected statesman and investigate how three homes reflect the different phases of his life. (Wye House, the Nathan and Polly Johnson House, and Cedar Hill are National Historic Landmarks. Cedar Hill and the Nathan and Polly Johnson House are each a resource of a National Park.)
Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still (65) Meet Bill Keys, a self-reliant 20th-century homesteader whose ingenuity allowed him to thrive in the inhospitable California desert. (National Park)
Lafayette Park: First Amendment Rights on the President’s Doorstep (139) Learn how a group of determined women selected Lafayette Park, across from the White House, to demonstrate for their right to vote, providing a First Amendment model for many others (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Liberty Bell: From Obscurity to Icon (36) Analyze the influences that shaped the symbolic meaning of the bell, and evaluate the various claims as to how and when it was cracked. (National Park)
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Where Man and Memory Intersect (144)
Discover the power of place in honoring President Lincoln's origins and consider how the nation uses memorial structures and landscapes to express respect for its heroes and to celebrate anniversaries. (National Park)
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: A Place of Growth and Memory (127) Learn how Abraham Lincoln's belief in freedom and democracy, his eloquence, and the support of family and community propelled him to the White House and uplifted him through the turbulent Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35) Tour the world's longest cave, a geological wonder, and assess the ways it has been used and preserved as a historic resource. (National Park/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil" (39) Follow this president to the White House and Lindenwald in the rough-and-tumble world of early 19th century politics. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite for Change (135) Learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and how she and the organization she founded promoted political and social change for African American women. (National Park)
The M'Clintock House: A Home to the Women's Rights Movement (76) Learn why a family home in upstate New York became the site for the creation of one of the most important documents in the history of American women. (National Park)
Mechanics Hall: Symbol of Pride and Industry (87) Examine how the advent of industrialization in 19th-century America impacted the workforce in New England's Blackstone River Valley. (Mechanics Hall is included in the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.)
Memories of Montpelier: Home of James and Dolley Madison (46) Visit the Madisons' plantation home and their world of social prominence, and explore some contemporary views of slavery. (National Historic Landmark)
Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape (84) Explore the country's first large-scale designed landscape open to the public that spawned the development of other rural cemeteries, public parks, and designed suburbs.
New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia. (National Historic Landmark)
A Nation Repays Its Debt: The National Soldiers' Home and Cemetery in Dayton, Ohio (115) Learn about the evolution of a system to honor and care for U.S. veterans beginning with the creation of soldiers' homes and national cemeteries during and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)
North Carolina State Capitol: Pride of the State (61) Discover how Raleigh became the capital of North Carolina and how the design of the capitol building reflected state pride as well as democratic ideals. (National Historic Landmark)
The Octagon of Washington, D.C.: The House that Helped Build a Capital (151) Enter The Octagon of Washington, DC, to discover how a historic brick house offered grandeur and stability to the new capital of the United States in the early 19th century. (National Historic Landmark)
The Old Court House in St. Louis: Yesterday & Today (9) Compare two images of St. Louis's handsome Courthouse--as a gathering place for pioneers heading west and as a dramatic focus for Dred Scott's heroic efforts to free his family from slavery. (National Park)
Paterson, New Jersey: America's Silk City (102) Learn about the causes and effects of a famous silk industry strike and how it affected those who were involved. (The Pietro Botto House is a National Historic Landmark. Paterson Great Falls National Historic Park is a National Park.)
The Penniman House: A Whaling Story (112) Meet Captain Edward Penniman, and learn about 19th-century whaling in southeastern Massachusetts and how the whaling industry impacted Penniman's family and life. (National Park)
President Lincoln's Cottage: A Retreat (138) Explore President Abraham Lincoln’s life at a country retreat during summer months and examine the work he completed there on the Emancipation Proclamation. (National Historic Landmark)
Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial (18) Trace the course of the Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, and consider the significance of the sunken USS Arizona as a war memorial. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Roadside Attractions (6) Follow the highways of the 1920s and 1930s, exploring the whimsical, extravagant architecture that came with American auto culture.
"The Rockets' Red Glare": Francis Scott Key and the Bombardment of Fort McHenry (137) Learn how the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore led to the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and how Key’s song became a powerful symbol for Americans. (National Park) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
Run For Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 (5) Determine how environmental management, technology, and the actions of 19th-century industrialists contributed to a disaster in Pennsylvania that shocked the nation. (National Park)
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon (48) Meet one of America's premier artists, a creator of public monuments, and evaluate the importance of art and sculpture in society. (National Park/National Historic Landmark) Learn how a classroom teacher uses this lesson.
The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South. (Brown Chapel AME Church and the First Confederate Capitol are National Historic Landmarks)
Separate But Equal? South Carolina's Fight Over School Segregation (158) Discover South Carolina's 1951 "separate but equal" school building program and learn about the Briggs v. Elliott case, one of the lawsuits combined with Brown v. Board of Education.
The Siege and Battle of Corinth: A New Kind of War (113) Understand how newly developed technologies affected two military engagements and one tiny town in Mississippi during the Civil War. (National Park/National Historic Landmark)
Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace of the Modern Presidency (77) Examine the circumstances under which Theodore Roosevelt first became President of the United States and how his policies and actions modernized the presidency. (National Park)
These Honored Dead: The Battle of Rivers Bridge and Civil War Combat Casualties (94) Learn how veteran soldiers adapted to the technological changes that had increased the deadliness of the battlefield, and understand the cost of the Civil War in human terms.
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn (92) Learn about the multifaceted intellect of Thomas Jefferson and how he fused his abilities as an architect, educational and political theorist, and politician to create a revolutionary new setting for higher education in the new American republic. (National Historic Landmark/UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Dent Grant at White Haven Farm: The Missouri Compromise in American Life (154) Discover the personal experiences of Americans in a nation divided politically on the issue of slavery through the early life of Ulysses S. Grant, who lived on a Missouri farm with his wife Julia Dent Grant and her slave-holding family in the 1850s. (National Park)
The United States Air Force Academy: Founding a Proud Tradition (114) Learn how the expansion of military air power in the first half of the 20th century led to the establishment of the United States Air Force and the Air Force Academy. (National Historic Landmark)
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age (78) Discover how the Vanderbilts became one of the wealthiest families in America and how their lifestyle influenced business, culture, architecture, and society in ways that still affect us today. (National Park)
The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice (89) Learn what led the U.S. government to confine nearly 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry to relocation centers in remote areas of the country during World War II. (Manzanar is a National Park and National Historic Landmark. Rohwer is a National Historic Landmark.)
The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone (62) Understand why George Washington was so revered during his lifetime and beyond, and learn why it took 100 years to complete this famous monument in his honor. (National Park)
Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark (88) Examine continuity and change in this rural Virginia town from its founding as a Quaker agricultural community and mill town in the 18th century to today. (National Historic Landmark)
Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (106)
Examine the inextricable connections binding railroads, North Dakota wheat fields, and Minnesota flour mills during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (National Park/Includes Pillsbury A Mill, a National Historic Landmark)

Lightning Lessons
Discover the Mary Ann Shadd Cary House (Lightning Lesson 1)
Follow the footsteps a free African American woman who defied an oppressive culture and broke barriers in education, newspaper publishing, and law before and after the Civil War. (National Historic Landmark)

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