DIRECTOR'S ORDER #42: ACCESSIBILITY FOR VISITORS WITH DISABILITIES IN NATIONAL PARK SERVICE PROGRAMS AND SERVICES
Robert Stanton (original on file)
Effective Date: November 3, 2000
Sunset Date: November 3, 2004
Table of Contents
In 1979, the National Park Service (NPS) decided to approach the issue of accessibility in a comprehensive, organized way, rather than on a project-by-project basis. The primary goal of the program was to develop and coordinate a System-wide, comprehensive approach to achieving the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable, while ensuring consistency with the other legal mandates of conservation and protection of the resources we manage. Since 1980, the NPS has been working with accessibility coordinators in each regional office, and in parks and program offices, to: (1) assess the level of accessibility of various parks; (2) identify the barriers to accessibility; (3) develop policies and guidelines regarding appropriate methods and techniques for improving access; and (4) provide technical assistance and in-service training on effective approaches and program implementation.
Through this coordinated effort, the NPS has been recognized as a leader in opening opportunities to people with disabilities. While accessibility policies apply to both employees and visitors, this Director's Order focuses on visitors, and Director's Order 16A focuses on employees.
There are two primary reasons why the NPS has initiated its present accessibility efforts: (1) there are various legal mandates that require all government agencies to make facilities and programs accessible; and (2) it simply makes good sense to employ principles of "universal design" in providing facilities for everyone, rather than for only a portion of the population. While there are sanctions that can be brought for non-compliance with the legal requirements, it is the second reason that, in the long term, is the most significant for accessibility in the parks. It is estimated there are over 54 million persons in our country today who meet the legal definition of a person with a disability. This includes those who have significant degrees of mobility, sensory, or cognitive limitations. Further, when we consider the growing percentage of our population that is age 65 or older; those with invisible disabilities, such as cardiac and respiratory problems; those who have temporary disabilities, such as broken arms or legs; parents with strollers and wheeled devices, and the families and friends who will be traveling with these individuals, a majority of our nation's population can benefit from accessible facilities and programs.
When facilities and programs are "universally designed" to serve all people, accessibility is generally enhanced for everyone. This is certainly not the case in non-accessible design. In addition, research has shown that, if accessibility is provided at the design stage, the extra cost is negligible. Studies show that the additional cost of making a building accessible is on average 0.5 percent more, and rarely more than 1.0 percent of the total cost. This incremental cost is modest, relative to the large percentage of the population that benefits.
II. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
It is the goal of the NPS to ensure that all people, including the estimated 54 million citizens with disabilities, have the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable to our programs, facilities and services in conformance with applicable regulations and standards. Accordingly, the NPS will seek to provide that level in the planning, construction, and renovation of buildings and facilities and in the provision of programs and services to the public and to our employees. In most instances, the applicable rules, regulations and standards do not require access if it would change the fundamental nature of the activity. In conforming to the appropriate standards, the level of accessibility will be largely determined by the nature of the area and program, and will be consistent with the obligation to conserve park resources and preserve the quality of the park experience. The procedures in this Director's Order give detailed guidance based on the minimum requirements set forth in laws, rules, and regulations. However, one fundamental principle of this Director's Order is that the NPS will seek to provide the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable, and not simply provide the minimum level that is required by law. Consequently, managers are encouraged to exceed the requirements for visitor accessibility through innovative techniques and partnerships whenever possible and reasonable.
The five objectives
of this Director's Order are to:
1. Incorporate the long range goal of providing the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable for people of all abilities in all facilities, programs, and services, instead of providing "separate" or "special" programs.
2. Implement this
goal within the daily operation of the NPS, its policies, organizational
relationships, and implementation strategies;
3. Provide further
guidance and direction regarding the NPS interpretation of laws and policies;
4. Establish a framework
for the effective implementation of actions necessary to achieve the highest
level of accessibility that is reasonable; and,
5. Ensure the implementation of "universal design" principles within the national park system.
This Director's Order makes reference to legal terms and other concepts that are critical to understanding NPS responsibilities. Most of the following definitions are taken from the Department of the Interior regulation entitled "Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Department of the Interior Programs" (43 CFR Part 17.501-17.570).
IV. AUTHORITY FOR THIS DIRECTOR'S ORDER
Authority to issue this directive is found in 16 USC 1 through 4 (the NPS Organic Act), and the delegations of authority contained in Part 245 of the Department of the Interior Manual.
V. APPLICABLE LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND STANDARDS
There are several Federal laws that require us to make programs, facilities, and services accessible; Department of the Interior regulations that outline how those laws should be implemented; and Federal standards that define how facilities must be designed and constructed in order to comply with those laws and regulations.
1. The Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-480) requires all buildings and facilities built or renovated in whole or in part with Federal funds to be accessible to, and usable by, physically disabled persons. Since 1968, official standards for making buildings accessible have been developed and the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has been created to monitor and enforce compliance with the law.
2. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-112), as amended, is more encompassing than the Architectural Barriers Act. While the Architectural Barriers Act requires physical access to buildings and facilities, Section 504 requires program accessibility in all services provided with Federal dollars. The act itself is very brief. It states:
3. Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in all employment practices within the Federal Government. Director's Order 16A deals with reasonable accommodation for NPS employees.
4. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, requires that all Federal agencies ensure that when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology; that, it is accessible to employees with disabilities. It also requires that individuals with disabilities who are seeking information or services from Federal agencies have access to and use of all information provided. Electronic and information technology is expansively defined. It includes computers (such as hardware, software, and accessible data such as web pages), facsimile machines, copiers, telephones, and other equipment used for transmitting, receiving, using, or storing information.
5. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 technically does not apply to the Federal Government. This Act essentially extends the coverage of the Architectural Barriers Act and Sections 501 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act to all state and local governments and to most of the private sector. Indirectly, the ADA has had, and will continue to have, an enormous impact on all public agencies. The high visibility of the law has generated a wide range of public interest in the issue of access for individuals with disabilities, and has increased the pressure on Federal agencies to bring their facilities and programs into compliance. The law has also resulted in the development of a set of more comprehensive design standards for buildings and facilities, which by policy have been adopted by the Department of the Interior. Finally, Section 507 relates specifically to the use of wheelchairs in the Federal Wilderness Preservation System.
1. Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Department of the Interior Programs (43 CFR 17.501-17.570). This regulation requires that the Department of the Interior operate all its programs and activities to ensure nondiscrimination against qualified persons with a disability. It sets forth standards for what constitutes discrimination on the basis of disability, and establishes a detailed complaint process for resolving allegations of discrimination. This regulation is issued under the authority of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.
1. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). This document presents uniform standards for the design, construction, and alteration of buildings so that individuals with disabilities will have ready access to and use of them in accord with the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968. UFAS was published in the Federal Register on August 7, 1984, and became the design requirement of the Department of the Interior when it was adopted by the General Services Administration in 41 CFR 101-19.6 on that same date. All new and altered buildings and facilities must be designed and constructed in conformance with these standards unless otherwise exempt.
2. Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). This document sets guidelines for accessibility to places of public accommodation and commercial facilities by individuals with disabilities. These guidelines are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of such buildings and facilities to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies. ADAAG is more comprehensive than the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard, and therefore a process is underway to amend UFAS to bring it into conformance. A 1992 Department of the Interior directive instructed all Bureaus to begin to utilize ADAAG in current construction and alteration projects, except in the few instances where UFAS provides a higher degree of accessibility.
VI. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
To achieve the goals and objectives of this Director's Order, the NPS will implement the following strategies: (1) NPS will increase employee awareness and technical understanding of accessibility requirements; (2) All new and renovated buildings and facilities, and all new services and programs--including those offered by concessioners and by interpreters, will be "universally designed" and implemented in conformance with applicable regulations and standards; (3) Existing programs, facilities and services will be evaluated by programs and park units to determine the degree to which they are currently accessible to and usable by people with disabilities; (4) Barriers that limit access will be identified and incorporated into the NPS Assets Management Program; (5) Each unit will develop action plans identifying how, where feasible, those barriers will be removed; and, (6) Actions will be taken, on a day-to-day basis to eliminate the identified barriers, utilizing existing operational funds or other funding sources or partnerships. Projects requiring large expenditures of funds will be identified and entered into the Project Management Information System (PMIS) so special attention can be given to them in setting regional and national funding priorities.
VII. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE POLICIES
Effective policies are key to National Park Service compliance with the applicable laws, regulations, and standards, and to a successful implementation strategy. Visitor accessibility policies were first addressed in Special Directive 83-3, issued in 1983. Those policies were subsequently updated in the NPS Management Policies. The relevant sections from various chapters of Management Policies are compiled below, for the convenience of NPS managers.
A. Cultural Resource Management (Management Policies, Chapter 5)
B. Interpretation and Education (Management Policies, Chapter 7)
C. Use of Parks (Management Policies, Chapter 8)
One primary tenet of disability rights requirements is that, to the highest degree reasonable, people with disabilities should be able to participate in the same programs and activities available to everyone else. In choosing among methods for providing accessibility, higher priority will be given to those methods that offer programs and activities in the most integrated setting appropriate. Special, separate, or alternative facilities, programs, or services will be provided only when existing ones can not reasonably be made accessible. The determination of what is reasonable will be made only after careful consultation with persons with disabilities, or their representatives. Any decision that would result in "less than equal opportunity" is subject to the filing of an official disability rights complaint under the Departmental regulations cited above.
D. Park Facilities (Management Policies, Chapter 9)
Accessibility will be provided consistent with preserving park resources, visitor safety, and providing a high-quality visitor experience. In most instances, the degree of accessibility provided will be proportionately related to the degree of human-made modifications in the area surrounding the facility, and the importance of the facility to people visiting or working in the park. Accordingly, most administrative offices, some overnight visitor accommodations, some employee housing, and most interpretive and visitor service facilities will be accessible. Undeveloped areas, such as those outside the immediate influence of buildings and roads, will not normally be modified, nor will special facilities be provided for the sole purpose of providing access to all segments of the population. Accessibility to facilities in threshold areas will be determined on the basis of the nature of the topography, the significance of the attraction, the amount of physical modifications being made to the environment and the modifications necessary to ensure programmatic accessibility.
Transportation systems in parks, including water transportation will have a sufficient percentage of fully accessible vehicles or watercraft to provide effective services to persons with disabilities. In the case of existing systems, the necessary vehicles will be provided on a replacement or retrofit basis. Until the transportation system has been made fully accessible, a separate accessible vehicle will be provided, or disabled persons will be allowed to drive their personal vehicles on otherwise restricted roadways.
In meeting the goal of accessibility, emphasis will be placed on ensuring persons with disabilities are afforded experiences and opportunities along with other visitors, to the greatest extent reasonable. Separate facilities for people with disabilities are not a substitute for full accessibility to other park facilities, but they may be allowed where the need for specialized services is clearly demonstrated.
E. Commercial Visitor Services (Management Policies, Chapter 10)
F. Wilderness Management (Management Policies, Chapter 6)
Section 17.550 of the Secretary of the Interior's regulations regarding the enforcement of non-discrimination on the basis of disability in Department of the Interior programs (43 CFR Part 17, Subpart E) states that agencies are not required to take any actions or provide access that would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a program or activity. However, the agency has the burden of proving that compliance would result in a fundamental alteration. This concept is also found in section 507 of ADA.
VIII. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The Director of the NPS has the responsibility of ensuring that the goals and objectives of this Director's Order are achieved. Implementation responsibilities are delegated to the Associate Directors, the Regional Directors, and to the individual Superintendents. However, since access encompasses virtually every program and activity provided to the visiting public as well as to our employees, it is every employee's responsibility to be aware of the requirements for equal accessibility and when and where possible to take steps to ensure the needs of persons with disabilities are accommodated. Ensuring access to programs, facilities and services provided by the NPS is a broad based and shared responsibility. Specific roles and responsibilities for the organization, management, coordination, and implementation of action is outlined as follows:
A. Park Superintendents
Park superintendents are responsible for all activities related to the day-to-day operation of their park, including those provided through concessioners, cooperating associations, and volunteers. Superintendents ensure all of their programs, facilities, and services are accessible, in conformance with applicable laws, regulations, standards and policies. Each superintendent ensures all new programs, facilities and services are designed, constructed and delivered in compliance with accessibility requirements. They are also responsible for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of existing programs, facilities and services to determine the degree to which they are equally accessible to all people with disabilities and for the development of transition plans to correct deficiencies as outlined in 43CFR 17.510. They are also responsible for taking all possible actions, on an on-going basis, to ensure the corrective actions are taken in an appropriate way and within an appropriate time period.
Each superintendent will be responsible for appointing a site accessibility coordinator and for providing the support and direction needed to develop and implement a park or site strategy to accomplish Service-wide goals and objectives regarding accessibility. A site accessibility coordinator may service more than one park or unit. The coordinator may be the same accessibility coordinator as appointed in Director's Order #16A: Reasonable Accommodation for Employees. Personnel issues may require that an individual from the Human Resources program be appointed to assist in the implementation of reasonable accommodation, in addition to the site access coordinator.
Park or Site Accessibility Coordinator - The park or site accessibility coordinator will be responsible for the coordination, planning, and monitoring of park-wide activities concerned with architectural and programmatic accessibility for people with disabilities, including technical assistance and training. Programs and activities should be closely coordinated with the regional accessibility coordinator to ensure actions taken conform to applicable laws, regulations, standards and policies. These programs and activities should also be closely coordinated with the Chiefs of Maintenance, Interpretation, Concessions Management and other program heads to ensure appropriate implementation. It is the responsibility of the park or site accessibility coordinator to advise park staff, with the approval of their supervisor and the superintendent, on actions necessary to achieve the goal of providing the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable within the park.
It is the responsibility of the park or site coordinator to work with their supervisor and the superintendent, in determining how best to achieve these duties for the benefit of the entire park.
B. Regional Directors
Regional directors have responsibility for the oversight, monitoring and coordination of all activities relating to the operation of the parks within their region. They ensure all areas are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, standards and policies, including those related to accessibility. They ensure that all new buildings or facilities, built or altered under its direction are designed and constructed in compliance with applicable rules, regulations and standards. Each regional director will be responsible for appointing a regional accessibility coordinator and providing the support and direction needed to develop and implement a regional strategy to accomplish Service-wide goals and objectives regarding accessibility.
Regional Accessibility Coordinator - The regional accessibility coordinator is responsible for the coordination, planning, and monitoring of all regional activities concerned with architectural and programmatic accessibility for people with disabilities, including technical assistance and training. Programs and activities should be closely coordinated with the Washington Office AMP to ensure actions taken conform to applicable laws, regulations, standards and policies. The regional accessibility coordinator will represent the region on the Service-wide Accessibility Coordinating Committee.
It is the responsibility of the regional accessibility coordinator to work with regional staff, with the approval of their supervisor and the regional director, on actions to achieve the goal of providing the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable within the entire region.
C. Washington Office
1. Associate Director, Park Operations and Education
The Associate Director for Park Operations and Education, has primary responsibility to provide guidance and direction to ensure that accessibility is incorporated as an integral component of each service-wide operational function. This includes developing strategies that will assist the NPS to ensure that (1) all new programs, facilities, and services are designed and implemented in conformance with applicable laws and regulations; (2) existing programs, facilities and services are evaluated to determine what barriers to access currently exist; and (3) actions are planned and implemented that will bring the programs, facilities and services into compliance with applicable policies and regulations. Certain divisions and programs reporting to the associate director have specific responsibilities.
Accessibility Management Program (AMP) - The AMP is a program area within the Park Facility Management Division. The primary goal of the AMP is to develop and oversee a Service-wide strategy to assist the NPS to ensure the nation's 54 million citizens with disabilities have access to the full range of opportunities and experiences provided by the NPS to other individuals, while at the same time, ensuring adherence to other legal mandates of preservation and protection of the resources we manage. The AMP works with the Service-wide Accessibility Coordinating Committee, which is comprised of representatives from each of the regional offices and other NPS units to: (1) assess the current level of accessibility of our various parks; (2) identify the barriers to accessibility; (3) develop policies and guidelines regarding appropriate methods and techniques for improving access; and (4) provide technical assistance and in-service training on cost-effective approaches and program implementation.
The National Center on Accessibility - The Park Facility Management Division also serves as the NPS liaison with the National Center on Accessibility (NCA) which was created through a formal cooperative agreement between the NPS and Indiana University's Department of Recreation and Park Administration. One primary purpose of NCA is to work with the NPS AMP in accomplishing its goal of ensuring that the NPS, in its entirety, is as accessible as is reasonable to people with disabilities in conformance with applicable laws, rules and regulations. The NCA works with the AMP to provide nationwide training to park and recreation professionals on how to: (1) provide accessible programs, facilities, and services; (2) stimulate, coordinate and conduct research that will identify more effective ways of providing equal opportunity for citizens with disabilities to enjoy outdoor recreation opportunities; and (3) develop technical assistance programs to assist park and recreation professionals in better meeting the needs of people with disabilities.
The Service-wide Accessibility Coordinating Committee - In 1997, the Associate Director for Park Operations and Education, established the Service-wide Accessibility Coordinating Committee comprised of representatives from each of the regional offices, the Denver Service Center (DSC), and the Harpers Ferry Center (HFC). This committee is an advisory committee and a working group established to assist the NPS in implementing its responsibilities regarding accessibility throughout the National Park System. In addition to advising the Associate Director, the committee also provides advice to the NPS Park Facility Management Division.
(b) Interpretation and Education Division - This division is responsible for the overall management and direction of the NPS Interpretation and Education Program and works to ensure accessibility is incorporated to the highest level that is reasonable into all aspects of the Service-wide interpretation program. This includes ensuring that new interpretive programs and services provide effective communication to all persons with a disability. It also means all existing interpretive programs and services, including those provided by cooperating associations, are evaluated to determine the degree to which they are accessible to all visitors; and that actions are taken to bring those programs and services into compliance with the applicable laws and regulations.
(c) Concession Management Division- This division is responsible for the overall management and direction of the NPS Concession Management Program. This division takes all possible steps to ensure that the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable is incorporated into all aspects of the Service-wide concessions program. This includes ensuring all new concession programs and services are accessible to and usable by all persons with a disability. It also means all existing concession programs and services are evaluated to determine the degree to which they are accessible to all visitors, and modifications are made to ensure those programs and services conform to applicable laws and regulations.
(d) Harpers Ferry Center - The HFC is responsible for the overall management and direction of interpretive media and technology throughout the NPS. The HFC works to ensure that the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable is incorporated into all aspects of interpretive media, planning, design and construction. This includes ensuring that all new interpretive media are provided in such a way as to be accessible to and usable by all persons with a disability. It also means all existing practices and procedures are evaluated to determine the degree to which they are currently accessible to all visitors, and modifications are made to assure conformance with applicable laws and regulations.
2. Associate Director, Professional Services
The Associate Directorate for Professional Services, has responsibility for the overall direction and coordination of the NPS planning, design and construction program, and ensures that the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable is appropriately incorporated into all aspects of these programs. Primary responsibilities within Professional Services for accessibility reside in the following units.
(a) Park Planning and Special Studies - This division has the overall responsibility for the NPS's comprehensive planning process. This division ensures the General Management Plans and Statements for Management broadly support the legal requirements for accessibility and NPS policy regarding providing the highest level of accessibility that is reasonable. The Development Concept Plans, the Comprehensive Design Plans and the Interpretive Prospectus then shall identify the specific ways in which the facilities and programs will be made accessible in conformance with appropriate rules, regulations and policy.
(b) Denver Service Center (DSC) - The DSC is responsible for the overall planning, design and construction of most major new construction projects throughout the NPS. The DSC ensures all new buildings or facilities, built or altered under its direction are designed and constructed in compliance with applicable rules, regulations and standards. The DSC is also responsible for ensuring that all designs done under its supervision conform to appropriate design standards.
3. Associate Director, Administration The Associate Directorate for Administration, has responsibility for the overall direction and coordination of all administrative activities within the NPS and ensures accessibility is appropriately incorporated into all aspects of these programs. Primary responsibilities within Administration for accessibility reside in the following units.
(a) Office of Human Resources - The Office of Human Resources has the responsibility for the operation of all personnel related functions within the NPS. This office ensures that people with disabilities are appropriately served in all functions including recruitment, hiring, retention, employee development and advancement, in conformance with appropriate rules and regulations. This office also has primary responsibilities for the provision of "reasonable accommodation" for employees with disabilities, in compliance with EEOC directives and regulations and with NPS Director's Order #16A.
(b) Training and Development Division - The Training and Development Division has the responsibility for the Service-wide employee in-service training program, and ensures accessibility is incorporated in all aspects of that program. This division ensures that the Service-wide Employee Development Program includes the necessary components to assist all employees in fulfilling their responsibilities regarding accessibility. They also ensure that employees with disabilities have equal access to the training and development activities provided, and appropriate auxiliary aids are provided as part of that training.
4. Equal Opportunity Program
The NPS Equal Opportunity Program (EOP) has the Service-wide responsibility for the oversight, advocacy, and enforcement of all programs related to civil rights, including legal requirements for accessibility for visitors and employees. The EOP helps all NPS managers understand the relevant laws, and the methods and techniques for complying with them. The EOP plays an integral role in working with the AMP in establishing strategies to ensure all parks and programs are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. This includes managing the official disability rights complaint process, as set forth in Departmental Regulations 43CFR 17.570, and providing Service-wide interpretive guidance on equal opportunity access issues.
D. Department of the Interior - Equal Opportunity Program
The Department of the Interior, Equal Opportunity Program, has the responsibility to monitor compliance with Section 501 and 504 within the Department of the Interior. Departmental regulations for implementing Section 504 in programs receiving Federal Financial Assistance were published in 1982, and those for Federally Conducted Programs were published in 1987. These regulations place very strict timelines for compliance; give guidance for providing programmatic access; require all agencies to conduct self-evaluations of the degree to which their programs are currently accessible; develop transition plans for correcting identified barriers; and set forth a formal complaint review process.
Federal statutes and regulations require that all programs, facilities, and services are accessible to persons with disabilities. Guidance on how to accomplish this is provided through official design standards and regulations, and by NPS policy. These documents are outlined in Section V of this Director's Order. Everyone must understand that adhering to these statutes is a requirement and not an option! This Director's Order outlines the roles and responsibilities of a wide spectrum of NPS managers. Each manager will be held accountable for meeting those responsibilities and for ensuring the individuals they supervise are held accountable for performing their roles and responsibilities.
As stated in section I of this Director's Order, the primary reason for making the NPS accessible is because it is the right thing to do. It simply makes good sense to employ the principles of "universal design" in providing facilities and programs that are accessible to and usable by every one. Failure to do so denies the opportunity for over 54 million citizens with disabilities to have an equal opportunity to enjoy their national parks. The penalties for non-compliance can be significant in terms of the cost associated with having to remove features that have been constructed inappropriately and replacing them. The costs in terms of denying persons with disabilities the opportunity to enjoy the grandeur and educational values of a national park experience is also significant, even though they are not measurable. The laws and regulations contain compliance enforcement procedures. The U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has enforcement responsibility for compliance with the Architectural Barriers Act, and the Department of Justice has responsibility for the enforcement of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Both of these entities can determine that the NPS is in noncompliance with the statutes and can order corrective actions to be taken. They have taken such action in the past with regard to complaints filed against the NPS. One purpose of this Directors Order is to establish a strategy to enable the NPS to make the changes and modifications needed in a positive and proactive way, rather than being ordered to do so as a result of the complaint process.
In the final analysis, the ultimate measure of accountability will be the degree to which persons with disabilities can visit the national parks, receive the same services, and access the same opportunities as other visitors.
X. SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION
National Center on
Provides information on: access for individuals with disabilities to park and recreation areas and programs; training programs and opportunities; technical assistance for park and recreation professionals; and research and demonstration projects.
and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (U.S. Access Board)
Provides information on: current status of accessibility standards and proposed accessibility guidelines; future meetings of the Access Board and minutes to previous meetings; Access Board newsletter and other publications; Information on activities of ongoing projects.
U. S. Department
of Justice- ADA Home Page
Provides comprehensive information on the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities act, updates on new developments, and technical assistance information.
U.S. Census Bureau
Provides information on the Office on Statistics and on disability population statistics.
on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)
Provides information on NIDRR projects, publications, and other disability and rehabilitation resources.
Disability and Business
Technical Assistance Centers
Provides information on technical assistance for entities covered by Title II and III of the ADA; listings of Regional Centers; and the most frequently asked questions on the provision of access for people with disabilities.
Provides information on international symbols organized by the Graphic Artists Guild Foundation; and, symbols for downloading, including audio description, volume control, sign language interpretation, closed captioning and others.
Provides information on: national on-line database of assistive technology and lists for products, manufacturers, and organizations.
Center for Universal
Provides information on: principles of Universal Design and the concept of designing products and environments to be usable by all people.
Trace Research and
Provides information on interdisciplinary research, development and resource materials on technology and disability and recommendations for designing accessible web pages.
National Center on
Accessible Media (WGBH-Boston)
Provides information on research and development for accessible media; Rear-Window movie captioning system; and recommendations for accessible web pages.
Provides information on technical assistance programs promoting accessible transportation systems within communities throughout the US.
Provides information on rehabilitation engineering and design and the innovative Universal Trail Assessment Process for mapping levels of difficulty for trails.
Provides information on outdoor adventures for people of all ages and abilities.
Provides information on accessibility standards, training programs and opportunities, and additional accessibility resources.
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