March of 1775
March 6. 1775
A town meeting in Boston erupts in panic when a British soldier yells "fie", which is mistaken for "fire" by the townspeople.

March 17. 1775
Cherokees, by the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, sell to the Transylvania Company of North Carolina all land between the Kentucky and Cumberland Rivers.

March 23. 1775
At a meeting at St. John's Church in Richmond, the Second Virginia Convention hears Patrick Henry deliver his "liberty or death" speech supporting a resolution to put Virginia "into a posture of defense."

March 25. 1775
The Virginia Convention requires each county to form a volunteer company of calvary and infantry.

March 30. 1775
The New England Restraining Act is endorsed by King George III, requiring New England colonies to trade exclusively with England and denying them fisheries in the North Atlantic.

April of 1775
April 1. 1775
The New York Assembly passes its final militia act as a colony, requiring all males 16 to 50 years of age to enlist under penalty of a fine.

April 3. 1775
The Colonial Assembly of New York holds its last session and adjourns.

The last of David Leonard's weekly letters "To the Inhabitants of the Province of Massachusetts" is published.

April 8. 1775
Governor Josiah Martin orders dissolution of the North Carolina Assembly.

April 14. 1775
The first society advocating the abolition of slavery is organized in Philadelphia with Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Benjamin Rush as presidents.

Massachusetts Governor Gage is secretly ordered by the British to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress "open rebellion" among colonists by using all necessary force.

April 15. 1775
Some British troops in Boston are relieved of normal duties in preparation for action.

April 17. 1775
Last "Novanglus" letter by John Adams appears in the Boston Gazette.

April 18. 1775
General Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists' weapons depot. That night, Paul Revere and William Dawes leave Boston to warn colonists. Before being captured by a British patrol, Revere reaches Lexington about midnight and warns Sam Adams and John Hancock.

April 19. 1775
Dr. Samuel Prescott reaches Concord with a message that the British are coming, which allows the militia to remove or destroy supplies and prepare to fight.

An unordered "shot heard around the world" begins the American Revolution. British forces retreat from Lexington back to Boston and are harassed and shot at all along the way by farmers and rebels. News of the events at Lexington and Concord spreads like wildfire throughout the colonies.

Postrider Israel Bissel begins his ride through the colonies to deliver the news of Lexington.

British troops retreat into Boston under fire, and the patriot siege of the city begins.

Patriots in Charleston, South Carolina, seize arriving British mail.

April 20. 1775
Israel Putman (later an American brigadier general) arrives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from Connecticut.

April 21. 1775
Royal Marines, acting under Governor Lord Dunmore's orders, take 15 half barrels of gunpowder from the magazine in Williamsburg, Virginia.

New Hampshire militiamen march to Cambridge after learning about Lexington and Concord. Patriots seize all the gunpowder supplies in Charleston, South Carolina.

April 22. 1775
Rhode Island militia prepares to march to Boston.

Virginia Governor Dunmore threatens to free enslaved Africans if British officials come to harm.

April 25. 1775
Baltimore patriots seize military supplies.

About 8,000 persons at a town meeting in Philadelphia resolve to defend "with arms their property, liberty, and lives."

April 28. 1775
The New York Committee of 60 urges a more permanent, revolutionary body to replace the ineffective Provincial Congress.

April 29. 1775
Benedict Arnold arrives in Cambridge with New Haven (Connecticut) Militia Company.

The General Association of Orange County is organized to assure the execution of measures advocated by the Continental and New York Provincial Congresses.

May of 1775
May 1. 1775
New York's Committee of 100 recommends that every man procure weapons and train himself in military discipline.

May 2. 1775
The Committee of Public Safety in Cambridge, Massachusetts, appoints Benedict Arnold "to a secret mission" (the capture of Ticonderoga).

May 3. 1775
The Earl of Dartmouth instructs colonial Governor Martin of North Carolina to organize an association of loyalists and raise militias.

May 4. 1775
The Pennsylvania Assembly rejects Lord North's proposal for conciliation.

May 5. 1775
The British Naval ship Falcon captures two American ships at Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts.

May 6. 1775
In a candid report to the Earl of Dartmouth, New Jersey Governor Franklin writes that the Lexington skirmish greatly diminished chances of reconciliation

May 7. 1775
Benjamin Franklin writes to his son, the governor of New Jersey, encouraging him to support American independence.

May 8. 1775
The County Committee of Bucks County, Virginia, urges the townships to form military associations.

May 9. 1775
Benedict Arnold challenges Ethan Allen's authority to lead the expedition against Fort Ticonderoga. However, since Arnold has no soldiers, Allen retains control.

May 10. 1775
American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York, with its military supplies.

The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia.

The loyalist president of King's College (later Columbia University), Dr. Myles Cooper, is threatened by a New York City mob, but escapes with the help of lawyer Alexander Hamilton.

May 11. 1775
Patriots seize gunpowder in royal magazines in Savannah, Georgia.

May 12. 1775
Patriot commander Seth Warner captures the disabled British fort at Crown Point, NY, without resistance.

May 13. 1775
The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts appoints a committee to establish a postal system.

May 14. 1775
The Committee of 100 orders Staten Island and New Jersey to halt the illicit sale of provisions to British warships.

May 15. 1775
Congress resolves to put the colonies in a state of military readiness.

May 16. 1775
Hannastown, Pennsylvania, Resolutions declare that it is the duty of Americans to resist British oppression and form a defense association.

May 17. 1775
New York Provincial Congress assumes functions of government.

Troops under Benedict Arnold take St. John's, Canada.

May 18. 1775
Governor Martin of North Carolina reports that he is powerless to prevent the people of North Carolina from forming an army and a government.

May 19. 1775
Six transports of British Marines arrive in Boston.

May 20. 1775
The Safety Committee of Cambridge, Massachusetts, votes to refuse to admit slaves into the army.

May 21. 1775
Ethan Allen returns to Ticonderoga, New York, after being repulsed by a superior British force at St. John's.

May 22. 1775
Henry Laurens of Charleston, South Carolina, writes that the events at Lexington created in South Carolina "an amazing readiness to contribute to the common cause."

May 23-24. 1775
The Second Provincial Congress of New Jersey confirms allegiance to Continental Congress.

May 24. 1775
John Hancock is elected president of the Second Continental Congress, replacing Peyton Randolph.

May 25. 1775
The Continental Congress orders defensive posts to be established in New York.

British Generals Burgoyne, Clinton, and Howe arrive in Boston with reinforcements.

May 26. 1775
A British Navel surgeon visits an American encampment and notes that the Americans are "a drunken, canting, lying, praying, hypocritical rabble without order."

May 27. 1775
Action at Hogg Island in Boston Harbor takes place when a British schooner runs aground. Americans board and loot her.

Patriot forces skirmish with British foragers at Noodle's Island in Boston Harbor.

May 28. 1775
Military spirit is high in Philadelphia as more than 2,000 men turn out for daily military exercises.

May 29. 1775
Congress adopts an address urging Canadians to join in the revolution.

May 30. 1775
Deputy Quarter Master General William Sherreff complains of the serious shortages of food and fuel in Boston.

May 31. 1775
A committee in Charlotte, North Carolina, adopts the Mecklenburg Resolutions, challenging royal authority in the colonies.

Governor Josiah Martin of North Carolina flees New Bern to take refuge on the British ship HMS Cruzier in Cape Fear River.

June of 1775
June 1. 1775
The Continental Congress resolves that "no further expedition or incursion ought to be made… against or into Canada."

June 2. 1775
Massachusetts requests that the Continental Army assume responsibility for the New England Army at Boston.

Congress creates Army Pay Department.

The Provincial Congress of South Carolina asserts solidarity with the other colonies.

June 3. 1775
Three young men from Williamsburg, Virginia, are injured by surprise gunfire, while attempting to arm themselves from the public magazine.

June 4. 1775
Ethan Allen expresses surprise that a reconnoitering party was fired on and pursued by Canadians.

June 5. 1775
A Williamsburg, Virginia, mob breaks into the town magazine and carries off 400 guns.

June 6. 1775
Lt. Colonel Marius Willet and a small group of Sons of Liberty seize five wagonloads of weapons after confronting British soldiers evacuating the arms from New York City.

June 7. 1775
The Provincial Congress of New York expresses approval of Albany's troop raising efforts, but requests that no more troops be raised until further orders.

June 8. 1775
Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, flees to the British warship HMS Fowey at Yorktown.

June 9. 1775
The Provisional Congress of South Carolina prohibits exports of rice and corn and begins stockpiling supplies.

June 10. 1775
John Adams proposes a Continental Army.

June 11. 1775
A band of men from General Wooster's Connecticut troops raid the Turtle Bay warehouses and magazine, making off with shot, cannon balls, horse harnesses, and other needed supplies.

June 12. 1775
In Machias, Maine, a group of patriots captures the British armed cutter HMS Margaretta, after a brief fight.

British General Gage proclaims martial law in Massachusetts.

Rhode Island establishes a naval force.

June 13. 1775
Patriots learn of General Gage's decision to occupy Dorchester Heights.

June 14. 1775
Congress establishes the Continental Army.

June 15. 1775
The Congress unanimously votes to appoint George Washington general and commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.

Naval Commander Abraham Whipple captures two British ships in Providence River, Rhode Island.

June 16. 1775
The Massachusetts Provincial Congress appoints Colonel Richard Gridley as chief engineer officer to design a defense for Bunker Hill.

Under the leadership of Colonels Putnam and Prescott, patriot troops occupy the Charleston Peninsula with instructions to establish defensive positions on Breed's Hill near Bunker Hill.

Congress appoints generals in the Continental Army and creates supporting military services.

June 17. 1775
George Washington accepts his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston in the Battle of Bunker Hill (fought at reed's Hill). The British succeed in taking the hill, but at a loss of half their force.

June 18. 1775
Boston shipbuilders refuse to continue working on a brig for the Crown.

June 19. 1775
Boston residents are ordered to surrender their firearms or be deemed enemies of His Majesty's Government.

June 20. 1775
Thomas Jefferson takes a seat in the Continental Congress.

General Washington reviews the Philadelphia militia.

June 21. 1775
Nathanael Greene is chosen brigadier general of the Rhode Island forces.

June 22. 1775
Congress votes to raise money to support the Continental Army.

June 23. 1775
George Washington leaves Philadelphia for Boston.

June 24. 1775
New York Provincial Congress assumes power of taxation.

June 25. 1775
General Washington arrives in New York City.

The Pennsylvania Rifle Battalion is organized.

General Philip John Schuyler is named to command "New York department" by Congress.

June 26. 1775
General George Washington states that after the "establishment of American liberty" he will return to his role as a private citizen.

June 27. 1775
Congress authorizes invasion of Canada.

June 28. 1775
The Massachusetts Congress provides for the raising of soldiers to protect the Massachusetts coast.

June 29. 1775
Governor Dunmore sails from York, Virginia.

June 30. 1775
Congress adopts the Continental Articles of War.

July of 1775
July 1. 1775
The Continental Congress resolves to counter the British employment of Indians by entering into an alliance "with such Indian Nations, as will enter into same. . . "

July 2. 1775
Virginia planter Robert Beverly, writes a business contact in London that "Our publick Affairs are so far from being carried on with Certainty in these Times of Anarchy, that the wisest heads amongst us know not in what Train Things are to remain for even a July at a Time, & therefore Prudence must be our only Guide . . . "

July 3. 1775
At Cambridge, Massachusetts, George Washington takes command of the Continental Army and 17,000 troops in the Boston area.

July 4. 1775
The Continental Congress approves a resolution denouncing the trade restraining acts as "unconstitutional, oppressive and cruel."

July 5. 1775
The Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition which expresses hope for a reconciliation with Britain, appealing directly to the king for help.

July 6. 1775
The Continental Congress issues a "Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms" detailing the colonists' reasons for fighting the British and states the Americans are "resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves."

July 7. 1775
In Savannah, Georgia, Governor Wright calls for a day of fasting and prayer based on a request of the Provincial Congress.

July 8. 1775
A skirmish between Americans and British troops takes place in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Congress adopts a petition to King George III offering reconciliation.

July 9. 1775
In London, King George calls a petition of the London Common Council "most decent and moderate in words" but subversive in its denial of Parliament's authority to tax the colonies.

July 10. 1775
Georgia sends out one of the first patriot vessels commissioned for naval service.

Captain Bowen accomplishes the first seizure of a British ship at sea.

Georgia sends 5,000 pounds of gunpowder to the Continental Army.

July 11. 1775
Georgia's Provincial Congress assures Governor Wright that although Georgia had aligned itself with the other American colonies it still retained great regard for England; it pledged to work towards reconciliation to "preserve the peace and good order of this Province."

July 12. 1775
Americans capture Fort Charlotte. Governor Dunmore of Virginia reports to London that rebels had occupied his residence, converted the capital into a barracks, mobilized a force in York, and intercepted official mail: "the People of Virginia manifest open Rebellion by every means in their power, and declare at the Same time that they are his Majesty's Most dutyfull subjects. . . "

July 13. 1775
The Continental Congress approves a speech to the Six Nations, urging the Indians "to remain at home, and not join either side, but keep the hatchet buried deep." Similar speeches are ordered for other tribes.

July 14. 1775
John Wilkes, the Lord Mayor of London, and members of the Common Council offer a petition to King George calling for reconciliation with the colonies and an end to all military operations in America. The King later states that he "owed it to the rest of the law-abiding people to oppose the petition."

July 15. 1775
In Wilmington, North Carolina, the Committee of Safety passes a resolution calling for as many men as possible to join Colonel Howe in his attempt to overthrow the British detachment occupying Fort Johnston.

July 16. 1775
Upon meeting George Washington in Braintree, Massachusetts, Abigail Adams writes: "Dignity with ease, and complacency, the Gentleman and Soldier look agreeably blended in him."

July 17. 1775
The third Virginia Convention meets in Richmond, ordering the formation of two regiments as well as minutemen and militia.

July 18. 1775
Congress requests that all of the colonies establish minuteman units.

Royal Governor Josiah Martin of North Carolina seeks refuge on a British warship when patriots occupy Fort Johnston.

July 19. 1775
Congress appoints commissioners to seek peace with Indian tribes.

July 20. 1775
New York observes a Day of Fasting and Devotion, in accordance with the recommendation by Congress.

American patriots raid royal stores at Turtle Bay, New York.

July 21. 1775
Americans raid Natasket Point (Brewster Island), Massachusetts. The raiders confiscate lamps, oil, gunpowder, and boats and burn the wooden parts of the lighthouse. .

July 22. 1775
Washington organizes his army into three divisions under Generals Charles Lee, Artemus Ward, and Israel Putnam.

July 23. 1775
Noting the lack of uniforms for the Continental Army, Washington orders commissioned officers to wear cockades in their hats: pink or red for field rank, yellow or buff for captains, and green for subalterns. Sergeants are identified by a strip of red cloth on their right shoulder.

July 24. 1775
The Virginia Convention passes a resolution to cease the export of flour, wheat, and other provisions from the colony to any country.

July 25. 1775
Commanded by Captain Michael Doudel, the First Continental Unit reaches Boston.

Dr. Benjamin Church becomes the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.

July 26. 1775
An American Post Office is established with Benjamin Franklin as Postmaster General.

The Maryland Convention meets in Annapolis where it votes to support the Continental Congress and resolves to organize 40 companies of minutemen.

July 27. 1775
Congress establishes The Army Medical Department.

Henry Laurens, President of the Council of Safety of South Carolina, urges Captain Clement Lempriere to purchase gunpowder, lead, and muskets for the colony, relying on force only as a last resort.

July 28. 1775
The Pennsylvania Committee of Safety orders Robert Morris to import from Holland and Spain the medicines required by the harbor defense force.

July 29. 1775
Congress establishes the Army Chaplain Department and Judge Advocate General Department.

July 30. 1775
Samuel Adams writes his wife that the Continental Congress will adjourn soon, the delegates having decided "to make a Recess during the sultry August of August."

July 31. 1775
A second raid on Brewster Island occurs. The patriots are successful in killing or capturing the entire enemy force.

Congress rejects the plan of reconciliation advanced by British Prime Minister, Lord North.

August of 1775
August 1. 1775
The Continental Congress adjourns.

August 2. 1775
In South Carolina, William Drayton and William Tennet leave Charleston to secure the loyalty of settlers in the interior parts of the province to the patriot cause.

August 3. 1775
Washington requests Governor Cooke of Rhode Island to send a vessel to remove the Provincial supply of powder from the magazine in Bermuda.

August 4. 1775
In London, King George congratulates himself on securing a German corps "much Cheaper than if raised at home, and when no farther wanted Saves the expence of half pay."

August 5. 1775
A native of Charleston, South Carolina, writes to London: "Be assured peace will never be firmly established between Great Britain and America, until the latter receives an ample recognition of her rights, and a full satisfaction for the blood that has or may be shed."

August 6. 1775
The Virginia Convention appoints Patrick Henry to the post of Commander of the First Regiment of the colony's militia. He is later named Commander-in-Chief of the Regular Forces.

August 7. 1775
In Paris, France, King Louis XVI agrees to send Julien Achard de Bonvouloir to America on a fact-finding mission. He is also instructed to assure the Americans that France has no aspirations for the reconquest of Canada.

August 8. 1775
Captain Daniel Morgan and his Virginia riflemen arrive in Cambridge.

August 9-10. 1775
British Captain John Linzee is forced to release two captured patriot sloops and retreat from Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts.

August 11. 1775
Washington warns British General Gage about the treatment of prisoners: " . . . I shall regulate all my conduct towards those gentlemen who are or may be in our possession, exactly by the rule you shall observe towards those of ours now in your custody: if severity and hardship mark the line of your conduct, painful as it may be to me, your prisoners will feel its effects."

August 12. 1775
The Massachusetts House of Representatives instructs inhabitants of the colony "not to fire a gun at beast, bird, or mark, without real necessity therefor." The recommendation is made to encourage the conservation of gunpowder.

August 13. 1775
In London, Lord Sandwich announces that the British Navy has engaged the 6,000 tons of shipping needed to transport regiments from Ireland to America.

August 14. 1775
Americans raid storage magazines in Bermuda, carrying off at least 100 barrels of gunpowder.

August 15. 1775
Governor Campbell of South Carolina appeals to the House of Assembly for aid, admitting that "the powers of Government are wrested out of my hands. I can neither protect, nor punish; therefore with the Advice of His Majys Council I apply to You & desire that in this dreadful emergency You will aid me with all the assistance in Your power, in enforcing the Laws, & protecting His Majys Servants . . . "

August 16. 1775
In New Jersey, the Provincial Congress resolves to organize a military force consisting of 48 battalions, one ranger company, and 63 companies of minutemen.

August 17. 1775
British military officials in Cork, Ireland, recruit men for military service in America.
August 18. 1775
The Dutch renew their embargo on the export of military stores to America.
August 22. 1775
King George III issues a proclamation declaring the Americans to be in a state of open rebellion.

August 23. 1775
The colonial governments of Virginia and Massachusetts discuss the manufacture of saltpeter and are actively encouraged to increase the production of gunpowder.

August 24. 1775
A brief artillery exchange in New York sparks an exodus by New York City civilians to New Jersey.

August 25. 1775
British Prime Minister Lord North advises the King that "The cause of Great Britain is not yet sufficiently popular," predicting difficulty in reaching military enlistment goals.

August 26. 1775
The Rhode Island Assembly resolves to have their delegates to the next Continental Congress ask if they may build a fleet of ships at Continental expense "for the protection of these colonies."

August 27. 1775
Benjamin Franklin writes to Silas Deane agreeing with his opinion that the colonies need a navy: "I hope the next Winter will be employed in forming one. When we are no longer fascinated with the Idea of a speedy Reconciliation, we shall exert ourselves to some purpose. Till then Things will be done by Halves."

August 28. 1775
Apparently unaware of loyalist sympathies in the interior of the colony, a native of Charleston, South Carolina, observes that "Every thing here is suspended but warlike preparations . . . The country is unanimous."

August 29. 1775
George Washington expresses a suspicion that false shortages of wood, hay, and oats had inflated their costs for the military and asks the legislature to fix prices on these items.

August 30. 1775
Washington writes to the President of the New York Provincial Congress attacking ship owners who secretly deliver provisions to Boston. He also emphasizes his need for gunpowder, noting that although his troops had seized a hill advancing them towards the enemy, their "poverty prevents our availing ourselves of the Advantage of [the] Situation."

August 31. 1775
In New York, the Provincial Congress enters into a contract with Joseph Hallett for importing 15 tons of gunpowder and 1,400 muskets.

September of 1775
September 1. 1775
Richard Penn and Arthur Lee, representing the Continental Congress, present the Olive Branch Petition to the Earl of Dartmouth. King George III refuses to receive the petition.

September 2. 1775
Washington appoints Captain Nicholas Broughton to take command of the armed schooner Hannah for the purpose of seizing vessels carrying soldiers, ammunition, weapons, and supplies to and from Boston.

September 3. 1775
The Grand Union Flag is adopted.

September 4. 1775
A resident of Rhode Island presents to the Committee of Safety a proposal to build a submersible vessel for the purpose of destroying British warships.

September 5. 1775
In Charleston, South Carolina, the Council of Safety adopts a more proactive program for the defense of the province, calling on the militia to stand "in readiness as in time of Alarm."

September 6. 1775
Washington writes to the residents of Bermuda defending the American struggle to secure its rights and urging them to deliver to him the contents of their powder magazines. In return he promises to ask the Continental Congress to release the provisions needed by the inhabitants of the islands.

September 7. 1775
In New York, New York, the Provincial Congress orders the Quakers to submit a list of all male members of their society aged 16 to 60 years living in the city and county. The Quakers refuse on the grounds that the request violates their religious beliefs.

September 8-10. 1775
American forces unsuccessfully assault a British garrison at Saint Johns, Canada.

September 11. 1775
A group of conscientious objectors sends the Committee of Safety £152 in support of the American cause.

September 12. 1775
The Second Continental Congress reconvenes in Philadelphia. Three new Georgia delegates join the deliberations.

In London, Lord Dartmouth announces that 10,000 stand of arms and 6 light artillery pieces would be sent to North Carolina where Governor Martin claims a large body of loyalists would oppose the rebels with force.

September 13. 1775
In Boston, Admiral Graves orders Captain Vandeput of the Asia to seize and keep in safe custody any delegates to the Continental Congress and any "Rebel General Officers, or the chief radical leaders in New York."

September 14. 1775
Rebels capture strategically important Fort Johnson, on James Island, South Carolina.

September 15. 1775
The British charge d'affairs in Paris is ordered to protest the shipment of 30 tons of powder to Philadelphia by the Governor of St. Domingo, a French possession.

September 16. 1775
In South Carolina, William Drayton and loyalist leader Colonel Thomas Fletchall sign a treaty of neutrality in the interior community of Ninety-Six.

September 17. 1775
Patriot siege of Chambly (part of Canadian invasion) begins.

September 18. 1775
The Continental Congress resolves to appoint a Secret Committee to import up to 500 tons of gunpowder, 20,000 musket locks, 10,000 stand of arms, and 40 brass six-pounders.

September 19. 1775
The British government halts the practice of using flintstones as ballast in ships sailing to America. Admiral Graves is ordered to search all incoming ships, dump all flintstone ballast in deep water, and confiscate all flints suitable for use in firearms.

September 20. 1775
In Canada, Ethan Allen informs General Montgomery that he has 250 Canadians under arms and more volunteers coming in.

September 21. 1775
Washington writes to Continental Congress president John Hancock describing the problems facing the army including the need for winter quarters and clothing, the expiration of soldiers' enlistments, and the lack of funding.

September 22. 1775
Admiral Graves advises the British Admiralty against relying on America for supplies and provisions for the fleet during the coming winter. All necessary items would have to be shipped from England.

September 23. 1775
American forces depart on the long march to Quebec.

September 24. 1775
The British Cabinet gives notice that it is their intention to "carry on the war against America with the utmost vigour; and to begin the next campaign as early as possible in the spring. The outlines of the plan to be pursued, are, an army of eighteen thousand men to be employed in New-England, and another army of twelve thousand men are to act in Virginia and the middle Provinces."

September 25. 1775
Ethan Allen aborts a poorly timed attack on Montreal and is captured by the British.

September 26. 1775
In Philadelphia, John Hancock writes to Washington on behalf of the Continental Congress asking him to prepare winter quarters for his men. Edward Rutledge of South Carolina makes a motion to have Washington discharge "all the Negroes as well Slaves as Freemen in his Army." The motion fails.

October of 1775
October 1. 1775
General Gage orders two detachments from St. Augustine, Florida, to Boston, leaving only about half a regiment in all of east Florida. Ninety soldiers are left in St. Augustine; the rest are stationed in New Smyrna, Matanzas, the Cowford, Lookout Tower, and St. John's River.

October 2. 1775
In Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the supply ship Prince George, transporting flour from Bristol, England, to Boston, is taken by force as it enters the Portsmouth harbor by mistake.

October 3. 1775
The Committee of Safety orders the repair of the barracks and hospital at Albany, New York, "with all possible dispatch in the cheapest . . . manner, so as to make them fit for the reception of the Troops of the Continental Army."

October 4. 1775
The Massachusetts House of Representatives orders the overseers of Harvard College "to inquire into the principles" of its staff and to "dismiss those who, by their past or present conduct, appear to be unfriendly to the liberties and privileges of the Colonies."

October 5. 1775
A committee to prepare a plan for fitting out two armed vessels to intercept enemy transport ships is appointed by the Continental Congress.

October 6. 1775
The Continental Congress passes a resolution calling for the arrest of all loyalists who are dangerous to "the liberties of America."

October 7. 1775
After refusing to provision a British ship, Bristol, Rhode Island, is bombarded and burned. Townspeople eventually surrender 40 sheep.

October 8. 1775
In Cambridge, Washington's General Officers meet at a Council of War, and agree that the new army consist of at least 20,372 men enlisted for one-year terms.

October 9. 1775
British General Sir William Howe writes to Lord Dartmouth his belief that the British army should be evacuated from Boston and moved to Rhode Island where it "would be better connected, and the corps would act with greater effect."

October 10. 1775
General Gage departs Boston for England.

October 11. 1775
John Hancock writes to General Philip Schuyler expressing Congress's hope that his endeavors in Canada result in convincing the Canadians to join in the union with the Colonies, form a Provincial Convention, and send delegates to the Continental Congress.

October 12. 1775
The Irish Parliament finalizes an address to King George III, pledging their "unfeigned zeal and unshaken loyalty" for the King and the British government.

October 13. 1775
Congress authorizes the creation of a navy.

October 14. 1775
In London, Secretary of State Lord Suffolk receives intelligence that the colony of Pennsylvania is preparing an armed fleet and floating batteries to prevent the passage of the King's ships through the Delaware River. He recommends that the Admiralty dispatch vessels to destroy the floating batteries.

October 16. 1775
The maritime minister of France sends orders to officials in port towns urging them to prevent American ships from loading war munitions.

October 17. 1775
In Wilmington, North Carolina, the colony's Committee of Safety orders the creation and sale of certificates proving one's loyalty to the American cause. To encourage their sale, the committee orders that no business be conducted with any citizen of the county unless they produce one of the certificates.

October 18. 1775
As a punitive measure, British ships bombard and set fire to Falmouth, Maine, destroying the majority of the town.

Three committeemen from the Continental Congress meet with Washington and representatives of the colonies of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts Bay. The conference is called to draw up a plan for reorganizing, supplying, and continuing the Continental Army.

October 19. 1775
The British surrender their fort at Chambly, Canada.

October 20. 1775
The committee meeting with Washington about the Army agrees that the forces should be supplied with provisions by the New England colonies. Washington is given the authority to impress wagons, vessels, horses, and other necessary items.

October 21. 1775
On the recommendation of the Continental Congress and news of an imminent attack, the Provincial Congress of New York orders all sulphur and brimstone supplies in New York City shipped to a safe place on the Hudson River.

October 22. 1775
Former president of the Continental Congress, Peyton Randolph of Virginia, dies in Philadelphia.

October 23. 1775
The Congressional Committee meeting with Washington agrees to accept the Penobscot, Stockbridge, and St. John's Indian tribes offers of assistance, allowing them to be employed in the Army if necessary. The committee decides, however, to exclude African Americans.

October 24-25. 1775
Patriots successfully defend Hampton, Virginia, from a British naval attack.

October 26. 1775
The Continental Congress passes a resolution recommending that all colonies export goods to the West Indies in exchange for the import of arms, ammunition, sulphur, and saltpeter.

October 27. 1775
In Philadelphia, the Society of Friends, or Quakers, asks the Pennsylvania Assembly "to guard against any proposal or attempt to deprive us and others of the full enjoyment of liberty of conscience." Quaker religious beliefs prohibited members from bearing arms or supporting armed conflict through personal service or financial obligation.

October 28. 1775
General Sir William Howe, new Commander-in-Chief of the British army, issues a proclamation to the American residents of Boston forbidding any person from leaving the city on pain of death. He also orders citizens to organize into military companies in order to aid in the "defense" of their city.

October 29. 1775
Four armed American vessels sail from Cambridge as part of a fleet created to cruise the coast in search of enemy transports carrying arms and provisions.

October 30. 1775
Congress establishes the Naval Committee, the first real administrative committee on standing naval affairs for the colonies.

October 31. 1775
Washington tries to encourage re-enlistment in the Army by reserving new supplies for those who agree to commit to another year of service. He also promises each man time to visit his family during the winter.

November of 1775
November 1. 1775
The Continental Congress resolves to ban the export of produce and livestock, except horses, from the colonies unless the proceeds of the shipments are used to purchase military stores.

November 2. 1775
American troops, under the command of Montgomery, end a siege with the capture of St. Johns, Canada, a costly victory that delays the fight for Quebec.

November 3. 1775
In Cambridge, Washington mourns the destruction of "so many Valuable Plantations of Trees" by soldiers to be used for firewood. He writes that "from Fences to Forrest Trees, and from Forrest Trees to fruit Trees, is a Natural advance to houses, which must next follow. . . "

November 4. 1775
The Continental Congress agrees to underwrite the cost of raising three battalions for the defense of South Carolina and one for the colony of Georgia. The body also recommends that South Carolina create a new form of government, if necessary.

November 5. 1775
King George receives numerous expressions of support for his policies towards the American colonies from communities in England and Scotland. Lord North organized the endorsement campaign.

November 6. 1775
The Governor of Jamaica reports to London that "the North Americans are amply supplied with Gun powder and other Military Stores by the French in Hispanola; which is sold at an advanc'd price by the Inhabitants who I find import great quantitys from Old France, finding it such an advantageous article of Commerce; But I do not learn that they get any out of the Royal Stores or Magazines."

November 7. 1775
Congress amends the Continental Articles of War.

November 8. 1775
Washington seeks to resolve several problems facing the army: how to encourage experienced troops to enlist; how to assemble a capable officer corps; and how to overcome provinical differences and rivalries. He writes, "Connecticut wants no Massachusetts man in her corps. Massachusetts thinks there is no necessity for a Rhode Islander. . . "

November 9. 1775
At Phipp's Farm, Massachusetts (also know as Lechmere Point) Americans successfully drive off British soldiers seeking cattle to supply the Boston garrison.

November 10. 1775
Congress adopts resolutions to encourage the domestic production of saltpetre, raise two battalions of marines, and dispatch two agents to Nova Scotia to secure information on the sentiments of that populace and their state of military readiness.

November 11. 1775
The Continental Congress engages the missionary Samuel Kirkland to spread the "Gospel amongst the Indians," and confirm "their affections to the United Colonies . . . thereby preserving their friendship and neutrality."

November 12. 1775
Upon hearing of England's rejection of the Olive Branch petition, Abigail Adams writes: "Let us separate, they are unworthy to be our Brethren. Let us renounce them and instead of suplications as formorly for their prosperity and happiness, Let beseach the almighty to blast their councils and bring to Nought all their devices."

November 13. 1775
After an easy battle, American troops capture and occupy Montreal.

November 14. 1775
The King informs Lord North that he has contracted for raising 4,000 German recruits for Great Britain.

November 15. 1775
Virginia Governor Dunmore issues a proclamation offering freedom to "all indented Servants, Negroes, or others, (appertaining to rebels,) . . . that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops."

November 16. 1775
In Quebec, a Council of War decides to defend the city by securing troops from naval vessels.

November 17. 1775
The Virginia Gazette carries a letter from a reader advising planters to warn their slaves that the British government are worse enemies than their masters; that if the Americans are defeated, the slaves would be sold in the West Indies; and to advise the slaves to look for an improved status in the next world.

November 18. 1775
The new Secretary of State for America, Lord Germain, informs General Howe that 20,000 soldiers were to be supplied for the spring campaign and five regiments were to be dispatched to the Carolinas by the end of November.

November 19-21. 1775
A truce ends two days of fighting between loyalists and patriots at the fortified settlement of Ninety-six, South Carolina.

November 22. 1775
Congress resolves to permit the colonies to export a fixed amount of provisions to Bermuda, where inhabitants faced starvation, in return for salt which was badly needed in the colonies. Unlimited quantities of food could be exported if the return cargoes contained military supplies.

November 23. 1775
General Montgomery writes, "till Quebeck is taken, Canada is unconquered." He concludes that an invasion of the city would be inevitable.

November 24. 1775
The Pennsylvania Assembly brands as public enemies all individuals who refuse to accept provincial bills of credit.

November 25. 1775
The South Carolina Congress resolves that "the colony is in a state of actual alarm" and sends additional militia into the interior to reinforce those fighting against the loyalists.

November 26. 1775
In his absence, Washington instructs the manager of his Mt. Vernon plantation to "Let the Hospitality of the House, with respect to the poor, be kept up; Let no one go hungry away."

November 27. 1775
General Montgomery begins his move on Quebec.

November 28. 1775
Congress establishes the American Navy.

November 29. 1775
Congress establishes a Committee of Secret Correspondence to seek assistance from European nations.

December of 1775
December 1. 1775
General Montgomery joins General Arnold's patriot forces outside Quebec.

December 2. 1775
Thomas Jefferson proposes a resolution in Congress calling for the exchange of Ethan Allan, captured by the British at Montreal.

December 3. 1775
At the American camp in Cambridge, the captain of an American schooner brings in a captured enemy vessel carrying 5000 pounds of dry goods; the British revive a fear of smallpox by sending victims of the disease from Boston to the patriot lines.

December 4. 1775
In an effort to prevent Connecticut troops from leaving the service, General Lee threatens to cut off provisions to those who do not reenlist for three weeks, and posts a notice to innkeepers between Cambridge and Hartford asking them to refuse service to deserters. Soldiers react to the notice by posting one of their own stating, "General Lee is a fool and if he had not come here we should not know it."

December 5. 1775
Recruitment and retention woes continue for Washington as Massachusetts sets a monthly pay schedule of twenty-eight days, adding another month of pay per year to each soldier's salary. He writes the Massachusetts Council, ". . . it aims the most fatal stab to the peace of this army that ever was given, and that Lord North himself could not have devised a more effective blow to the recruiting service."

December 6. 1775
West India sugar planters and London merchants draft a petition to present to the House of Commons asking for concessions for rum trade in the forthcoming Parliamentary bill stopping all trade with America.

December 7. 1775
Dr. Benjamin Gale writes to Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress Silas Deane regarding the progress of construction on a submarine invented by David Bushnell.

December 8-31. 1775
Siege of Quebec by American force.

December 8. 1775
The French Foreign Minister, Count de Vergennes, announces that King Louis XVI will renew his order to French ports forbidding the loading of munitions on American ships. Despite issuing the original order in October, commerce in war goods had not diminished.

December 9. 1775
British troops under Governor Dunmore are defeated at Great Bridge, Virginia.

December 10. 1775
A group of British marines, sailors, and women under the command of Captain James Wallace of the HMS Rose raid the town of Jamestown, Rhode Island.

December 11. 1775
Congress approves a $3000 appropriation to support American diplomats in Europe.

December 12. 1775
To provide much-needed fuel for the colony, the Massachusetts Council allows decayed barns, stores, and houses to be torn down, as well as any public buildings if needed.

December 13. 1775
Congress authorizes the Naval Construction Act of 1775.

December 14. 1775
With reinforcements from Williamsburg and North Carolina, American forces occupy Norfolk.

December 15. 1775
Following the patriot capture of Norfolk from the British, the Virginia Gazette reports that Lord Dunmore will bombard the city if frontier riflemen enter the fight.

December 16. 1775
A representative of the Delaware tribe visits the Continental Congress where he is thanked by John Hancock for keeping the Delwares neutral in the conflict between Britain and America.

December 17. 1775
Patriot forces in Montreal build ramparts of snow and ice. An American describes the event in a letter stating, "Who but Yankees would have thought of such a contrivance or who but enthusiastics for liberty would carry on a siege at such a season of the year."

December 18. 1775
A company of foot rangers raids Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, where Governor Campbell has retained slaves and loyalists.

December 19. 1775
The New York Provinical Congress orders the purchase of 1,000 copies of the proceedings of the Continental Congress in Low Dutch and German to be distributed to residents of the colony.

December 20. 1775
The Continental Congress orders a temporary cease-fire between the colonies of Connecticut and Pennsylvania in their dispute over conflicting land claims in the Wyoming Valley.

December 21. 1775
In London, the British Parliament passes a bill calling for the confiscation of all American vessels and the impressement of their crews into service in the English Navy.

December 22. 1775
British Parliament passes the American Prohibitory Act.

Esek Hopkins is commissioned Commodore in the Continental Navy.

December 23. 1775
King George III issues a royal proclamation closing the American colonies to all commerce and trade, to take effect in March of 1776. Also in December, Congress is informed that France may offer support in the war against Britain.

December 24. 1775
The Georgia Council of Safety attempts to stop several vessels from loading lumber on the Sapelo River for export to the West Indies.

December 25. 1775
Christmas Day

December 26. 1775
The Continental Congress calls for another three million dollars in bills of credit to be issued to help defray the costs of building a navy and supplying the army. The thirteen colonies pledge for the redemption of the bills of credit by levying taxes in each colony.

December 27. 1775
A group of thirty-four prisoners taken by the British near Montreal are moved to the HMS Soleboy to be transported to Boston. Colonel Ethan Allen is the only officer in the group.

December 28. 1775
The Continental Congress resolves that troops raised in Virginia be enlisted on the same terms and pay as the forces at Cambridge.

December 29. 1775
In Schenectady, New York, the local Committee of Correspondence asks local magistrates to prevent the firing of guns on New Year's Day in order to conserve gun powder.

December 30. 1775
General Washington's recruitment officers are allowed to discuss enlistment in the American army with free African Americans that want to join the force.

December 31. 1775
Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold lead an unsuccessful American assault on Quebec in which Montgomery is killed and Arnold wounded.