On-line Book




Chapter 1

Chapter 2
The Biology of Salt Marshes

Chapter 3
Banking/Diking Procedures

Chapter 4
Economics of Land Reclamation

Chapter 5
Salt-Hay Farming

Chapter 6
Meadow Companies

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Sources Consulted

The Landscape Transformation of Coastal New Jersey
National Park Service Arrowhead


1Henry French, Farm Drainage (New York: C. M. Saxton, 1860), 346.

2Research reveals that it was possible for a meadow company to reclaim the property of a marshland owner who did not or could not afford to participate in the collective; the company could then rent the land to pay for maintenance and taxes. It should also be noted that the owners of reclaimed marshlands sometimes rented out the rights to use the land to hunt as well as to cut salt hay.

3This description of the different duties is a simplistic overview. Over the years, certain duties and offices were eliminated while others were added. Furthermore, by the nineteenth-century collectors were called treasurers, and assessors were called arbitrators, or commissioners. More precise information can be found within the respective acts of incorporation located at the Trenton State Library.

4Thomas Cushing and Charles E. Sheppard, History of the Counties of Gloucester, Salem, and Cumberland in New Jersey (Philadelphia: Everts and Peck, 1883), 330-31; The number of meadow companies located in Cumberland and Cape May counties is unknown. Closer examination of each county's records could reveal an accurate number.

5Helen H. Thompson, ed., "Jonathan Goodwin Woodnutt, Diary of a Quaker Farmer," series of articles in the Salem [New Jersey] Standard and Jerseyman (1940-41), n.p.

6Senior and junior does not follow their names; it is not part of their legal name and the family does not recognize these additions.

7Henry B. Abbott to the Director of U.S. Census, 1920. Abbott Family Papers.

8Edward Abbott, Sr., "History of Abbott's Dairy," Salem County Historical Society Newsletter 31 (September 1986), 5-7.

9Abbott, Sr., 5-7.

10Abbott, Sr., 5-7.

11Diane Miller, "He watched family business grow," Today's Sunbeam, 15 August 1984, n.p.

12Interview with Charlie Weiser, Pennsville, New Jersey, 29 August 1991; John Cunningham, Garden State (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 194-97.

13Interview with Charlie Weiser.

14Interview with Daniel Hancock, Greenwich, New Jersey, 20 October 1991; Telephone interview with Corinne Davis, 4 November 1991. More meadow companies may still exist, but how active they are is not known.

top of page Top

Last Modified: Mon, Jan 31 2005 10:00:00 pm PDT

National Park Service's ParkNet Home