Background: A great part of mission Indians’ days involved growing and preparing food.One major food source was corn. Indians throughout the Americas grew corn for thousands of years before Columbus' voyages. Anthropologists have found petrified corncobs over 5000 years old in Indian ruins. Columbus took corn back to Spain, and from there, corn was introduced to western European farmers. The Indian name for corn is maize (ma-hiz). Indians helped early European settlers by teaching them how to grow corn to eat. Indians used a small fish as fertilizer when planting each kernel of corn. They taught the settlers to make corn bread, corn pudding, corn soup, and fried corn cakes.
Indians had purposely transformed corn by hybridizing it. They took pollen from one variety of corn and fertilized another variety to create new corn.Each strand of corn silk is attached to a kernel of corn. Pollen must travel down the silk in order to fertilize its kernel. After manual pollination, the corn silk was covered with a husk to prevent fertilization by an unwanted strain. Modern farmers continue to cultivate and improve the quality of corn in a similar manner.
Corn grows easily in regions that receive too much or too little moisture for wheat or rice. Indians cultivated rapid-growing varieties for areas as cold as Canada and Chile, while other types of corn flourished in the heat of the Amazon.Inca farmers cultivated it on the terraced sides of steep Andean Mountains, and Hopi people irrigated it in the hottest and driest deserts of the American Southwest.
In Central America and Mexico, women soaked corn in water to which they added lime or ashes to produce nixtamal. They then ground it using a mano y metate to produce corn meal to make bread or other food products.
The Indians who lived in Texas had various methods of obtaining food. Some were hunters; some were plant gatherers; others were fishermen, while still others were farmers. Corn was obtained through barter with Indian farmers. When the Spaniards arrived to establish settlements and missions in central Texas, Coahuiltecan Indians became a part of the mission community.They learned to raise livestock and practice agriculture.It was many years before the mission Indians gave up their preference for corn and accepted wheat as their staple.
TEKS (Texas education standards)
Listen actively and purposefully in a variety of settings
Offer observations, make connections, react, speculate, interpret, and raise questions in response to texts
Determine distinctive and common characteristics of cultures through wide reading
Articulate and discuss themes and connections that cross cultures through letters, reviews, poems, narratives, and instructions
Identify the mathematics in everyday situations
Use a problem-solving model that incorporates understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness
Select or develop an appropriate problem-solving strategy, including drawing a picture, looking for a pattern, systematic guessing and checking, acting it out, making a table, working a simpler problem, or working backwards to solve a problem
Use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems
Conduct field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices
Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations
Use critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions
Describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present
Identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs
Analyze the consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present
Explain how people in different regions of Texas earn their living, past and present
Explain how geographic factors have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas
A Kid’s Guide to Mission Espada”, one for each student For corn grinding activity (corn is not to be consumed)
Dried corn cobs with husks (preferable) or Dried corn kernels (available at feed stores)
Metate and mano (may substitute a mortar and pestle that may be borrowed from a high school science teacher if not available at one's school.) For cornbread activity
Large mixing bowl
Several measuring spoons (tablespoon)
Several measuring cups (1/2 cup)
Clock with second hand
Cast iron skillet
Ingredients for cornbread (see Student Information sheet) For corn husk doll activity
Corn shucks (available at grocery stores for making tamales.)
Large container (to soak corn shucks)
Cloth and other items (to decorate the dolls)
Last updated: November 17, 2021
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