On-line Book




Chapter 1

Chapter 2
The Biology of Salt Marshes

Chapter 3
Banking/Diking Procedures

Chapter 4
Economics of Land Reclamation

Chapter 5
Salt-Hay Farming

Chapter 6
Meadow Companies

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Sources Consulted

The Landscape Transformation of Coastal New Jersey
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1Paul Eck, The American Cranberry (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990), 1-2.

2Wilson, 734-735.

3Eck, 3-4; Lucian Fosdick, The Cranberry Industry (Union Hill: Dispatch Printing Co., 1914), 210.

4Eck, 4.

5Eck, 5.

6Eck, 5; Wilson, 735.

7Joseph J. White, Cranberry Culture (New York: Orange Judd & Company, 1870), 22-23.

8It should be noted that there are family ties among the cranberry fathers. Barclay White and Joseph White are father and son while Joseph White married J. A. Fenwick's daughter. Fenwick's plantation became one of the largest cranberry plantations in Burlington County and is known as Whitesbog. Theodore Budd's descendants are still in the cranberry business as well as some of the other growers who started in the late nineteenth century. The Hog Wallow cranberry bogs near Chatsworth have been in William Haines' family since prior to the Civil War.

9Eck, 8-10; Wilson, 734-736.

10Throughout the nineteenth century and today, Burlington County has remained the largest producer of cranberries in New Jersey.

11Wilson, 734.

12Wilson, 741.

13Henry G. Schmidt, Agriculture in New Jersey: A Three Hundred-Year History (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1973), 264-65.

14Eck, 264-65.

15Phil Marucci, "Memories of Charley Doehlert," Cranberries (August 1989), 14-17.

16Telephone interview with Phil Marucci, 10 June 1992; Eck, 13-14; Marucci also noted that the false blossom disease flourished until after World War II. At that time, DDT was introduced as an insecticide against the blunt nose leafhopper. The number of insects was reduced dramatically along with false blossom disease. Today, both are non-existent in New Jersey.

17Marucci, 14.

18Eck, 15; Interview with Marucci; The Agricultural Experiment Stations in Wisconsin, Oregon, Washington, and Massachusetts also have branches that deal with the problems of cranberries. The research done by scientists in these stations also aided the experiments at the Cranberry and Blueberry Research Laboratory and vice versa. Today the laboratory focuses more on the problems of blueberries, although cranberry production is still important.

19Eck in American Cranberry refers to this group as the American Cranberry Growers' Association, established in 1871. Carl Raymond Woodward, in The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey, refers to the group as the New Jersey Cranberry Growers' Association, founded in 1873. The discrepancy is unclear, but I will follow Eck's information. Many of the more prominent cranberry-growing families such as the Whites and Haines have been members of the Association for several generations. Another distinguished member of the Association was Andrew J. Rider, founder of Rider College in Trenton.

20Eck, 11; Carl Raymond Woodward, The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey: 1640-1880 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1927), 242.

21Woodward, 242.

22Wilson, 740-741.

23Wilson, 741.

24Eck, 345-346.

25Eck, 346-347.

26Dorothy Voss, ed., "She Gave Us Cranberry Sauce," New Jersey Bell Newsletter, n.d.

27Eck, 347-348; Voss, n.p.

28Eck, 348.

29John F. Mariani, "Cranberries," USA Weekend (22 November 1985), 10.

30Fosdick, 211; many of the same principles and thoughts are still used today.

31Turfing is the removal of the top layer of the soil to a depth ranging from 2" to 4".

32Fosdick, 211-212.

33Fosdick, 212; Today, the dimensions of the ditches vary slightly from those used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. According to Eck, the main supply channel, which carries the water from the reservoir to the bog, measures 5' to 8' wide and 2' deep. The ditch located around the perimeter of the bog is about 3' wide and 2' deep. Smaller cross ditches, which measure 18" to 24" wide at the top, 10" wide at the bottom, and 18" deep, extended into the main bog area from the periphery ditches.

34Eck, 175.

35Eck, 175-76; Interview with Dr. Patrick Slavin, Chatsworth, New Jersey, 2 October 1991; Interview with Marucci.

36During the twentieth century, other ethnic groups joined the labor force needed for cranberry production, including Portuguese, Jamaicans, and Puerto Ricans.

37Wilson, 738, 881; Federal Writers Project, Stories of New Jersey: Its Significant Places, People and Activities (New York: M. Barrows, 1938), 258-59.

38Federal Writers Project, 252.

39Wilson, 880.

40Federal Writers Project, 263; Marucci added that although the introduction of the scoop alleviated labor problems, it also led to a decline in cranberries because it caused excessive damage. Even the most expert scoopers could not avoid uprooting vines. Such problems were discussed in the Procedures of the American Cranberry Association.

41Eck, 293-294.

42Eck, 298-299.

43William S. Haines, Jr., "Cranberry Growing in New Jersey's Pinelands," a paper presented at the Third Annual Pinelands Short Course, sponsored by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, New Brunswick, New Jersey, March 1992.

44Eck, 25-26.

45The Cranberry in New Jersey (Chatsworth: American Cranberry Growers Association, 1991), n.p.

46National Register of Historic Places nomination.

47National Register nomination.

48National Register nomination; a Hayden separator consists of conveyor belts, bins, and rollers to facilitate manual sorting.

49Elizabeth Carpenter, "Cranberry restored in historic Double Trouble," Cranberries: The National Cranberry Magazine 47 (March 1983): 9-11; Local folklore perpetuates the events behind the naming of the town. Supposedly, the local preacher who was charged with maintaining the banks around the bogs discovered two breaches caused by muskrats within a week and exclaimed, "Here's double trouble!"

50The Cranberry in New Jersey (Chatsworth: American Cranberry Growers Association, 1991), n.p.

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