Lesson Plan

Habitats of Shenandoah

Ranger showing kids a habitat

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Grade Level:
Second Grade
Botany, Conservation, Earth Science
Group Size:
Up to 60
National/State Standards:
Virginia Science Standards - 2.5 and 2.8


A habitat is a specific place where plants and animals live. A complete habitat must provide the basic needs, both living and nonliving, for the survival of its inhabitants. Within each habitat, there are many complex relationships as residents strive to meet their needs. Shenandoah National Park offers the opportunity for students to discover and explore nature as they apply and expand concepts and knowledge learned in the classroom.


Following the park experience and classroom activities, the students will be able to

  1. Name the five living and nonliving components of a habitat: air, food, water, shelter, and space - all in a suitable arrangement;);
  2. Explain the concept of interdependence of organisms in a habitat and name three examples;
  3. Identify at least three influences that may change a habitat and determine potential consequences;
  4. Explain why Shenandoah National Park is important for protecting habitats and list three ways people can help protect habitats and the environment.


Survival of plants or animals depends on their ability to meet basic life needs. A habitat is the physical place where an organism is able to find all of these needs in a suitable arrangement for access. The essential components of a healthy habitat include food, water, shelter, air, and adequate space. If any of these are eliminated, the habitat may not be able to sustain life.

 All things in an ecosystem are interrelated. Every animal either eats plants directly or depends on other species for food, which in turn depend upon plants. We are all connected - joined in a "web" - of interrelationships and interdependencies. When one species disappears from a habitat, it may have a far-reaching impact upon the other inhabitants. It may result in losses such as a food or water source, nutrition for the soil, materials for shelter, seed transport, oxygen production, or decomposition.

 Natural events such as fire, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and landslides can cause extensive damage to a habitat or destroy it. However, people can also cause damage or habitat loss. Human influences such as construction, development, pollution, oil spills, and littering can change or harm habitats. Every hour, thousands of acres of forests are cut and destroyed worldwide. Fifty percent of all species live in such forests. Deserts, grasslands, wetlands, and coral reefs are also being eliminated at an alarming rate.

 Habitat loss is the major reason plant and animal species are becoming threatened, endangered, or extinct. It is crucial to life on earth that we develop ways to protect our world's habitats. It is important for students to realize that they can make a difference by practicing responsible environmental stewardship behavior. 



Last updated: June 15, 2018