1. Wagner, A Geological Reconnaissance . . .
Snake and Salmon Rivers, 1-3. Much of the area traversed by the Nez
Perces and the army in 1877 is today called the Joseph Plains. Ibid., 3;
Howard, "Report," 603; C. E. S. Wood, "Journal," July 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and
6, 1877; C. E. S. Wood, "Notes on Nez Perces Expedition," July 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 1877; Eugene Wilson, "Nez Perce Campaign," 4-5; McCarthy,
Diary, July 1, 2, 1877; Parnell, "Salmon River Expedition," 128-29;
Portland Daily Standard, July 7, 9, 1877; Portland Daily
Oregonian, July 9, 1877; "Nez Perce War Letters," 62-63; and
McDowell's marginal notes on various communiqués, especially on
46, 50, 51, 56, 60, 63, in "Copies of letters and telegrams"; Wood to C.
J. Brosnan, January 7, 1918, in The Bookmark , a ca. 1940
publication of the University of Idaho Library, Brosnan Collection;
Adkison, Indian Braves, 19; Howard to Commanding Officer,
Cottonwood, July 6, 1877, entry 896, box 1, part 3, 1877, U.S. Army
Continental Commands. During Howard's activity near the Salmon, one man
was accidentally wounded and another was killed, on June 30 and July 7,
1877, respectively. Regimental Returns . . . First Cavalry, June and
July 1877, roll 166; Regimental Returns . . . Fourth Artillery, July
1877, roll 30; General Orders No. 8, Headquarters, Department of the
Columbia, copy in Paddock, Appointment, Commission, and Personal
2. McCarthy, "Journal," 14.
3. Howard to James Lawyer, June 24, 1877, entry 897,
box 1, part 3, 1877, U.S. Army Continental Commands.
4. Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July
7, 10, 1877; Portland Daily Oregonian, July 7, 1877; Watkins to
Bureau of Indian Affairs Commissioner J. Q. Smith, July 8, 1877, item
4499, roll 336, Nez Perce War Papers; Howard, "Report," 603; Howard,
"Nez Perces Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878; and Lewiston
Morning Tribune, June 19, 1927. The newspaper dates support the
contention of raids in the area of the Clearwater; inexplicably, both
Dempster and Silverwood filed depredation claims for damages inflicted
on July 8well after the attack on Looking Glass's camp. Canby, "Report
of Indian depredations."
5. Quoted in Howard, "Nez Perces Campaign of 1877,"
September 19, 1878.
6. Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July
14, 1877. McWhorter erroneously believed that Whipple used the guns to
attack Looking Glass's camp. Peopeo Tholekt, his Nez Perce informant,
however, was correct in declaring "he saw no cannon or Gatling guns."
McWhorter, Hear Me, 270. That two men per Gatling gun were left
at Mount Idaho is presumed based on information of the minimal number of
gunners (1) and cannoneers (1) required to operate the pieces.
Artillery Tactics, 78-79.
7. These figures are derived from information
contained in Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July 14, 1877;
and Regimental Returns . . . First Cavalry, July 1877, roll 166.
8. Records of Living Officers of the United
States Army, 101, 104; Heitman, Historical Register and
Dictionary, 1:429, 712, 880, 1051; and Cullum, Biographical
Register, 3:43, 200.
9. For discussion of this controversial combat
procedure, see Wooster, The Military and United States Indian
Policy, 127, 135-43; and Greene, Yellowstone Command,
10. Howard, "Report," 603. The specific time that
the troops reached the village is given in a letter from Loyal P. Brown
of Mount Idaho dated July 2. Portland Daily Oregonian, July 7,
1877. Corporal Frederick Mayer of Company L gave the time as about 5:00
a.m., which is probably the time Whipple originally wanted to attack.
Mayer also gave the wrong dateJuly 2. Brimlow, "Nez Perce War Diary,"
11. The size of the camp is graphically represented
in a sketch map drawn by Nez Perce participant Peopeo Tholekt in 1927.
Peopeo Tholekt, "Attack on Chief Looking Glass' Village." Duncan
MacDonald's contemporary account also stated that the village contained
eleven tipis. MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 239. Possibly some villagers were
living in Plains-type brush shelters called wickiups.
12. According to McWhorter, the term, "Kamnaha
[Kamnaka]," has not been defined. McWhorter, Hear Me, 264 n.
13. Josephy, Nez Perce Indians, 111; and
McWhorter, Hear Me, 182-83, 264.
14. This figure is based on the numbers estimated
for Looking Glass's band in chapter two.
15. Whipple's report is excerpted in Howard, "Nez
Perces Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878. The Nee-Me-Poo account
taken by Duncan MacDonald also indicated that Looking Glass personally
tried to surrender. MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 238-39. Peopeo Tholekt
insisted that at no time did Looking Glass agree to surrender and had,
in fact, avoided meeting the soldiers at all. McWhorter, Hear Me,
16. McWhorter, Hear Me, 266. Apparently,
some of the officers thought that Peopeo Tholekt was Looking Glass, and
one insistently poked him in the ribs with his carbine. Ibid., 266-67.
The volunteers must have known the chief, however, as he had visited
Mount Idaho previously and had, in fact, delivered a "speech of amity"
to a gathering there the previous year. Miscellaneous notes, Camp
Manuscripts, IU. Duncan McDonald's contemporary account, utilizing Nez
Perce recollections, stated that a white man in Looking Glass's village
initially came forward, but became intimidated and returned to the
chief, whereupon they both approached the soldiers. When the shooting
started, the white man ran to the soldiers while Looking Glass "returned
to his camp and told his men to do the best they could." MacDonald, "Nez
17. The individual who fired the first shot was
probably a volunteer, most likely David Ousterholt or Dutch Holmes. See
McWhorter, Hear Me, 273. One account stated that a trumpet
suddenly sounded from the cavalry, causing "astonishment among Whipple's
men and consternation in the camp of the Indians," that led to their
evacuation before the shot was fired "by some impulsive person on the
hill." Frank A. Fenn, "Disarming Looking Glass, An Episode in the Nez
Perce War," Kooskia Mountaineer, May 11, 18, 1927. (Although Fenn
was a Mount Idaho volunteer, he may not have been present in this
action, judging from his lack of first person usage in describing it,
when compared with his account of the subsequent Cottonwood action, in
which he took part.) However, a contemporary description of the event
emanating from Mount Idaho criticized Whipple for balking at directing
the attack. "The Col. [Captain] would not cross the river where the boys
were, but remained in a perfectly safe position until the Indians had
secured all their arms, saddled their horses, and attempted to escape.
Capt. Winters and Lieut. Rains and a large majority of the soldiers were
eager for the fight, but were held in check by the Col. Our boys finally
became indignant and opened fire." Boise, Idaho Weekly
Statesman, July 14, 1877. Still another report maintained that
the villagers fired the first shot. Boise, Idaho Weekly
Statesman, July 10, 1877.
18. While this account is heavily based on that of
Peopeo Tholekt in McWhorter, Hear Me, 264-72, see, in addition,
Yellow Bull, Interview, BYU; Lebain, Interview, IU; and MacDonald, "Nez
Perces," 238-39. See also Francis Haines, Nez Perces, 263-64; and
Josephy, Nez Perce Indians, 535-37.
19. Forse to Howard, April 4, 1895, Forse
20. U.S. Army Gallantry and Meritorious
Conduct, 75. Rains's citation was granted posthumously, for he died
in combat two days later.
21. Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July 14,
22. Army and Navy Journal, July 14, 1877;
and Watkins to Smith, July 8, 1877, item 4499, roll 337, Nez Perce War
Papers. The Indian casualties are from Peopeo Tholekt, in McWhorter,
Hear Me, 267-71. The wounded were Red Heart, Tahkoopen (Shot
Leg), and Peopeo Tholekt. The killed were the woman and her infant who
drowned, and Nennin Chekoostin (Black Raven), who died from his wounds.
Ibid. See Appendix B. One newspaper wildly accounted for seventeen
Indians killed. Portland Daily Oregonian, July 9, 1877.
23. Most army reports gave an inflated figure for
the number of ponies captured from 1,000 to 1,200far more than the
narrow confines of Clear Creek Canyon and its hillsides could sustain.
In a directive of July 18, Howard noted that 622 animalsdoubtless those
captured at Looking Glass's camp"were receipted for by the Mount Idaho
Company." This figure more realistically reflects the number of ponies
that would have been grazed at Clear Creek. Howard to George Shearer,
July 18, 1877, Shearer Papers.
24. McWhorter, Hear Me, 270.
25. Howard to Whipple, July 3, 1877, entry 897, box
1, part 3, 1877, U.S. Army Continental Commands. See also Howard,
26. Yellow Bull, Account; and Weptas Nut (No
Feather), Interview. Probably the attack further tilted the Palouses
toward joining with the Nez Perces, as many had relatives in Looking
Glass's village. Trafzer and Scheureman, Chief Joseph's Allies,
18. When Looking Glass and his people joined the main Nez Perce camp, he
reportedly addressed the council, saying among other things, "Two days
ago my camp was attacked by the soldiers. I tried to surrender in every
way I could. . . . Now, my people, as long as I live I will never make
peace with the treacherous Americans. . . . The officer may say it was a
mistake. It is a lie. He is a dog, and I have been treated worse than a
dog by him. He lies if he says he did not know it was my camp. I am
ready for war." MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 241.
27. Howard to Whipple, July 3, 1877, entry 897, box
1, part 3, 1877, U.S. Army Continental Commands. In his article, Howard,
"Nez Perce Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878, Howard gave the
following as his order to Whipple: "Proceed without delay to Cottonwood
(Norton's) and form junction with Captain Perrythe object being to gain
the earliest information of the movements of the enemy, should he, as is
thought probably, re-cross the Salmon." Information that Howard knew as
early as July 1 that the Nez Perces were recrossing the Salmon is in
Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July 14, 1877.
28. Howard, "Report," 603.
29. Elsensohn, Pioneer Days in Idaho County,
1:297; and McDermott, Forlorn Hope, 27 n. 3. The site was favored
"because of its good water and being protected from winds and storms."
John L. Rooke to L. V. McWhorter, February 9, 1934, folder 151B,
McWhorter Papers. A pen and ink sketch of Cottonwood made by First
Lieutenant Robert H. Fletcher shows the main buildings and the
Lewiston-Mount Idaho road in 1877. "Cottonwood House," inset drawing in
Fletcher, "Department of the Columbia Map." Several late-nineteenth
century views of Cottonwood are in the Idaho State Historical Society,
Boise. See, in particular, numbers 75-228.16/A (ca. 1889); 75-228.16/C
(ca. 1898); and 78-203.32(E99.N5), titled "Pack train encamped at
Cottonwood during 1877 war." The Norton house burned in 1908. A hotel
was later erected on its site. Rooke to McWhorter, February 2, 1934,
folder 151B, McWhorter Papers.
30. Fenn to Colonel William Carey Brown (ret.), May
11, 1927, folder 19, box 8, William Brown Papers; and Canby, "Report of
31. Wilmot, "The Raines [sic] Massacre."
32. Regarding Blewett, Whipple wrote on July 6:
"The fate of Charles Blewett is not positively known. . . . [Foster
reported] that he saw Blewett dismounted at a little distance, probably
from his horse having stumbled. Foster thought the Indians had not seen
the young man and that he would be able to evade them, but as the
mountains was [sic] then full of Indians, my hope of his safety is but
faint. I had taken Blewett into my own mess, and we had all become much
attached to him." Portland Daily Oregonian, July 18, 1877.
Company E, First Cavalry, while scouting the region on August 22,
discovered Blewett's body and brought it to Norton's Ranch for burial.
Report of McConville to Governor Mason Brayman, August, 1877, in "Nez
Perce War Letters," 72. Oddly, a spurious Blewett cropped up in 1931 to
claim participation in the Battle of White Bird Canyon. He claimed he
had been struck on the head in that action, rendering him unconscious
and then amnesiac for the next fourteen years. Winners of the
West, December 30, 1931.
33. Boise, Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, July
34. Quoted in Howard, "Nez Perces Campaign of
1877," September 19, 1878.
35. Besides Rains and Foster, the advance guard
included Company E Sergeant Charles Lampman and privates John Burk,
Patrick Quinn, William Roche, and Daniel Ryan; and Company L privates
David Carroll, George H. Dinteman, Frederick Meyer, Franklin Moody, and
Otto H. Richter. Regimental Returns . . . First Cavalry, July 1877, roll
166. Sergeant Lampman was a field correspondent for the Walla Walla
Watchman. Portland Daily Oregonian, July 18, 1877.
36. Josephy described both the senior Rains's
involvement on the Northwest frontier, as well as his son's demise at
the hands of the Nez Perces. Josephy, Nez Perce Indians, 305,
315, 346, 347, 357, 537-38.
37. Rains, Appointment, Commission, and Personal
File. Rains had also applied for an appointment in the Fourth Cavalry,
which its commander, Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, endorsed, noting that
"Sandy Rodgers [Second Lieutenant Alexander Rodgers] who serves in my
Regiment from the last class says young Rains is a very excellent young
man." Mackenzie to General William T. Sherman, June 8, 1876, ibid. See
also Cullum, Biographical Register, 3:259.
38. See Fenn to Brown, May 11, 1927, folder 19, box
8, William Brown Papers. The army losses as officially registered appear
in Appendix A.
39. Frank A. Fenn, who examined the site of the
Rains fight a few days later, speculated that "the body of Indians that
had been drawn up in the saddle, when the near approach of Whipple was
discovered, hastily abandoned their position on the run, joined their
companions on the mountain slopes around the cove where they could more
effectively unite in the fight against Rains. That the Indians did not
leave the saddle until Whipple was close upon them is evidenced by the
fact that members of the command distinctly saw a lot of the hostiles
fleeing from the saddle just as the command reached its brink." Fenn to
Brown, May 11, 1927, folder 19, box 8, William Brown Papers. Whipple had
but fifty-six effectives after every fourth man fell back to hold the
horses. Brimlow, "Nez Perce War Diary," 29.
40. Boise, Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, July
41. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry"; Brimlow,
"Nez Perce War Diary," 29; and Boise, Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman,
July 14, 1877. A volunteer on the scene within a few days of the Rains
fight maintained that the lieutenant's "life was needlessly sacrificed,"
likely an index of the general tenor of thought at the time. Fenn to
Brown, May 11, 1927, folder 19, box 8, William Brown Papers. Despite the
contention in the Statesman that Whipple's men did not fire at
the warriors, Corporal Frederick Mayer of Company L, who participated,
reported that the soldiers returned the fire "whenever we got a shot."
Mayer to Brown, undated, ca. 1927, Brimlow File.
42. Whipple's testimony in "Proceedings [of] Court
of Inquiry"; Boise, Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, July 14, 1877;
Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman, July 17, 1877; Howard, "Nez Perces
Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878; and Portland Daily
Oregonian, July 10, 1877. The Oregonian piece has been
published without identification in Johansen, "The Nez Perce War,"
43. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry"; and
Brimlow, "Nez Perce War Diary," 29. Besides the sources cited, this
account of the Rains fight has been compiled from information in
Kirkwood, "The Nez Perce Indian War," August 17, 1950, which contains
the reminiscence of T. J. ("Eph") Bunker, a volunteer; Grangeville
Idaho County Free Press, August 31, 1950; Army and Navy
Journal, July 14, 1877; Elsensohn, Pioneer Days in Idaho
County, 1:300-302; and Francis Haines, "Chief Joseph," 4.
44. Two Moon's account in McWhorter, Hear
45. Ibid., 284-85; and McWhorter, Yellow
46. "Story of Kawownonilpilp."
47. MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 28.
48. McWhorter, Yellow Wolf, 77-78; and
Lewiston Tribune, undated (ca. 1957) news item, clippings file,
Idaho State Historical Society, Boise.
49. Harry Bailey, "An Infantry Second Lieutenant,"
23. The ring was sent to Rains's sister. Ibid. See also Bailey to
McWhorter, item 182, McWhorter Papers. In his memory, Rains's West Point
classmates presented his mother with a framed crayon portrait of the
lieutenant. Army and Navy Journal, December 1, 1877. Following
White Bird Canyon, Rains was the officer in charge of burying Lieutenant
Theller and marking the grave so that it would be easily found. With
Rains's own death, Theller's widow feared that the site would now be
lost. FitzGerald, Army Doctor's Wife, 274.
50. T. J. Bunker account in Kirkwood, "The Nez
Perce Indian War," August 31, 1950.
51. Hall to Medical Director, Department of the
Columbia, July 6, 1877, entry 624, box 1, Office of the Adjutant
General; "Report of the Surgeon-General," in Secretary of War, Report
. . . 1878, 427-28; and Wilmot, "The Raines [sic] Massacre."
52. Brimlow, "Nez Perce War Diary," 30; and
Thompson, "Thirteen U.S. Soldiers," 47. In October 1877, a party passing
the scene of Rains's encounter described it thusly: "We came on 2 little
mounds of fresh earth, close by the wayside. They were the graves of the
scouts. Farther on were 3 others, the graves of some of Rains' men. I
rode off to a cluster of low rocks which cropped out on the prairie a
short distance from the trail. Behind these 7 men had made their last
stand, only to be shot down. The rocks were literally covered with marks
of bullets. Farther on, in a little depression of the prairie,
Lieutenant Rains' body was found." The author of this article noted that
some burials occurred back of the Norton house, and this is probably
where Rains was buried. Brooke, "Land of the Nez Perces," 355-56. The
Rains family requested that the lieutenant's remains lie "undisturbed"
where he was initially buried. Army and Navy Journal, September
22, 1877. Sergeant Michael McCarthy described the services at Fort
Lapwai on June 10, 1878: "All the troops were turned out. It was a sort
of double funeral, each having (that is, the officer and the 10 men) its
own funeral party &c. The 6 senior noncoms were pall bearers for Lt.
Rains, and I was one of the 6. His coffin was draped with the flag and
covered, even piled high, with wreaths, crosses &c of flowers,
prepared by the officers' ladies of the Post. It was a graceful tribute
to his worth and bravery, for Lt. Rains was a gallant gentleman. But
behind came a big square pine box containing the bones of the 10 men, on
which no flag was draped or flowers placed. They, too, were brave men.
Every man of the 10 had volunteered for the duty. When the coffins were
laid by the graves nearly side by side for the closing ceremonies, the
contrast was great, and to me painful." McCarthy, "Reminiscence"; and
Thompson, Historic Resource Study, Fort Lapwai, 89. A
monument stands in the Fort Walla Walla post cemetery over the common
grave of the ten men, its inscription reading: "IN MEMORY OF ENLISTED
MEN. 1ST U.S. CAVALRY. KILLED IN ACTION AT COTTONWOOD CAÑON
IDAHO. JULY 3rd 1877." The names of the enlisted men are imprinted below
the inscription. Lieutenant Rains's grave is located among a row of
headstones several yards south of the monument.
53. U.S. Army Gallantry and Meritorious
54. Elsensohn, Pioneer Days of Idaho County,
55. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry."
56. Mayer to Brown, undated, ca. 1927, Brimlow
File. Volunteer Luther P. Wilmot reported that this earthwork was called
"Fort Perry." Wilmot, "The Cottonwood Fight."
57. Mount Idaho volunteer George M. Shearer, who
with three others had arrived that afternoon from Mount Idaho, claimed
that Perry put him in charge of the fortifications. As he remembered,
"Strange that a civilian should be placed in such an important position,
to the exclusion of experienced army officers, and particularly so, when
so many of them were unoccupied or seemed to be idle in the gulch below
where there was no danger." Shearer to Major Edwin C. Mason, July 28,
1877, Shearer Papers. Another observer commented that Captain Perry
"remained at the house" during the fight. Boise, IdahoTri-Weekly
Statesman, July 14, 1877.
58. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry." See also
Whipple's testimony in ibid.
59. Mayer to Brown, undated, ca. 1927, Brimlow
60. Boise, Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, July
62. Howard, "Nez Perces Campaign of 1877,"
September 19, 1878.
63. For the action of July fourth, seebesides the
sources cited aboveJohn P. Schorr to McWhorter, May 20, 1926, McWhorter
Papers; Schorr to McWhorter, February 5, 1935, item 179, ibid.; and
Army and Navy Journal, July 14, 1877.
64. "Story of Kawownonilpilp."
65. MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 242; Regimental
Returns . . . First Cavalry, July 1877, roll 166.
66. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry."
67. The seventeen volunteers were as follows:
Captain Randall, First Lieutenant James C. Cearley, Second Lieutenant
Luther P. Wilmot, Orderly Sergeant Frank A. Fenn, and Privates Henry C.
Johnson, Charles Johnson, Cassius M. Day, D. H. Howser, Benjamin F.
Evans, Al B. Leland, A. D. Bartley, George Riggins, Frank D. Vansise,
Charles W. Case, James Buchanan, William B. Beamer, and F. J. Bunker.
Henry Johnson, "Some Reminiscences," 4.
68. For background on Randall, see Chedsey and
Frei, Idaho County Voices, 210-11, 257.
69. McWhorter, Yellow Wolf, 76-77;
McWhorter, Hear Me, 292; and "Story of Kawownonilpilp." Yellow
Bull stated that White Bird led the warriors in the fight with the
seventeen white men. Yellow Bull, Account. Duncan MacDonald reported
that the Nez Perces had one man killed and two wounded on July 5.
MacDonald, "Nez Perces," 243.
70. Whipple's testimony in "Proceedings [of] Court
of Inquiry." Whipple is also quoted by Howard in Howard, "Nez Perces
Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878. However, Perry maintained that "I
at once rushed my front line down the hill and sent a mounted detachment
to their rescue, which drove the Indians off and brought the party in."
Perry, "Affair at Cottonwood," 125.
71. Shearer to Mason, July 26, 1877, Shearer
72. Reportedly, Perry placed Simpson under arrest
for insubordination, but reinstated him at the Clearwater battle, where
Simpson was wounded. Frank A. Fenn, "The Cottonwood Fight," Kooskia
Mountaineer, April 20, 27, 1927; and Fenn to A. F. Parker, March
9, 1927, folder 2, box 12, William Brown Papers. One newspaper wrote
that Perry "seemed to be very backward about coming forward" and
suggested that his timidity resulted from the "big scare" he had
received at White Bird Canyon. Boise, Idaho Weekly Statesman,
July 17, 1877. Much of the negative newspaper coverage was ascribed to
Orin Morrill, of Lewiston, "who was at Cottonwood at the time, but who
altho' armed remained ensconced in the little fortification there
instead of going with the soldiers to the aid of his imperiled fellow
citizens." McDowell to Adjutant General, telegram, July 18, 1877, item
4109, roll 336, Nez Perce War Papers (also published in Army and Navy
Journal, July 28, 1877). Because of continued criticism of his
behavior at Cottonwood, Perry requested yet another court of inquiry to
investigate his performance. The court concluded that (1) the volunteers
could not be recognized as white men until the engagement commenced; (2)
Perry took ten minutes to order the relief party out, but that the delay
was not excessive; (3) that "no additional injury resulted from this
delay, as all the casualties occurred at the first volley; and (4) that
"there is not a word of testimony which reflects upon the personal
courage of Captain Perry, and the opinion of the Court exonerates him
from the charge of having made any improper delay . . . nearly
surrounded, as he evidently was, by hostile Indians, then undoubtedly
outnumbering his troops." General Orders No. 23, Headquarters,
Department of the Columbia, November 30, 1877, item 7782, roll 339, Nez
Perce War Papers. A court examining Perry's overall performance at White
Bird Canyon, Cottonwood, and Clearwater convened in late 1878. Regarding
Cottonwood, it concluded that Perry's "conduct there appears to have
been in accordance with good judgment and prudence, particularly as the
enemy was flushed with success, and a part of his [Perry's] command at
least, had but recently suffered from a severe disaster." "Proceedings
[of] Court of Inquiry."
73. "Proceedings [of] Court of Inquiry."
74. The other wounded volunteers were Charles
Johnson and Al B. Leland. Frank A. Fenn, "The Cottonwood Fight,"
Kooskia Mountaineer, April 23, 1927. Civilian and Nez Perce
casualties are listed in Appendices A and B, respectively. In addition
to those cited, this account of the volunteers' fight and relief has
been compiled from the following sources: Mayer to Brown, undated, ca.
1927, Brimlow File; Wilmot, "The Cottonwood Fight"; Henry Johnson, "Some
Reminiscences"; Portland Daily Oregonian, July 16, 1877; T. J.
Bunker account in Kirkwood, "The Nez Perce Indian War,"August 24, 31,
1950; New York Herald, September 10, 1877; Francis Haines,
"Skirmish at Cottonwood," 2-7; and Elsensohn, Pioneer Days in Idaho
75. C. E. S. Wood, "Journal," July 8, 1877; Eugene
Wilson, "Nez Perce Campaign," 6-7; Hunter, Reminiscences of an Old
Timer, 337-39; Howard, "Report," 604; McCarthy, Diary, July 8, 9,
1877; McCarthy, "Journal," 15; Trimble, "Battle of the Clearwater," 139;
and Howard, "Nez Perces Campaign of 1877," September 19, 1878.