Ecology of the Saguaro: II
NPS Scientific Monograph No. 8
NPS Logo


ALCORN, S. M. 1961a. Natural history of the saguaro. Univ. Arizona Arid Lands Colloq. 1959-60/1960-61:23-29.

ALCORN, S. M. 1961b. Some hosts of Erwinia carnegieana. Plant Dis. Rep. 45(8):587-590.

ALCORN, S. M. 1966. The saguaro cactus in Arizona. Am. Hort. Mag. 45(3):286-295.

ALCORN, S. M., and E. B. KURTZ, JR. 1959. Some factors affecting the germination of seed of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). Am. J. Bot. 46(7):526-529.

ALCORN, S. M., and C. MAY. 1962. Attrition of a saguaro forest. Plant Dis. Rep. 46(3):156-158.

ALCORN, S. M., S. E. MCGREGOR, G. D. BUTLER, JR., and E. B. KURTZ, JR. 1959. Pollination requirements of the saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). Cactus Succulent J. 31(2):39-41.

ALCORN, S. M., S. E. MCGREGOR, and G. OLIN. 1961. Pollination of saguaro cactus by doves, nectar-feeding bats, and honey bees. Science 133(3464): 1594-1595.

AURELIUS ANTONINUS, M. (121-180). Meditations, 36. Page 467 in George Seldes, comp. The great quotations. Lyle Stuart, New York. 1966.

BEATTY, L. D. 1955. Autecology of the longnose bat, Leptonycteris nivalis (Saussure). M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 51 pp.

BENSON, L. 1940. The cacti of Arizona. Univ. Ariz. Biol. Sci. Bull. 5. 134 pp.

BENSON, L. 1950. The cacti of Arizona. 2nd ed. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 134 pp.; 29 plates.

BENSON, L. 1969. The cacti of Arizona. 3rd ed. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 218 pp.

BIGELOW, J., JR. 1887. After Geronimo. Installment XIII. Outing 9(6):522.

BINGHAM, S. B. 1963. Vegetation-soil relationships in two stands of the Cercidium-Carnegiea community of the Sonoran Desert. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 84 pp.

BOOTH, J. A., and S. M. ALCORN. 1959. Seedling rot of Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose caused by Fusarium spp. Plant Dis. Rep. 43(9): 1038-1041.

BOYLE, A. M. 1949. Further studies of the bacterial necrosis of the giant cactus. Phytopathology 39(12):1029-1052.

BROWN, J. G., and A. M. BOYLE. 1944. Effect of penicillin on a plant pathogen. Phytopathology 34:760-761; photos.

BROWN, J. G., L. S. GILL, P. C. LIGHTLE, and D. M. HEEP. 1942. Bacterial necrosis of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). Phytopathology 32(1):21. (Abstr.)

BUOL, S. W. 1964. Calculated actual and potential evapotranspiration in Arizona. Univ. Ariz. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 162. 48 pp.

BURGESS, R. L. 1964. Preliminary reports on the botany of Tonto National Monument. II. Quantitative analysis of the saguaro population. Unpublished report. 99 pp.

CAIN, S. A. 1944. Foundations of plant geography. Harper & Brothers, New York. 556 pp.

CANNON, W. A. 1909. The root system of Cereus giganteus. Pages 59-66 in V. M. Spalding, Distribution and movements of desert plants. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 113.

CANNON, W. A. 1911. The root habits of desert plants. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 131. 96pp.

CANNON, W. A. 1912. Some features of the root-systems of the desert plants. Popular Sci. 81:90-99.

CASTETTER, E. F., and W. H. BELL. 1937. Ethnobiological studies in the American Southwest. IV. The aboriginal utilization of the tall cacti in the American Southwest. Univ. New Mexico Bull. 307:1-27.

COCKRUM, E. L. 1960. The recent mammals of Arizona: Their taxonomy and distribution. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 276 pp.

COCKRUM, E. L. 1964. Recent mammals of Arizona. Pages 249-259 in Charles H. Lowe, ed. The vertebrates of Arizona. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

DAUBENMIRE, R. F. 1964. Plants and environment: A textbook of plant autecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 422 pp.

DE CANDOLLE, M. A. 1852. On the freezing of vegetables. Am. J. Sci. Arts II 14:445 (Misc. Intell. #7).

EDDY, T. A. 1959. Foods of the collared peccary, Pecari tejacu sonoriensis (Mearns) in southern Arizona. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 102 pp.

ENGELMANN, G. 1852. Notes on the Cereus giganteus of southeastern California, and some other Californian Cactaceae. Am. J. Sci. Arts II 14:335-339, 446.

ENGELMANN, G. 1854. Further notes on Cereus giganteus of southeastern California, with a short account of another allied species. Am. J. Sci. Arts II 17:231-235.

FELGER, R. S. 1970. Arizona and California cacti. Ecology 51(5):945-946.

FELGER, R. S., and C. H. LOWE. 1967. Clinal variation in the surface-volume relationships of the columnar cactus Lophocereus schottii in northwestern Mexico. Ecology 48(4):530-536.

GILL, L. S. 1951. Mortality in the giant cactus at Saguaro National Monument, 1941-1950. Saguaro National Monument Headquarters (Tucson, Arizona), Official Rep. 5 pp.; 2 tables; 1 fig.

GILL, L. S., and P. C. LIGHTLE. 1942. Cactus disease investigations. Saguaro National Monument Headquarters (Tucson, Arizona), Official Rep. 40 pp.; 9 tables; 15 figs.

GILL, L. S., and P. C. LIGHTLE. 1946. Analysis of mortality in saguaro cactus. Saguaro National Monument Headquarter (Tucson, Arizona), Official Rep. 4 pp.; 11 tables.

GILMAN, M. F. 1915. Woodpeckers of the Arizona lowlands. Condor 17:151-163.

GOOD, R. D'O. 1931. A theory of plant geography. New Phytol. 30(3): 149-171.

GRAF, P. A. 1965. The relationship of Drosophila nigrospiracula and Erwinia carnegieana to the bacterial necrosis of Carnegiea gigantea. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 74 pp.

GREEN, C. R. 1964. Seasonal precipitation and temperature data for selected Arizona stations. Univ. Ariz. Inst. Atmos. Phys. Tech. Rep. Meteorol. Climatol. Arid Regions No. 12. 42 pp.

GREEN, C. R., and P. C. KANGIESER. 1967. Arizona Climate-Supplement No. II: Probability of low temperatures occurring in Arizona. Univ. Ariz. Inst. Atmos. Phys., Tucson. 23 pp.

GREEN, C. R., and W. D. SELLERS, eds. 1964. Arizona climate. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 503 pp.

HALL, E. R., and K. R. KELSON 1959. The mammals of North America. 2 vols. Ronald Press, New York.

HARPER, J. L. 1967. A Darwinian approach to plant ecology. J. Anim. Ecol. 36(3):495-518.

HASTINGS, J. R. 1961. Precipitation and saguaro growth. Univ. Arizona Arid Lands Colloq. 1959-60/1960-61:30-38.

HASTINGS, J. R., and S. M. ALCORN. 1961. Physical determinations of growth and age in the giant cactus. J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 2(1):32-39.

HASTINGS, J. R., and R. M. TURNER. 1965. The changing mile: An ecological study of vegetation change with time in the lower mile of an arid and semiarid region. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 317 pp.

HASTINGS, J. R., R. M. TURNER, and D. K. WARREN. 1972. Carnegiea gigantea. Page 62 in J. R. Hastings, R. M. Turner, and D. K. Warren, An atlas of some plant distributions in the Sonoran Desert. Univ. Ariz. Inst. Atmos. Physics Tech. Rep. Meteorol. Climatol. Arid Regions No. 21.

HEIT, C. E. 1970. Laboratory germination of barrel and saguaro cactus seeds (Ferocactus wislizeni, Cereus giganteus, Carnegiea gigantea). Assoc. Off. Seed Anal. News Letter 44(4):11-15.

HENSLEY, M. M. 1954. Ecological relations of the breeding bird population of the desert biome of Arizona. Ecol. Monogr. 24(2):185-207.

HOOKER, J. D. 1892. Cereus giganteus. Curtis' Bot. Mag. Vol. 118, Tab. 7222. HOOVER, H. 1933. Proclamation No. 2032 of March 1, 1933. Page 30 in National Park Service, U.S. Dept. Interior, A master plan: Saguaro National Monument. 1971.

HOWES, P. G. 1954. The giant cactus forest and its world: A brief biology of the giant cactus forest of our American Southwest. Duell, Sloan & Pearce, New York. 258 pp.

HUBBARD, H. G. 1899. Insect fauna of the giant cactus of Arizona: Letters from the Southwest. Psyche 8(Suppl. 1):1-14.

HUMPHREY, R. R. 1933. A detailed study of desert rainfall. Ecology 14(1):31-34.

HUNGERFORD, C. R. 1962. Adaptations shown in selection of food by Gambel quail. Condor 64(3):213-219.

JANZEN, D. H. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. Am. Nat. 104(940):501-528.

JOHNSON, D. 5. 1924. The influence of insolation on the distribution and on the developmental sequence of the flowers of the giant cactus of Arizona. Ecology 5(1):70-82.

KEARNEY, T. H., and R. H. PEEBLES. 1969. Arizona flora. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1085 pp.

KESWANI, C. L., and M. D. UPADHYA. 1969. Isoenzyme changes during seed germination of saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). Physiol. Plant. 22(2):386-391; illus.

KINCER, J. B. 1946. Our changing climate. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union. 27:342-347.

KRAMER, R. J. 1961. Saguaro distribution in relation to soil moisture. Ecol. Soc. Am. Bull. 42:157. (Abstr.)

KRAMER, R. J. 1962. The distribution of saguaro (Cereus giganteus Engelm.) in relation to certain soil characteristics. M.S. Thesis. Ariz. State Univ., Tempe. 120 pp.

KREBS, C. J. 1972. Ecology: The experimental analysis of distribution and abundance. Harper & Row, New York. 694 pp.

LIGHTLE, P. C. 1941. Field data at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument.

LIGHTLE, P. C., E. T. STANDRING, and J. G. BROWN. 1942. A bacterial necrosis of the giant cactus. Phytopathology 32(4):303-313.

LLOYD, F. E. 1907. Observations on the flowering periods of certain cacti. Plant World 10(2):31-39.

LOWE, C. H. 1959. Contemporary biota of the Sonoran Desert: Problems. Univ. Arizona Arid Lands Colloq. 1958-59:54-74.

LOWE, C. H. 1964. Arizona landscapes and habitats. Pages 1 - 132 in Charles H. Lowe, ed. The vertebrates of Arizona. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

LOWE, C. H. 1966. Life and death of the sahuaro in Arizona. Cactus Capital Chatter 1(8):2-3.

LOWE, C. H., and D. S. HINDS. 1971. Effect of paloverde (Cercidium) trees on the radiation flux at ground level in the Sonoran Desert in winter. Ecology 52(5):916-922.

MACDOUGAL, D. T. 1905. The suwarro or tree cactus. N.Y. Bot. Gard. J. 6:129-133.

MACDOUGAL, D. T. 1908a. The botanical features of North American deserts. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 99. 112 pp.

MACDOUGAL, D. T. 1908b. Across Papagueria. Plant World 11(5):93-99; 11(6):123-131. (Also Am. Geogr. Soc. Bull. 40:1-21.)

MACDOUGAL, D. T. 1908c. The course of the vegetative seasons in southern Arizona. Plant World 11(9):189-201, 11(10):217-231, 11(11):237-249, 11(12):261-270.

MACDOUGAL, D. T. 1908d. The vegetation of the Tucson region. Univ. Arizona Monthly 9(7):1-18.

MACDOUGAL, D. T., and E. S. SPALDING. 1910. The water-balance of succulent plants. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 141. 77 pp.

MACGINITIE, H. D. 1933. Redwoods and frost. Science, n.s. 78(2018):190

MALLERY, T. D. 1936. Rainfall records for the Sonoran Desert. Parts I & II. Ecology 17(1):l10-121, and 17(2):212-215

MANN, J. 1969. Cactus-feeding insects and mites. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. 158 pp.

MARCOU, J. 1869. Note sur le Cereus giganteus Engelmann, et sur sa distribution geographique. Jardins de France (Soc. Nat. d'Hort. Fr.) II, 3:676-682.

[MARSHALL, W. T.] 1955. The saguaro cactus—Arizona's state flower. Saguaroland Bull. 9(5):52-59.

MASON, H. L. 1936. The principles of geographic distribution as applied to floral analysis. Madrono 3:181-190.

MASON, H. L. 1947. Evolution of certain floristic associations in western North America. Ecol. Monogr. 17(2):203-210.

MAY, C., and J. G. PALMER. 1959. Experiments with captan and ferbam as systemics for control of bacterial rot of saguaro and organ-pipe cactus. Plant Dis. Rep. 43(4):496-497.

MCDONALD, J. E. 1956. Variability of precipitation in an arid region: A survey of characteristics for Arizona. Univ. Arizona, Inst. Atmos. Phys. Tech. Rep. No. 1. Tucson. 88 pp.

MCDONOUGH, W. T. 1963. Interspecific associations among desert plants. Amer. Midl. Natur. 70(2):291-299.

MCDONOUGH, W. T. 1964. Germination responses of Carnegiea gigantea and Lemaireocereus thurberi. Ecology 45(1):155-159.

MCGREGOR, S. E., S. M. ALCORN, and G. OLIN. 1962. Pollination and pollinating agents of the saguaro. Ecology 43(2):259-267.

MCGREGOR, S. E., S. M. ALCORN, E. B. KURTZ, and G. B. BUTLER. 1959. Bee visitors to saguaro flowers. J. Econ. Entomol. 52(5):1002-1004.

MIELKE, J. L. 1944. Summary of results of control experiments on saguaro disease, Saguaro National Monument. Saguaro National Monument Headquarters (Tucson, Arizona), Official Rep. 4 pp.

MONSON, G., and A. R. PHILLIPS. 1964. Species of birds in Arizona. Pages 175-248 in Charles H. Lowe, ed. The vertebrates of Arizona. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

NEFF, J. A. 1940. Range, population, and game status of the western white-winged dove in Arizona. J. Wildl. Manage. 4(2):l17-127.

NIERING, W. A., and R. H. WHITTAKER. 1965. The saguaro problem and grazing in southwestern National Monuments. Natl. Parks Mag. 39(213):4-9; illus.

NIERING, W. A., R. H. WHITTAKER, and C. H. LOWE. 1963. The saguaro: A population in relation to environment. Science 142(3588):15-23.

ODUM, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 574 pp.

PEEBLES, R. H., and H. PARKER. 1941. Watching the saguaro bloom. Ariz. Highways 17(3):16-17, 36-37; illus.

POOL, R. J. 1916. On the behavior of an excised branch of the saguaro. Plant World 19(1):17-22.

SANTANA, F. J. 1961. The biology of immature diptera associated with bacterial decay in the giant saguaro cactus (Cereus giganteus Engelmann). M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 60 pp.; 8 pp. figs.

SCHMIDT-NIELSON, K. S. 1964. Desert animals: Physiological problems of heat and water. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 277 pp.

SCHULMAN, E. 1956. Dendroclimatic changes in semiarid America. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 142 pp.

SCHUYLER, M. E. 1968. The isolation and identification of soft rot Erwinia from saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) flowers. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 38 pp.

SHANTZ, H. L. 1932. Description. In Roger W. Toll, Untitled report to the Director of National Park Service.

SHELTON, N. 1972. Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. U.S. Dept. Int., Natl. Park Serv. Nat. Hist. Ser. 98 pp.

SHREVE, F. 1910. The rate of establishment of the giant cactus. Plant World 13(10):235-240.

SHREVE, F. 1911. The influence of low temperatures on the distribution of the giant cactus. Plant World 14(6):136-146.

SHREVE, F. 1914. Rainfall as a determinant of soil moisture. Plant World 17(1):9-26.

SHREVE, F. 1915. The vegetation of a desert mountain range as conditioned by climatic factors. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 217. 112 pp.

SHREVE, F. 1920. An account of the saguaro. Pages 165-166 in N. L. Britton and J. L. Rose, The Cactaceae, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 248. Vol. 2.

SHREVE, F. 1929. Sahuaro—its flowers and the way it grows. Desert 1:10.

SHREVE, F. 1931a. The cactus and its home. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 195 pp.; 43 figs.

SHREVE, F. 1931b. Fouquieriaceae, Larrea tridentata, Carnegiea gigantea. Die Pflanzenareale, Ser. 3(1):4-6; 3 maps.

SHREVE, F. 1945. The saguaro, cactus camel of Arizona. Natl. Geogr. Mag. 88:695-704.

SHREVE, F. 1951. Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 591. 192 pp.; maps and photos.

SHREVE, F., and I. L. WIGGINS. 1964. Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran Desert. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 2 vols. 1740 pp.

SIMMONS, N. M. 1969. The social organization, behavior, and environment of the desert bighorn sheep on the Cabeza Prieta Game Range, Arizona. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 145 pp.

SOLBRIG, O. T. 1972. The floristic disjunction between the "Monte" in Argentina and the "Sonoran Desert" in Mexico and the United States. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 59(2):218-223.

SOULE, O. H., and C. H. LOWE. 1970. Osmotic characteristics of tissue fluids in the sahuaro giant cactus (Cereus giganteus). Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 57(3):265-351.

STEENBERGH. W. F. 1970. Rejection of bacterial rot by adult saguaro cacti (Cereus giganteus). J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 6(1):78-81.

STEENBERGH, W. F. 1972. Lightning-caused destruction in a desert plant community. Southwest. Nat. 16(3/4):419-429.

STEENBERGH, W. F. 1974. The saguaro giant cactus: A bibliography. U.S. Dept. Interior, Natl. Park Serv., Western Region, San Francisco, California. 24 pp.

STEENBERGH, W. F., and C. H. LOWE. 1969. Critical factors during the first years of life of the saguaro (Cereus giganteus) at Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Ecology 50(5):825-834.

STEENBERGH, W.F., and C.H. LOWE. 1976. Ecology of the saguaro. I. The role of freezing weather on a warm-desert plant population. Pages 49-92 in Research in the Parks. National Park Service symposium series no. 1. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

TAKACS, D. J. 1967. Persistence of the bacterium Erwinia carnegieana in soil and its relationship to the establishment and survival of saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) cacti. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Arizona, Tucson. 85 pp.

TAYLOR, W. P. 1934. Significance of extreme or intermittent conditions in distribution of species and management of natural resources, with a restatement of Liebig's law of minimum. Ecology 15(4):374-379.

THACKERY, F. A., and A. R. LEDING. 1929. The giant cactus of Arizona: The use of its fruits and other cactus fruits by the Indians. J. Hered. 20:400-414.

THORNBER, J. J. 1911. Plant acclimatization in southern Arizona. Plant World 14:15-23.

THORNBER, J. J. 1912. Resistance to frost of introduced trees and shrubs. Ariz. Agric. Exp. Stn. Timely Hints for Farmers No. 91.

THORNBER, J. J. 1916. Introduction. Pages 119-122 in J. C. T. Uphof, Cold-resistance in spineless cacti. Univ. Ariz. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 79.

TOUMEY, J. W. 1897. The giant cactus. Popular Sci. 51:641-644.

TSCHIRLEY, F. H., and F. F. WAGLE. 1964. Growth rate and population dynamics of jumping cholla (Opuntia fulgida Engelm.). J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 3(2):67-7l.

TURNAGE, W. V., and A. L. HINCKLEY. 1938. Freezing weather in relation to plant distribution in the Sonoran Desert. Ecol. Monogr. 8:529-550.

TURNER, R. M., S. M. ALCORN, and G. OLIN. 1969. Mortality of transplanted saguaro seedlings. Ecology 50(5):835-844.

TURNER, R. M., S. M. ALCORN, G. OLIN, and J. A. BOOTH. 1966. The influence of shade, soil, and water on saguaro seedling establishment: Bot. Gaz. 127(2/3):95-102.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, WEATHER BUREAU. 1937. Climatological data. Arizona Section. 41(1). 4 pp.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WEATHER BUREAU. 1962. Climatological data. Arizona. 66(1). 17 pp.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE. 1937. Southwestern monuments report, January-June 1937. Western Museum Laboratories, San Francisco. 413 pp.

WENT, F. W. 1957. The experimental control of plant growth. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Mass. 343 pp.; 25 plates.

WHITTAKER, R. H., and W. A. NIERING. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona: A gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology 46(4):42-452.

WIGGINS, I. L., 1937. Effects of the January freeze upon the pitahaya in Arizona. Cactus Succulent J. 8:171.

WILDER, C. S., and J. C. WILDER. 1939. Re-establishment of saguaros. Southwest Monuments Spec. Rep. 26:153-160.

WILDER, J. C. 1940. Saguaros, old and young. Desert Plant Life 12(4):65-66.

YANG, T. W., and C. H. LOWE. 1956. Correlation of major vegetation climaxes with soil characteristics in the Sonoran Desert. Science 123(3196):542.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 21-Oct-2005