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National Archives Washington D.C

Abandoned Military Reservation File—Arizona, Fort Lowell. Record Group 49, Records of the Bureau of Land Management. Contains some interesting material and a map on early settlement along the north boundary of the present-day Rincon Unit.

CCC Projects, Arizona. Entry 41. Box 7, SP-4, SP-5, SP-6. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. The Camp Superintendent monthly reports on work activities are found here as well as information on camp establishments and closures.

CCC Projects, Arizona. Entry 41. Box 8, SP-7, SP-8, SP-9, SP-10, SP-11. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. A continuation of the previous entry.

Central Classified File 1933-1949. National Monuments, Saguaro. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. Numerous reports and correspondence dealing with the monument are found here.

Monthly Narrative Reports of Regional Landscape Architects. Region III-1936. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. Monthly reports filed by the Regional Landscape Architects responsible for inspecting CCC work projects are found here.

Monthly Narrative Reports of Regional Landscape Architects. Region III-January-May 1937. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. A continuation of the above entry.

Monthly Narrative Reports of Regional Landscape Architects. Region III-June-December 1937. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. A continuation of the above entries.

Monthly Narrative Reports of Regional Landscape Architects. Regions II and III-1938. Record Group 79, Records of the National Park Service. A continuation of the above entries.

Annual Reports of CSO 1862-63, 1867-68, Reports of Instruments and Methods of Signalling, 1887-1893. Record Group III, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. Reports on the 1890 heliograph field exercise are found here.

Saguaro National Monument Files

The monument files contain numerous reports and correspondence dating back to 1934. Most of this material escaped being sent to the National Archives for the central classified file. This material complements that found in the National Archives.

Coronado National Forest Headquarters, Tucson

File 2230 - Permits - 2 C&H. Rincon Valley Development Corps. (Pantano Allotment). This file contains some information on the Pantano Allotment.

File G, Cooperation, Coronado (Chiracahua Nat'l Monument). Despite the identification with Chiracahua NM, this file contains material on Saguaro NM.

File G, Cooperation, National Park Service (Saguaro National Monument). Memoranda of agreement and correspondence dealing with allotments in general are found here.

File G, Permits - C&H - Coronado. Converse, Jas. P. This file contains information on the Tanque Verde Allotment.

Happy Valley Allotment File. Begins with the activation of that grazing allotment in 1943 and the approach the Forest Service took to it.

Pantano Allotment File. Contains range inspection reports and agreements with the various allotment owners.

Rincon Allotment File. Essentially the same as the Pantano file.

Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix

This agency office contains the survey field note books of the various Arizona townships. In addition to their survey work the men would indicate residents or abandoned homes in a given section, some mines, lime kiln, and vegetation. This office also contains homestead applications, homestead patent certificates, mineral surveys in the various mining districts and mine patent certificates.

United States Bureau of Mines, Denver

Columbia (Gould) Mine File. Amole Mining District, Pima County, Arizona. Although mine owners were required to make annual production reports to the U.S. Bureau of Mines starting in 1902, this source proved disappointing for the Amole Mining District file contained an entry for only one mine—the Gould—and that for only the 1953-54 period.

Harpers Ferry Center (NPS), West Virginia

Box SAGU. Folder - Saguaro NM. Contains very little information and much of that can be obtained elsewhere.

Master Plan for the Preservation and Use of Saguaro National Monument, Mission 66 Edition. 1963. Harpers Ferry had the only copy of this master plan.

Western Regional Office (NPS), San Francisco

District Ranger, Tucson Mountain Division, Saguaro NM to Chief Ranger, Saguaro NM. April 28, 1968. This correspondence contained an interview of L. Martain Waer's descendents who visited the Tucson Mountain Unit.

Western Archeology Center (NPS), Tucson

Southwestern Monuments Monthly Reports (Saguaro), 1934-53.

Custodian's Monthly Reports (Saguaro), November 1939-1948.

Superintendent's Monthly Reports (Saguaro), 1949-1967.

Arizona Historical Society, Tucson

James Lee Folder in the Hayden File. This folder contained information on James Lee who developed the Nequilla mine.

Mines - Arizona - Nequilla (Nahuila). Ephemera File. This file had information on the first mine to be patented in the Amole District.

Reminiscences of Octaviano O. Gastelum. Juan I. Telles Ephemera File. Gastelum was kidnapped at the Telles ranch by Apaches in 1886.

Juan I. Telles Folder. Ephemera File. Contains information on the Telles ranch near the present-day Rincon Unit.

Vail, Edward L. "The Diary of a Desert Trail." In the Edward L. Vail papers. He recounts a cattle drive about 1890.

University of Arizona Library Special Collections

Range Conditions in Arizona 1900-1909 as Recorded by Various Observers in a Series of Miscellaneous Papers. Collected and bound by the University of Arizona Library. Several area individuals report on southern Arizona range conditions.

"Reports on Tonnage in Pima and Santa Cruz Cos. Arizona." ca. 1906. Recount of mining company production reports which are accepted uncritically.

Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, Phoenix

"Active Mines in Southern District." January 1944-February 1948. These are monthly reports of mining activity in southern Arizona. There are no reports involving the Amole District mines after January 1946.

Folder - Gould Mine, Pima County, Arizona. This file contains letters and reports dealing with the Gould mine from 1908 to 1959.

"Owners Mine Report." October 16, 1940. This report dealt with the Old Yuma mine. Although the Arizona Department of Mineral Resources requested reports on mining activity from mine owners, it had no police authority and, as a result, rarely received such reports.

Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology, Tucson

Formerly the Arizona Bureau of Mines, this state agency has a very good newspaper clipping file of Arizona mining districts and mines.

Bonanza Park Mining Company File. Contains a 1918 promotional pamphlet extolling the virtues of the Bonanza Park mines.

Copper King Mining Co. - Tucson Mountains File. Contains a small amount of material on the Mile Wide mine.

Gould Copper Mining Company File. Very little material of which most deals with the early period around 1907-08.

Arizona State Archives, Phoenix

Assessment Rolls for the County of Pima, 1879-1912. These rolls contain an alphabetical listing of property owners and the value of their real estate.

Personal Papers

John Harrison Papers. University of Arizona Library Special Collections. These papers contain much information about the University of Arizona's relationship to the monument.

Carl Hayden Papers. Arizona Foundation. Arizona State University Library. These papers fill in many blanks left by the National Park Service records in the National Archives and Saguaro National Monument.

Homar Shantz Papers. University of Arizona Library Special Collections. Shantz was University president from the late 1920s to 1936. These papers contain little in regard to the national monument.

Edward L. Vail Papers. Arizona Historical Society. Vail and his brother Walter were probably the largest ranchers in southern Arizona in the Anglo period. Vail gives a picture of their life and ranching.

Printed United States Government Document

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior For the Fiscal Year Ended June 20, 1933. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933. Tells of the June 10, 1933 Executive Order which transferred a number of national monuments to the Park Service.

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior For the Fiscal Year Ended June 20, 1934. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1934. Tells of the transfer of sixteen national monuments to the Park Service.

Federal Register November 22, 1961. Contains a copy of the presidential proclamation which added the Tucson Mountain Unit to Saguaro National Monument.

Gale, First Lieutenant G.H.G. "Report of Reconnaissance for a Central Station, Connecting Lowell, Huachuca, Bowie and Grant Heliograph Divisions." March 28, 1890. In Instructions for Guidance of Signal Officers in Charge of Heliograph Divisions and Stations During General Practice Department Heliograph Systems, May 1890. Gale tells of his search in the Rincon Mountains for a suitable site to set up a heliograph station for the coming 1890 field exercise.

"Reports of the Chief Signal Officer." October 1, 1890. October 9, 1893. October 1, 1895. In Reports of the Secretary of War, 1890, 1893, 1895. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1890, 1893, 1895. These reports contain various information on the heliograph as it mainly pertained to southern Arizona.

Statutes of the United States of America Passed at the Second Session of the Seventy-Second Congress 1932-33 and Concurrent Resolutions Recent Treaties Executive Proclamations and Agreements Proposed Amendments to the Constitution Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing office, 1933. Contains the March 1, 1933 presidential proclamation which established Saguaro National Monument.

Twenty-First Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior 1899-1900. Part IV. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1901. Mentions the recovery of the copper industry and its importance to Arizona.

U.S. Congress, Senate. Committee on Public Lands and Surveys. "Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, Pursuant to S. Res. 347 to Investigate all Matters Relating to National Forests and the Public Domain and Their Administration." 3 vols. 69 Cong. 1 Sess. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1926. Covers the Forest Service grazing policy through 1925.

National Park Service Publications

O'Brien, Robert D. and L.S. Zentner. "Report of the Mining Property Investigations, Saguaro National Monument, Tucson Mountain Section." 2 vols. San Francisco: National Park Service, Western Region Office, April 1973. The report covers the location of seventy-six mines and prospect holes. The authors found that it was difficult, if not impossible, to define claim locations because the descriptions on file were very ambiguous.

Simpson, Kay and Susan J. Wells. "Archeological Survey in the Eastern Tucson Basin: Saguaro National Monument." 3 vols. Tucson: National Park Service, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Publications in Anthropology No. 22, 1983. This three-volume work contains an overview as well as specific site descriptions of the archeology of the Rincon Mountain Unit of the monument.

Stacy, V. K. Pheriba and Julian Hayden. "Saguaro National Monument: An Archeological Overview." Tucson: National Park Service, Western Archeological Center, 1975. This work is a clearly presented discussion of the archeological sequences found in the two units of Saguaro National Monument.


Conversation Between Park Technician Thomas Carroll and Mrs. Freeman of the Freeman Homestead. Folder - Mrs. Freeman Day. Saguaro National Monument Files.

Conversation with James Converse by H. Coss, National Monument Employee. November 17, 1968. Folder - Mrs. Freeman Day. Saguaro National Monument Files.

Statement by David Faust, Superintendent of Fort Lowell State Park, to Berle Clemensen. May 2, 1986.

Telephone conversation with E.D. (Ed) Herreras by Berle Clemensen. April 28, 1986.

Telephone conversation with Theodore Knipe by Berle Clemensen. May 14, 1986.

Transcript of Tape Conversation of Frank Escalante and Charles Maguire by Bob Jones, SAGU Superintendent, Hal Coss, Park Naturalist, and Tom Carroll, Park Technician. December 11, 1969. Saguaro National Monument Files.


Arizona Citizen (Tucson), 1875-1940.

Arizona Republic (Phoenix), 1929, 1978.

Arizona Republican (Phoenix), 1900.

Arizona Star (Tucson), 1879-1985.

Arizona Weekly Enterprise (Tucson), 1893.

Chamber News (Tucson Chamber of Commerce), 1949.

Los Angeles Times 1901.

Tucson Citizen 1941-1985.



Allen, Milton A. "Mines of Pima County." Arizona Mining Journal 3 (June 1919), 76-77. Concentrates mostly on the larger mines and not on the Amole District.

Bahr, Donald M. "Pima and Papago Social Organization." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest Edited by Alfonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983. Pima and Papago social organization is clearly described in this article—rules of descent, of residence at marriage, and the groups formed by such principles as well as local government and cultural values.

Barker, Robert M. "The Economics of Cattle Ranching in the Southwest." The American Monthly Review of Reviews (September 1901) 305-313. The author dwells mostly on Texas and has sympathy for cattle raisers.

Brinckerhoff, Sidney B. "The Last Years of Spanish Arizona, 1786-1821." Arizona and the West 9 (Spring 1967), 5-20. Excellent article dealing with the Spanish pacification program and settlement policy.

Canby, Thomas Y. "The Search for the First Americans." National Geogrpahic 156 (September 1979), 330-363. The author provided a summary of the distribution and chronology of Paleo-Indian sites in the New World.

Clausen, John. "Dude Ranches." Tucson Magazine 3 (December 1977), 16, 18. Brief article on dude ranches in the Tucson area.

"Concentrated Mining Activities from Arizona, Western New Mexico, Sonora." Arizona Mining Journal 4 (October 15, 1920), 21. The article gives a brief history of the Old Yuma mine and reported that a New York firm had leased it.

Crosswhite, Frank S. "The Annual Saguaro Harvest and Crop Cycle of the Papago with Reference to Ecology and Symbolism." Desert Plants 2 (Spring 1980), 3-61. This article discusses in detail the place of Saguaro wine in the cultural ecology of the Papago.

Davis, Elmer E. "Where the Ancient and Modern Meet - Tanque Verde Ranch." Progressive Arizona and the Great Southwest (September 1928), 22-24. The author gives a brief history of the Tanque Verde ranch and states the new owner, James Converse, was adding a dude ranch.

"The Distaff Wrangles Dudes." The Magazine Tucson 2 (October 1949), 24-25. Mentions some dude ranches near Saguaro NM and says horseback riding was the most popular sport.

Dixon, E. James. "The Origins of the First Americans." Archaeology 38 (March-April 1985), 22-27. This article is a brief but comprehensive discussion of Beringia or the Bering Land Bridge, "the presumed avenue by which humans first entered the Americas," sometime between 50,000 and 15,000 years ago.

Doelle, William H. "The Papago Indians." In Archaeological and Historical Investigations at Nolic Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona. Tucson: Institute for American Research, Anthropological Papers No. 2, 1983. This concise section on the Papago deals with their linguistic subdivisions or dialectal geographic areas and their political history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Doyel, David E. "From Foraging to Farming: An Overview of the Preclassic in the Tucson Basin." The Kiva 49 (Spring-Summer 1984), 147-165. The author discusses in detail the beginning of prehistoric farming in the Tucson Basin.

Eaton, W. Clement. "Frontier Life in Arizona, 1858-1861." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 36 (January 1933), 173-192. Eaton writes of the mining which took place in the Tubac area and its ending with the onset of the Civil War.

Ezell, Paul H. "History of the Pima." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest. Edited by Alfonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983. The author gives a comprehensive historical and cultural treatment of the Pima beginning with their first, unfortunate exposure to the presence of Europeans' infectious diseases.

Fontana, Bernard L. "History of the Papago." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest. Edited by Alfonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983. This article is a general introduction to Papago history beginning with European contact and ending with issues of modern tribal government.

______. "The Papagos." Arizona Highways 59 (April 1983), 34-37, 40-42, 44-45. This article is a treatment of Papago culture and history for the general reader.

Gumerman, George J. and Emil W. Haury. "Prehistory: Hohokam." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest. Edited by Alfonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1979. The authors discuss in a reasonably detailed manner the "long-count" theory of Hohokam migration from Mexico beginning about 2300 years ago.

Hackenberg, Robert A. "Pima and Papago Ecological Adaptations." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest. Edited by Alfonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983. In this article the respective riverine and desert habitats of the Pima and Papago are discussed in terms of economic exchange and cooperation between these two peoples to best utilize the somewhat different resources of each micro-environment.

Hayden, Julian D. "Of Hohokam Origins and Other Matters." American Antiquity. 35 (January 1970), 87-93. Various theories of the origins and demise of the Hohokam culture are discussed in this article.

"Hi-Ho Sisson." The Magazine Tucson 2 (October 1949), 20. The article deals with dude ranching.

Hoover, J.W. "Generic Descent of the Papago Villages." American Anthropologist. 37 (April-June 1935), 257-264. This article contains a summary of what happened to the Sobaipuri Indians as they fled attacking Apaches in the eighteenth century and were absorbed by their fellow Piman-speakers to the west of their traditional territory.

Huckell, Bruce B. "The Paleo-Indian and Archaic Occupation of the Tucson Basin: An Overview." The Kiva. 49 (Spring-Summer 1984), 133-145. The transition in the Tucson Basin from Paleo-Indian big-game hunting to Archaic localized, intensive hunting and gathering is discussed in this article.

Mattison, Ray H. "Early Spanish and Mexican Settlements in Arizona." New Mexico Historical Review. 21 (October 1946), 273-327. An excellent account of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ranching in southern Arizona.

McGuire, Randall H. "Ethnographic Studies." In Hohokam and Patayan: Prehistory of Southwestern Arizona. Edited by Randall H. McGuire and Michael B. Schiffer. N.Y.: Academic Press, 1982. This section contains a short ethnographic profile of the Pima and Papago.

"Mining in Arizona." The Engineering and Mining Journal. 45 (May 19, 1888), 362. The article reports silver strikes in the Tucson Mountains and conveyed the idea that those mountains contained massive tons of that ore.

"Mining in Arizona." The Engineering and Mining Journal. 47 (May 4, 1889), 409. The article reports the dishonest sale of claims.

"Mining Review." Arizona Mining Journal. 1 (October 1917), 22. Glowing report of the copper ore found in the Mile Wide mine.

Niering, W.A. and R.H. Whittaker. "The Saguaro Problem and Grazing in Southwestern National Monuments." National Parks Magazine. 39 (June 1965), 4-9. A good article on the destructiveness of livestock grazing on the ecology.

Niering, W.A., R.H. Whittaker, and C.H. Lowe. "The Saguaro: Population in Relation to Environment." Science. 142 (October 4, 1963), 15-23. Very similar to the above article.

Pablo, Sally G. "Contemporary Pima." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest. Edited by Aifonso Ortiz and William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983. The author cites problems of economic development and cultural change among the modern Pima.

Penn, Susan. "Tucson's Ranch Resorts Fewer But Booming." Tempo. 2 (January 24-February 6, 1980), 4-5. The article is better than the average, for it gives some history of dude ranching in the Tucson area.

"Pima County Review." Arizona Mining Journal. 2 (June 1918), 38. A report on the Mile Wide mine.

Potter, Albert F. "Report of Examination of the Proposed Santa Rita Forest Reserve." March 1902. In Range Conditions in Arizona 1900-1909 as Recorded by Various Observers in a Series of Miscellaneous Papers. University of Arizona Library Special Collections. Potter notes that there were only one-third the number of cattle compared to ten years earlier. The higher elevations were severely overgrazed, he found.

Russell, Frank. "The Pima Indians." In Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 1904-05. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1908. This is the classic ethnography of the Pima and should be consulted for comparison with more recent studies.

Serven, James E. "The Military Posts on Sonoita Creek: A Review of the Brief But Important Roles of Fort Buchanan 1857-1861 and Camp Crittenden 1868-1873." The Smoke Signal. (Fall 1965), 26-48. A good article on the protection offered to settlers and miners of southern Arizona by the army.

"Silver Lillie Copper Mines of Arizona." Arizona Mining Journal. 6 (June 15, 1922), 40. An article touting the superb copper strike in the Amole Mining District.

Stevens, Robert C. "The Apache Menace in Sonora 1831-1849." Arizona and the West. 6 (Autumn 1964), 211-226. The author goes back as far as 1692 for background. It is a very good account of the Spanish and Mexican response to the Apache.

Tenney, J.B. "History of Gold Mining in Arizona." In History of Mining in Arizona. Phoenix: Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, 1963. Despite the title, the article covers Arizona mining in general.

"They were City Folk Once, Too!" The Magazine Tucson. 2 (October 1949), 26. A brief article on dude ranch owners.

Todd, Cecil. "Metal Mining and Its Associated Industries in Tucson." Journal of Arizona History. 22 (Spring 1981), 99-128. A very good article in which the author contends that Tucson was never a mining town. After 1880 it became a supply center for the mining areas of southern Arizona.

van Willigen, John. "Case Study: The Papago Community Development Program." In Applied Anthropology: An Introduction. South Hadley, Mass.: Bergin and Garvey, Publishers, 1986. This article is a commentary on how Papago village councils remain vital forces today as traditional expressions of consensus-based democracy and how they fit into community development programs.

Wagoner, J.J. History of the Cattle Industry in Southern Arizona, 1540-1940." University of Arizona Social Science Bulletin. No. 20. 23 (April 1952), 1-132. The author covers all aspects of cattleraising in southern Arizona including grazing in the National Forests.

"What Hurts Mining in Arizona." The Engineering and Mining Journal. 45 (January 21, 1888), 51. The article complains of fraudulent mining claim sales.

Willis, Charles F. "Mining Opportunities Around Tucson Hold Great Promise." Arizona Mining Journal. 6 (October 15, 1922), 26-28, 30-31, 33. The article title explains the optimism for the Amole Mining District.


Bancroft, Hubert H. History of Arizona and New Mexico. San Francisco: The History Co., 1889. Still a standard work on Arizona and New Mexico to 1888.

Barter, G.W. Directory of the City of Tucson for the Year 1881, Containing a Comprehensive List of Inhabitants with Their Occupations and Places of Residence; The Public Officers and Their Offices with a Review of the Past, A Glance at the Present, and a Forecast of the Future of this City; Together with Other Useful Information Concerning the Same. San Francisco: H.S. Crocker & Co., 1881. A standard city directory.

Bartlett, John Russell. Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas New Mexico California, Sonora, and Chihuahua Connected with the United States and Mexican Boundary Commission During the Years 1850, '51, '52 and '53. 2 vols. Chicago: The Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1965. Bartlett tells of his experiences while head of the U.S. Boundary Commission.

Bieber, Ralph P. ed. Southern Trails to California in 1849. GIendae, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1937. The diaries of three parties that took different southern routes to California.

Blake, William P. Sketches of Pima County, Arizona: Its Mining Districts Minerals, Climate, Agriculture, and Other Resources. Tucson: Chamber of Commerce, 1910. Although Blake was the territorial geologist, the book reads like a chamber of commerce tract. Much of his history is incorrect.

Cordell, Linda S. Prehistory of the Southwest. N.Y.: Academic Press, 1984. This work represents a detailed and definitive treatment of the various archeological horizons of the Southwest and the different theories that may account for them.

Cross, Jack L., Elizabeth H. Shaw, and Kathleen Scheifele. eds. Arizona: Its People and Resources. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1960. The work exuberantly views Arizona.

Dobyns, Henry F. The Papago People. Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1972. This book is a general history of the Papago people that deals mostly with the different types of Euro-American contact to which the Papago have had to adjust over the years.

Dutton, Bertha P. American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983. This work is a very general treatment of the history and ethnography of the Indian peoples of the Southwest. It is useful for data on the establishment of Indian reservations.

Gregonis, Linda M. and Karl J. Reinhard. The Hohokam Indians of the Tucson Basin. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1979. These authors have written a very readable, general history and ethnography of the people we know as the Hohokam from archeology.

Hamilton, Patrick. The Resources of Arizona: A Description of Its Minerals, Farming, Grazing, and Timber Lands; Its Rivers, Mountains, Valleys, and Plains; Its Cities, Towns, and Mining Camps; Its Climate and Productions; with Brief Sketches of Its Early History, Pre-Historic Ruins, Indian Tribes, Spanish Missionaries, Past and Present , Etc., Etc. Prescott, Az.: Under the Authority of the Legislature, 1881. Hamilton wrote this propaganda tract at the request of the territorial legislature. His pre-Anglo period history is incorrect.

Haury, Emil W. The Hohokam: Desert Farmers and Craftsmen - Excavations at Snaketown, 1964-1965. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976. The most distinguished archeologist of the Hohokam keenly provides in this work a very detailed description of Hohokam pottery and other artifacts.

Hinton, Richard J. The Handbook of Arizona: Its Resources, History, Towns, Mines, Ruins, and Scenery. N.Y.: American News Co., 1878. Hinton makes it seem as if half of the world's mineral resources could be found in Arizona.

History of Arizona Territory Showing Its Resources and Advantages; with Illustrations, Descriptive of Its Scenery, Residences, Farms, Mines, Mills, Hotels, Business, Houses, Schools, Churches, Etc. San Francisco: Wallace W. Elliott & Co., 1884. Arizona was a paradise.

Kessell, John L. Friars, Soldiers, and Reformers: Hispanic Arizona and the Sonora Missions Frontier, 1767-1856. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976. Excellent work on the later Spanish and Mexican periods in southern Arizona.

Kroeber, Alfred L. A Roster of Civilizations and Culture. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1962. The author, a distinguished anthropologist, provides a summary of Hohokam culture in the context of a discussion of world civilizations.

Lister, Robert H. and Florence C. Lister. Those Who Came Before. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1983. The Listers provide a thoughtful and insightful treatment of Southwestern prehistory that emphasizes significant changes in man's life during each stage of prehistory.

Lockwood, Frank C. Pioneer Days in Arizona: From Spanish Occupation to Statehood. N.Y.: Macmillan Co., 1932. A factual chronical of Arizona history.

______. Apaches & Longhorns: The Reminiscences of Will C. Barnes. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982. An interesting account of Barnes' life.

McClintock, James H. Arizona: Prehistoric-Aboriginal-Pioneer-Modern. 3 vols. Chicago: The S.J. Clarke Pub. Co., 1916. A very general work. Volume three contains biographies.

Rowley, William D. U.S. Forest Service Grazing and Rangelands: A History. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1985. This work is a general history of grazing policy in national forests both under the General Land Office (1891-1905) and the Forest Service which took over in 1905. Although it does not focus on Arizona, it is a good history of the grazing policy in national forests with a national focus.

Safford, A.P.K. The Territory of Arizona: A Brief History and Summary of the Territory's Acquisition, Organization, and Mineral, Agricultural and Grazing Resources; Embracing a Review of Its Indian Tribes - Their Depredations and Subjugation; and Showing in Brief the Present Condition and Prospects of the Territory. Tucson: The Arizona Citizen, 1874. This work is a tract extolling the virtues of Arizona.

Smith, Cornelius C. Jr. Tanque Verde: The Story of a Frontier Ranch, Tucson, Arizona. Tucson: Published by the Author, 1978. This work contains little useful information on the Tanque Verde Ranch. Smith lacks knowledge of the history of southern Arizona.

Sorin, T.R. Hand-book of Tucson and Surroundings Embracing Statistics of the Mineral Fields of Southern Arizona. Tucson: Citizen Print, 1880. The book is better than most written in that era. Sorin, however, overstates the importance of mining in the Amole District.

Spencer, Robert F. and Jesse D. Jennings. The Native Americans. N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1977. The authors provide a well-written summary of Papago and Pima archeology and ethnography.

Spicer, Edward H. Cycles of Conquests: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1962. This book is a classic.

Steenbergh, Warren F. and Charles H. Lowe. Ecology of the Saguaro II, Reproduction, Germination, Establishment, Growth, and Survival of the Young Plant. National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series No. 8. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1977. An excellent study which details many causes for lack of survival among the saguaro not the least of which is freezing.

The Resources of Arizona: Its Minerals, Farming, and Grazing Lands, Towns and Mining Camps; Its Rivers, Mountains, Plains, and Mesas; with a Brief Summary of Its Indian Tribes, Early History, Ancient Ruins, Climate, Etc., Etc. No publisher, ca. 1882. Another propaganda tract proclaiming the greatness of Arizona.

The Restoration of La Casa Cordova. Tucson: The Junior League of Tucson, Inc., 1978. This study is similar to a National Park Service historic structure report. La Casa Cordova is a historic house in Tucson.

Tuck, Frank. History of Mining in Arizona. Phoenix: Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, revised 1963. This work is mainly a compilation of dates for mining activity by district. It does not mention the Amole District.

Underhill, Ruth M. Social Organization of the Papago Indians. N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1939. The author is the classic ethnographer of the Papago. Her work on Papago social organization is basic, and very useful, for example, in learning when and for what purposes the Papago employ bilateral descent on the one hand and patrilineal descent on the other.

______. The Papago Indians of Arizona and Their Relatives the Pima. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1941. This is a delightfully written ethnography of the Papago and Pima for the general reader.

______. Papago Indian Religion. N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1946. Underhill should always be consulted when doing work on the Papago, especially on their religion for which this description is the standard ethnography.

Waidman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. N.Y.: Facts On File Publications, 1985. This is a useful general reference for archeology and ethnography that gives the salient points about the major movements, historical periods, and cultural groups of the native peoples of North America.


Anderson, C. A. "Copper." In "Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona." Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 180, 1969. A good overview of Arizona copper mining.

Castetter, Edward F. and Ruth M. Underhill. "The Ethnobiology of the Papago Indians." University of New Mexico Bulletin, Biological Series No. 4, October 1935. This technical book on Papago natural resources contains a good introduction to the Papago culture.

Elsing, Morris J. and Robert E.S. Heineman. "Arizona Metal Production." University of Arizona Bulletin No. 140, Economic Series No. 19, February 15, 1936. The authors list mineral production by county. There is a breakdown of production by mine in seven districts. Although the Amole District was one of the seven, only production for the Gould, Mile Wide, and Old Yuma mines was listed.

Jenkins, Olaf P. and Eldred D. Wilson. "A Geological Reconnaissance of the Tucson and Amole Mountains." University of Arizona Bulletin No. 106, Geological Series No. 2, 1920. The work covers the geology of the Tucson Mountains and the kinds of mineral formations there.

"Mineral and Water Resources of Arizona." Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 180, 1969. This work contains a good summary of mining in Arizona dating from the Spanish period.

Tenney, J.B. "Second Report on the Mineral Industries of Arizona." University of Arizona Bulletin No. 129, Biennial Review Series No. 2, July 1, 1930. Tenney presents a geological history of the Tucson Mountains and notes that the Mile Wide mine was still active.

"The Mineral Industries of Arizona." University of Arizona Bulletin No. 125, Annual Review Series No. 1, February 15, 1928. The author writes of the geological formation of the Tucson Mountains.


"Arizona Ranches, Resorts, Hotels." Compiled and distributed by the Valley National Bank. September 1947. A list of places to stay with address, occupancy, and cost.

"General Description of the Mining Districts of Pima County, Arizona." Tucson: Commercial Printing Co., January 1932. This pamphlet, distributed by the Tucson Chamber of Commerce, assessed the Amole and Rincon Mining Districts as very minor ones.

Knight, Frank P. "Mining in Arizona: Its Past, Its Present, Its Future." Phoenix: Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, January 1958. Knight gave a brief history of Arizona mining in which he dwelled on the larger districts and mines.

List of Guest Ranches along Southern Pacific Lines and Resort Hotels and Ranch Schools in Southern Arizona." September 1, 1947. This pamphlet lists accommodations, their location, price, and capacity.

"The Pima and Santa Cruz Mining Fields." Tucson: The Arizona Citizen, May 1907. A brief history of mining in the two counties. Copper was said to predominate in the Amole District, but only the Old Yuma mine was mentioned.

"Tucson Vacation Living: Places to Stay, Things to See, Places to Go, Outstanding Events." No publisher, 1967. A promotional pamphlet which included a list of dude ranches in the area.

Wilson, Eldred D. "History of Mining in Pima County, Arizona." Tucson: Tucson Chamber of Commerce, ca. 1952. A brief history of Pima County mining, but factually incorrect on occasion.


Arizona Mining Journal, 1917-1946.

Army and Navy Journal, 1889-1896.

The Engineering and Mining Journal, 1885-1940.

Mining and Scientific Press, 1903.

Mining Journal, (Denver), 1942-1943.


Harrsion, Anne E. "The Santa Catalinas: A Description and History." Summer 1972. In the Coronado National Forest Headquarters and Saguaro National Monument library. This work is a useful history of the Santa Catalina Division of Coronado National Forest.

Jones, Dick. "Old Yuma Mine." September 4, 1980. In the Arizona Department of Mineral Resources, Phoenix. A brief history of the Old Yuma mine by an individual who held the claim on it at one time. It is biased in favor of a miner's viewpoint.

Stone, Lyle M. "A Description of two Lime Kilns Located in Saguaro National Monument, Arizona." Prepared for the National Park Service, Western Archeology Center, October 1976. Stone described the two kilns in the Rincon Mountain Unit.

Tagg, Lawrence V. "Aircraft Crashes in the Rincon Mountains." March 15, 1984. Copy courtesy of the author. Through several sources, including the air force, Tagg has pieced together basic information on all the air crashes in the Rincon Mountains.

Tenney, James Brand. "History of Mining in Arizona." 2 vols. 1927-29. In the University of Arizona Library Special Collections. An excellent study on Arizona mining except for the early period in which he credited the Jesuit padres with much influence on mining. Tenney presented the Amole Mining District as one of unimportance.

"Tucson Mountain Park History." no date. In the Saguaro National Monument Files. A good general history of the county park.

Wells, Susan J. "An Archeological Survey of the Camp Pima Environmental Study Area." Saguaro NM Tucson Mountain Unit. May 1984. In the Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson. The author presented a brief history of the camp and dwelled mainly on identification of structure sites.

Technical Report

Shand, Terry D. and A. Heaton Underhill. "Saguaro National Monument: Recreational Use by Visitors, Neighbors, and Organized Groups." Technical Report No. 15. Tucson: University of Arizona. May 1985. The authors sought to determine the amount of horseback riding on the monument. They found it to be significant.


Hastings, James R. "Vegetation Change and Arroyo Cutting in Southeastern Arizona During the Past Century: An Historical Review." Read at the Arid Lands Colloquia, University of Arizona, 1958-1959. An excellent paper in which the author dispelled the traditional beliefs of vegetation as myth.

Lowe, Charles H. "Life and Death of the Saguaro in Arizona." Extract of a paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Science, University of Maryland. August 17, 1966. In this paper, Lowe presented the idea that freezing, not bacterial disease, was the cause of death in older saguaro.

Masters Thesis and Doctoral Dissertations

Clark, Martin S. "Some Factors Affecting Vegetation Changes on a Semidesert Grass-Shrub Cattle Range in Arizona." Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 1964. Clark reported on a five-year study of the effects of winter, summer, and year-long grazing on semidesert cattle range in the Santa Rita Experimental Range. Summer grazing proved as destructive as year-round grazing.

Haskell, Horace S. "Effects of Conservative Grazing on a Desert Grassland Range as Shown by Vegetational Analysis." Masters' thesis, University of Arizona, 1945. The experiment, took place on an area near Oracle, Arizona. Conservative grazing, of course, proved beneficial.

Lauver, Mary Ellen. "A History of the Use and Management of the Forest Lands of Arizona, 1862-1936." Masters' thesis, University of Arizona, 1938. This thesis has little value. It is filled with generalities and Forest Service propaganda.

Mark, Albyn K. "Description of and Variables Relating to Ecological Change in the History of the Papago Indian Population." Masters' thesis, University of Arizona, 1961. This work is useful for detailed plant and animal subsistence data of the Papago Indians.

McAllister, Martin E. "Hohokam Social Organizations: A Reconstruction." Masters' thesis, San Diego State University, 1976. Reprinted in Arizona Archaeologist. 14 (1980). The author infers from archeological evidence that Hohokam government was highly organized with some form of centralized authority.

Term Papers

Allen, Donna B. "A Preliminary Survey of Camp Pima, Saguaro National Monument West, Tucson, Az." University of Arizona, Historical Archaeology Course, May 1979. Contains useful information on that CCC camp.

Copenhaver, Larry. "CCC Camps in Arizona." University of Arizona History 216, June 1966. Although there are a few minor errors, the author presents some good general information.

Rozen, Kenneth. "A Brief History of the Manufacture and Use of Lime with Special Reference to Two Lime Kilns in Southern Arizona." University of Arizona, History/Anthropology course, May 2, 1977. The brief history of the manufacture and use of lime has nothing to do with Arizona. The two lime kilns are located in the Tucson Mountain Unit, but the author merely describes them with no historical background.

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Last Updated: 23-Jun-2005