Mojave
Administrative History
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FOOTNOTES

1 Lorraine M. Sherer and Frances Stillman, Bitterness Road: The Mojave, 1604-1860 (Needles, CA: Mohave Tribe / Ballena Press, 1994). I am indebted to Roger Kelly, Senior Archeologist, NPS Oakland, for much of the information and wording in the preceding paragraphs. Comments by Roger Kelly on first draft, June 25, 2002. For information about Chemehuevi songs, consult Carobeth Laird, The Chemehuevi (Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press, 1976), 9-19.

2 Chester King and Dennis G. Casebier, with Matthew C. Hall and Carol Rector, Background to Historic and Prehistoric Resources of the East Mojave Desert Region (Riverside, CA: Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District, 1981), 20.

3 Generally, the tribe and places named after the tribe in Arizona are spelled "Mohave," the fort in Arizona, the desert, and other places in California are spelled "Mojave." See Dennis Casebier, The Mojave Road, Tales of the Mojave Road #5 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co, 1975), 182n1.

4 This incident was likely precipitated by violence toward the Mojave by an earlier trapping party, under the command of Ewing Young. Later trappers, such as Peter Skene Ogden, also massacred Mohaves without warning, contributing to the tension. Casebier, Mojave Road, 24-28.

5 Casebier, Mojave Road, 30-31.

6 Casebier, Mojave Road, 57-66.

7 The emigrant party got no further west than the banks of the Colorado; after being attacked by the Mohave, the emigrants staged a disastrous retreat back to Albuquerque, New Mexico. See Charles W. Baley, Disaster at the Colorado: Beale's Wagon Road and the First Emigrant Party (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2002).

8 Dennis Casebier, Carleton's Pah-Ute Campaign, Tales of the Mojave Road #1 (Norco, CA: Dennis G. Casebier, 1972), 1-49; for a biography of Carleton, who had an interesting career in the Civil War-era military apart from his service in the eastern Mojave, see Aurora Hunt, James H. Carleton: Frontier Dragoon (Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1958).

9 Casebier, Mojave Road, 131-158; also see Dennis Casebier, The Battle at Camp Cady, Tales of the Mojave Road #2 (Norco, CA: Dennis G. Casebier, 1972) for more information about the Camp Cady skirmish and its subsequent effect on military escorts for the mail service.

10 Casebier, Mojave Road, 159-161.

11 Casebier, Mojave Road, 161; King & Casebier, Part 2, 317-318.

12 D.S. (Dewey) Livingston, "Rock Springs Land & Cattle Company Historic District National Register Nomination," Draft, March 7, 2002, section 8 page 4; Introduction by Dennis Casebier, in Betty Pettit Papierski, Flat Tires and Coffee Fires: Being Tales From the 7IL Ranch, Tales of the Mojave Road #20 (Essex, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1993), 13-14.

13 Barnwell was also known as Manvel, after an executive of the Santa Fe Railway. Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Guide to the East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, Tales of the Mojave Road #12 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1987), 129; Livingston, section 8 page 4-5. The number of cattle run by the RSL&CC are almost four times the number allowed in recent times of full ranch operation.

14 Casebier, et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 138-139.

15 Sarah Yates Miles, "Yates Ranch 1894-1952," in Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Guide to the East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, Tales of the Mojave Road #14 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1988), 205-214.

16 Livingston, section 8, page 4-7.

17 Papierski, 130-131, 154-155.

18 Miles, 214-215; Bob Ausmus, East Mojave Diary, Tales of the Mojave Road #16 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1989), 133.

19 Ausmus, 137.

20 Ausmus, 92; "Valley View Ranch," in Casebier, et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 269-274.

21 Casebier in Papierski, 14.

22 Livingston, section 8, pages 6-9; David Darlington, The Mojave: A Portrait of the Definitive American Desert (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1996), 111.

23 Harold W. Avery, Nutritional Ecology of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Relation to Cattle Grazing in the Mojave Desert (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1998), 67; Steve Brittingham, Facilitation of Yucca Brevifolia Recruitment By Mojave Desert Shrubs (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1998), 13-28.

24 Darlington, 23.

25 Richard West Sellars, Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997), 256-257; see Anthony C. Caprio and Pat Lineback, "Pre-Twentieth Century Fire History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: A Review and Evaluation of Our Knowledge" Proceedings of the Conference on Fire in California Ecosystems: Integrating Ecology, Prevention, and Management Nov. 17-20, 1997, San Diego, CA, available online at https://www.nps.gov/ seki/fire/pdf/sd_knwf.pdf for a thorough review of the state of research on pre-1900 fire regimes in Sequoia / Kings Canyon National Park.

26 These were slightly north of I-15, near Halloran Spring, and near Crescent, just over the Nevada border. William E. Ver Planck, "History of Mining in Northeastern San Bernardino County," State of California Mineral Information Service vol. 14 no. 9, September 1961, 4; Casebier, et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 276-278. For descriptions and historic accounts of rumors of Spanish mines, see King & Casebier, Part 2, 300-303.

27 Ver Planck, 5.

28 King & Casebier, Part 2, 303-304.

29 Ver Planck dates the discoveries to 1865, Casebier suggests that the area began to prosper in 1869. Both authors may be right, though Casebier's carefully worded explanation enables a more accurate chronological contextualization of the development of the Ivanpah area. Ron and Peggy Miller split the difference and wrote that the discoveries occurred in 1867. Ver Planck, 5; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 311; Ron and Peggy Miller, Mines of the Mojave (California: La Siesta Press, 1976, 1992), 61.

30 Both the district and the mountain eventually lost the trailing "e." S.L. Snell, "Clark Mountain Mining District," in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 45.

31 Ver Planck, 5; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 311-313; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 31-43.

32 Alan Hensher, "Providence," in Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Guide to the East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, Tales of the Mojave Road #15 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1989), 275-283.

33 Ver Planck, 5-6.

34 King & Casebier, Part 2, 305-306; Ver Planck, 6-7

35 Ver Planck, 7.

36 Marion F. Ely II, "The Vulcan Mine," in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 264-268.

37 Salable minerals are also known as non-metallic minerals, and are used in a wide variety of applications, such as building materials, decorative landscaping, and concrete aggregate, among others. Salable minerals should be contrasted with metallic ores, which are milled to produce valuable metals. The two categories are governed by different laws.

38 Ver Planck, 8. See also the section about Molycorp in chapter eight.

39 Certain solutions of cyanide will draw gold from its host rock. The ore (rock containing gold) is ground very finely and piled in layers to form a heap, which ordinarily sits atop a thin layer of plastic sheeting. A dilute cyanide solution is sprayed over the heap, and the runoff, rich with gold, is collected and refined. Cyanide heap leaching technology makes possible the recovery of microscopic amounts of gold from tons of waste rock. See the discussion of the Morning Star Mine in chapter 8 for more information.

40 NPS Historian Gordon Chappell provided excellent clarification of this issue: "Actually, the U.P.Ry.E.D. had nothing to do with the Union Pacific Railroad, then being built from Omaha to Promontory Summit. The U.P.Ry.E.D. had been so-named by promoters deliberately to confuse investors into thinking it was somehow connected with the well-publicized Union Pacific Railroad, when in fact there was no connection at all except a misleading name. The U.P.Ry.E.D. did actually build track across Kansas and Colorado to Denver, but never continued on to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California. ... Before it reached Denver, it had changed its name to the Kansas Pacific Railroad." Gordon Chappell memorandum to David Moore, July 31, 2002, 1, copy in possession of author.

41 David F. Myrick, Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California: Volume II, the Southern Roads (reprint, Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992), 762-793; Chappell memorandum to Moore, July 31, 2002, 1-2.

42 King & Casebier, Part 2, 307-310, Myrick, 841-848.

43 Mark W. Hemphill, Union Pacific Salt Lake Route (Erin, Ont.: Boston Mills Press, 1995); John R. Signor, The Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad: Union Pacific's Historic Salt Lake Route (San Marino, CA: Golden West Books, 1988); Stanley W. Paher, Las Vegas: As It Began-As It Grew (Las Vegas: Nevada Publications, 1971), 65-80.

44 It should be noted that the Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad connected with the Bullfrog Goldfield Railroad just south of Beatty, Nevada, and the latter line itself connected with the Tonopah & Goldfield Railroad in Goldfield, Nevada. Thus it was possible for T&T traffic to reach Tonopah, though not over T&T rails. Chappell memo to Moore, July 31, 2002, 2.

45 Delmer G. Ross, "Borax Smith and the Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad," in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 133-149; Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Mojave Road Guide, Tales of the Mojave Road #11 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1986), 182-183; National Geographic Maps/Trails Illustrated, Mojave National Preserve, California (Evergreen, CO: Trails Illustrated, 1999), South Side.

46 California Desert Protection Act of 1994, section 2 b.1.C.

47 National Park Service, Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan (Washington, DC: GPO, July 2000), 92.

48 Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 153; Ausmus, 121-132.

49 Dennis G. Casebier, "Lanfair Valley: A Black Homesteading Experience," [article online] accessed February 20, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ mojahtdu.htm.

50 Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 149-159; Livingston, section 8, pages 7-8.

51 John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York, Viking, 1939; reprint, Bantam Books, 1972), 128.

52 Robert Charles Bard, Settlement Pattern of the Eastern Mojave Desert (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1972), 88-91; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 147-153, 157-160.

53 Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 156; Bard, 117-118. At one time, engineers planned to use 22 nuclear bombs to blast a corridor for the highway and the railroad through the Bristol Mountains, but a tight time schedule and the passage of the Limited Test Ban Treaty scuttled the idea. Jim Drago, "Amazing But True: Department Engineers Considered the 'Nuclear Option' to Clear the Way for Route 66's Successor," in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 229-232.

54 Eugene Moehring, Resort City in the Sunbelt: Las Vegas, 1930-1970 (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989), 10-12, 246-247; Bard, 86, 88, 126-132.

55 Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft General Management Plan, 238-239; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 127.

56 Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 307, 109; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 155-160; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 39-41.

57 Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 76; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Ivanpah to Rocky Ridge, 226-228; "Figure 9: Major Rights-of-Way," Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft General Management Plan. The shutoff times are frightening: Given that the pipelines move 2,940,000 gallons of petroleum a day, this means that 6,125 gallons would, in theory, be pumped out of the line before the gate valves were closed, even if a break in the line were discovered immediately. Casebier reports that the line has only been broken twice, both by bulldozers.

58Ev Hayes, "Camp Clipper and the Desert Training Center," in Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Guide to the East Mojave Heritage Trail: Fenner to Needles (Essex, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1990), 201-223; Darlington, 152-155; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 91-100.

59 Ausmus, 89-91.

60 Darlington, 152.

61 Darlington, 76-77; D.V. Prose, Susan K. Metzger, and H.G. Wilshire, "Effects of Substrate Disturbance on Secondary Plant Succession; Mojave Desert, California," Journal of Applied Ecology 24 (April 1987): 305-315; Douglas V. Prose and Howard G. Wilshire, "The Lasting Effects of Tank Maneuvers on Desert Soils and Intershrub Flora," U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report OF00-512, 2000, 1-4.

62 See the Map Collection of the Mojave Desert Heritage & Cultural Association, Goffs, California for examples. The author assisted cataloging and processing this collection.

63 Darlington, 234-235.

64 Hayes in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Fenner to Needles, 214.

65 Papierski, 92-93, 147-148; Bob Ausmus, "Jack Mitchell of Mitchell's Caverns," in Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Rocky Ridge to Fenner, 283-291. Also see Mitchell's frequently-embellished first-hand account, Jack Mitchell, Caveman (Torrance, CA: Lewellen Press, 1964); Peter Burk, The East Mojave: A Critical History, 1776-1980 (Barstow, CA: Peter Burk: 1988), 20.

66 Ausmus, 140.

67 U.S. Bureau of Land Management, East Mojave National Scenic Area Final Management Plan (Needles, CA: Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Needles Resource Area, 1988), 111, 122.

68 Anne Q. Duffield-Stoll, Zzyzx: History of an Oasis, California Desert Studies Consortium, Desert Studies Contributed Series #65 (Northridge, CA: Santa Susana Press / University Library, California State University Northridge, 1994), 49-55; Casebier et al., Mojave Road Guide, 167-176; Darlington, 100-103.

69 Marion Clawson, The Bureau of Land Management (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971), 113-120; Frank Wheat, California Desert Miracle: The Fight For Desert Parks and Wilderness (San Diego: Sunbelt Publications, 1999), 2-3, 8-10.

70 Hal K. Rothman, Saving the Planet: The American Response to the Environment in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2000), 138-139; Wheat, 17-21.

71 Dyan Zaslowsky and T.H. Watkins, These American Lands: Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands (Washington DC: Island Press, 1994), 125-126, 130-132; Wheat, 11-15.

72 Bureau of Land Management, The California Desert Conservation Area Plan (Riverside, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Desert District, 1980).

73 Elisabeth M. Infield, Stories of the Land: Rhetoric and Reconciliation in the Mojave National Preserve (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1997), 94-95; Wheat, 43-46, 67-69.

74 Bureau of Land Management, Draft East Mojave National Scenic Area Management Plan and Environmental Assessment (Needles, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District, Needles Resource Area, April 1987), 28-29.

75 Robert F. Durant, The Administrative Presidency Revisited: Public Lands, the BLM, and the Reagan Revolution (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992), 51-63; Infield, 94.

76 Peter Burk, The Making of Mojave National Preserve (Barstow: Citizens for Mojave National Park, 1994), 3-16; Wheat, 50.

77 Wheat, 53.

78Wheat, 77-78. As Peter Burk colorfully put it, "In November the Reagan landslide came and environmentalists became depressed." Burk, The Making of Mojave National Preserve, 16.

79East Mojave National Scenic Area Final Management Plan, Appendix A, "Secretarial Order Establishing the East Mojave National Scenic Area," 143-144.

80Wheat, 54; Infield, 96.

81East Mojave National Scenic Area Final Management Plan, Appendix B, "Management Philosophy Statement," 145-147.

82 Dennis Casebier, Reopening the Mojave Road: A Personal Narrative, Tales of the Mojave Road #8 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1983), 7-112; also see Dennis Casebier and the Friends of the Mojave Road, Guide to the Mojave Road, Tales of the Mojave Road #9 (Norco, CA: Tales of the Mojave Road Publishing Co., 1983.)

83 Dennis Casebier et al., Mojave Road Guide, 9.

84 Charles Hillinger, "New Recreation Trail to Make Loop in the Desert," Los Angeles Times October 7, 1985; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Needles to Ivanpah, 9-11; Casebier et al., East Mojave Heritage Trail: Fenner to Needles, 15-19.

85 Burk, Making Mojave National Preserve, 17, 19; Peter Burk, East Mojave National Scenic Area: 1981-1994 (Barstow: Peter Burk, 1994), 7; Wheat, 90-100.

86 Burk, Making of Mojave National Preserve, 21, 23-24; Burk, East Mojave National Scenic Area, 8, 12.

87 Wheat, 105-113; "The Region — LA Files Response to Redistricting Suit," Los Angeles Times February 10, 1986.

88 Editorial, "Go Gentle Into the Desert," Los Angeles Times February 17, 1986; Maura Dolan, "Pressures on National Parks Mount," Los Angeles Times May 25, 1986; Wheat, 113-115, 125-127, 131-132, Douglas Shuit, "Video Will Dramatize Foes' Attack on Bill to Preserve Desert Areas," Los Angeles Times December 16, 1987.

89 Charles Hillinger, "Desert Hamlet Hopes to Derail Plan to Raze Depot," Los Angeles Times August 19, 1985; Peter Burk, quoted in Wheat, 127-131.

90 Wheat, 165-166, 180-183; Infield, 88-90.

91 Rothman, Saving the Planet, 21, 170-171.

92 Wheat, 105-110.

93 Ronald B. Taylor, "Cranston Desert Bill Poses Classic Conservation Fight," Los Angeles Times April 19, 1987; Wheat, 216-220; Frank Clifford, "Sierra Club Officials Cool to Wilson, But Warm to Foe," Los Angeles Times March 13, 1988.

94 Wheat, 214-215; Burk, Making of the Mojave National Preserve, 28-31; Frank Clifford, "Wilson Hasn't Cooperated on Desert Bill — Cranston," Los Angeles Times June 30, 1988; Frank Clifford, "Desert Bill Dies, Cranston and Wilson Blame Each Other," Los Angeles Times July 8, 1988.

95 Josh Getlin, "Round 2 of Desert Preservation Battle to Begin," Los Angeles Times January 26, 1989.

96 Rothman, Saving the Planet, 158-170; also see R. McGreggor Cawley, Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics (Lawrence, KS.: University Press of Kansas, 1993).

97 Burk, Making of Mojave National Preserve, 33-34; Wheat, 221-228; Sue Ellen Christian, "Desert Preservation Bill Stalled in Senate Panel," Los Angeles Times September 27, 1990; Christian, "Cranston Shelves Ambitious Desert Parkland Measure," Los Angeles Times October 10, 1990.

98 Bill Stall, "Wilderness Status Urged For Only Part of State Desert," Los Angeles Times July 27, 1991; Glenn F. Bunting, "House Panel Oks California Desert Preservation Bill," Los Angeles Times October 2, 1991; Bunting, "House Oks Landmark Desert Protection Bill," Los Angeles Times November 27, 1991; Wheat, 229-234.

99 Robert W. Stewart, "Seymour Caught in Whirlwind of Change," Los Angeles Times January 27, 1991; Bill Stall, "Seymour Seeks End to Battle in Desert," Los Angeles Times May 26, 1991; Glenn F. Bunting, "Cranston, Seymour Clash Over Desert Bill," Los Angeles Times January 14, 1992; Wheat, 230-232, 235-238; Glenn F. Bunting, "Seymour Maneuver Bottles Up Desert Bill in Committee," Los Angeles Times August 6, 1992; Glenn F. Bunting, "Cranston's Desert Protection Measure Fails For Sixth Year," Los Angeles Times September 23, 1992.

100 Dean E. Murphy, "Feinstein Off to Job, Boxer Takes Break," Los Angeles Times November 5, 1992; Glenn F. Bunting, "Senators Reverse Styles to Match New Roles," Los Angeles Times March 8, 1993.

101 Glenn F. Bunting, "Feinstein To Lead Off With Desert Bill," Los Angeles Times January 21, 1993; Wheat, 235-244; Burk, Making Mojave National Preserve, 37; Burk, East Mojave National Scenic Area, 15.

102 Infield, 306-307.

103 Wheat, 252-257, Glenn F. Bunting, "Desert Bill Easily Passes Key Senate Committee Vote," Los Angeles Times October 6, 1993.

104 Wheat, 257-261; Glenn F. Bunting, "Desert Protection Act Clears Senate," Los Angeles Times April 14, 1994.

105 "House Committee Approves Desert Protection Act," Los Angeles Times May 5, 1994; Wheat, 262-263.

106 Wheat, 264-270.

107 James Bornemeier, "House Vote Downgrades Desert Land Status," Los Angeles Times July 13, 1994.

108 For example, 1998's auction tag fetched $150,000; see Steve Torres, "Apply For Your 'Hunt of a Lifetime'" Tracks: News About California Deer and Other Big Game 16 (1999): 15; Wheat, 271-273; Infield, 286-295.

190 James Bornemeier, "House Oks Bill Protecting Vast Desert Acreage," Los Angeles Times July 28, 1994.

110 In the ANILCA parks, Alaska natives are allowed to hunt in the national parks themselves as well as in the national preserves. The preservation of "customary and traditional" subsistence hunting was designed to minimize the disruption that designation of the areas as national parks would have on local lifestyles, and was an unstated acknowledgment of the role of human predation in the sustainable functioning of the Alaskan ecosystem. The situation in the eastern Mojave was different, as human predation had not been a longstanding, sustainable part of the ecosystem since the arrival of the American settlement in the 1860s, and hunting was of chief importance to a small group of elite trophy hunters who wished to harvest bighorn sheep. For a good overview of the role of hunting in the Alaska parks, see Darryl R. Johnson, "National Parks and Rural Development in Alaska," in Gary E. Machlis and Donald R. Field, eds., National Parks and Rural Development: Practice and Policy in the United States (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000), 132-163; Wheat, 273-278.

111 Wheat, 279-284; James Bornemeier, "Desert Protection Act Imperiled," Los Angeles Times September 20, 1994; "Desert Bill — A Messy Anticlimax," Los Angeles Times September 22, 1994; James Bornemeier, "Desert Bill, Threatened By GOP, Inches Ahead," Los Angeles Times September 24, 1994; James Bornemeier, "Desert Bill Deadlock Broken," Los Angeles Times September 30, 1994. Feinstein showed a willingness to compromise on the status of the park in the east Mojave as early as April 1993, see Howard Libit, "Compromise By Feinstein On Desert Measure Possible," Los Angeles Times April 28, 1993.

112 Faye Fiore, "Feinstein Desert Bill Hangs In Balance in Senate," Los Angeles Times October 7, 1994; Edwin Chen, "Senate Vote Expected Today on Desert Bill," Los Angeles Times October 8, 1994; Edwin Chen, "Filibuster Broken, Senate Oks Calif. Desert Protection Legislation," Los Angeles Times October 9, 1994; Wheat, 288-298. The California Desert Protection Act is Public Law 103-433.

113Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

114 California Desert Transition Work Group, "The California Desert in Transition: The Opportunity for Bioregional Management," October 1993, in CDPA Activation binder, Superintendent's Office, Mojave National Preserve (MOJA) Headquarters, Barstow CA, 10.

115 The rangers were from Golden Gate, Lake Mead, Grand Canyon, and Sequoia-Kings Canyon; their supervisor, from Organ Pipe Cactus, never came to the Preserve. Peter Burk, Mojave National Preserve: 1994-1995 (Barstow: Citizens for Mojave National Park, December 1995), 9; "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," in Binder "Mojave National Preserve," MOJA Headquarters, Barstow CA, 1.

116 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Barstow CA, Disc 1.

117 Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 10; "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 12.

118 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, via telephone, November 26, 2002.

119 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

120 In interview, Martin recalls January 10, 1995 (Tuesday) as the official start date; Burk printed January 13, 1995 (Friday). Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 12.

121 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

122 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

123 See chapter five for more information about ecosystem planning.

124 Resolutions from the City of Barstow, the Barstow Chamber of Commerce, the Newberry Springs Chamber of Commerce, the Provident Corporation (owners of Nipton), the Baker Chamber of Commerce, and the Baker Community Service District were presented to Marv Jensen at the gathering. "Resolutions Supporting Mojave National Preserve," Mojave National Preserve Monitor 2 (Feb. 1995): 5.

125 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 2.

126 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

127 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1. The rangers, both seasonal, were Nate Card and Brian Willbond. Burk, Mojave National Preserve Appendix B: Mojave National Preserve Employees, 23.

128 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

129 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dave Paulissen, Barstow, CA, March 27, 2002.

130 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

131 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002; "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 3; Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 13.

132 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 15-16.

133 "Task Directive, California Desert Protection Act, BLM/NPS Transition Action Plan, July 1994," tab "NPS/BLM Transition Report" in CDPA Activation Binder, Superintendent's Office, Mojave National Preserve Headquarters, Barstow CA, 13.

134 Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 15.

135 Author interview with David Moore, Barstow, CA, March 26, 2002, Disc 2. This table is currently in the library room at park headquarters.

136Author interview with Doug Scovill, via telephone, December 3, 2002.

137 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 2-3.

138 Author interview with Dave Paulissen, March 27, 2002.

139 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 3; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002; Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 14.

140 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 3-4.

141 Author interview with Doug Scovill, December 3, 2002.

142 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 14-16.

143 California Desert Transition Work Group, "The California Desert in Transition: The Opportunity for Bioregional Management," October 1993, in CDPA Activation binder, Superintendent's Office, MOJA HQ; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

144 Willis Herron, "National Parks and Preserve and Visitor's Center," May 31, 1995, in Mojave National Preserve Clip File 1995; "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 11; Mary Martin, comments on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author; David Moore, comments on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

145 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 10; Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

146 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 13; for context on the fee collection issue on public lands, see Hal Clifford, "Land of the Fee," High Country News February 14, 2000.

147 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 10

148 "Office Bombed in Nevada," High Country News November 15, 1993; Jon Christensen, "Forest Service Bombed in Nevada," High Country News April 17, 1995; Scott Sonner, "Memo: Forestry Workers Fear For Their Safety," Las Vegas Sun November 17, 1999; Sandra Chereb, "Bombing Inquiry Frustrates Ranger," Las Vegas Review Journal May 11, 2000.

149 Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

150 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 10; Frank Clifford, "Desert Funding Stalled," Las Vegas Review-Journal May 29, 1995; "Desert Funds May Be A Mirage," Los Angeles Times May 28, 1995.

151 "Speech By Congressman Jerry Lewis, Goffs California, 17 February 1996," Baker Valley News March 15, 1996; Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; David Drudge, "Lewis Uses Sheep Incident to Blast Desert Management," Desert Dispatch April 3, 1997; Robert S. Campbell, "Bighorn Sheep," Baker Valley News July 19, 1996. "Guzzlers" are water collection devices that have been constructed in the desert to provide water for wildlife, usually game species. A guzzler consists of an asphalt or concrete slab that catches rainwater, which drains to a storage tank and is piped from there to a drinking trough for the animals' use.

152 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, Barstow, CA, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

153 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dave Paulissen, March 27, 2002; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

154 "Veto the Environmental[sic] Wrecking Legislation," San Francisco Chronicle Sept. 21, 1995; Carolyn Lochhead, "Panel Strips Mojave Preserve of Funds," San Francisco Chronicle Sept. 22, 1995; "Desert Mischief," San Diego Union-Tribune Sept. 22, 1995; "Clinton Should Reject Sabotage of Desert Act," Los Angeles Times Sept. 22, 1995; Press Release, "Statement of the Vice President," Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, Sept. 22, 1995; "Resignation Settles In As Clock Winds Down," USA Today, November 13, 1995.

155Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

156Author interview with Marvin Jensen, November 26, 2002.

157 Clyde Weiss, "Budget Crisis Squeezes Staff From New Park," Las Vegas Review-Journal November 30, 1995; Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 23; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

158 Author interview with Doug Scovill, December 3, 2002.

159 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 2.

160 "'Kind of Like Chaos' as Backlogs Hit," USA Today November 20, 1995; Deborah Brown, "Mojave Bill Faces Veto," Hi-Desert Star December 17, 1995; "Starved for Funds," San Diego Union-Tribune December 3, 1995; "Second Shutdown Will Have Limited Effect," USA Today December 15, 1995; "Clinton Vetoes 2 Spending Bills, Ready to Reject 3rd1," USA Today December 18, 1995; Mary Martin, comment on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

161 Wheat, 300; David Moore, comment on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

162 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

163 "Public Sighs Relief as Washington Museums Reopen," USA Today January 6, 1996; "Clinton signs bill to avert shutdown," USA Today March 15, 1996; "House Passes Another Stopgap Spending Bill," USA Today March 20, 1996; Clyde Weiss, "New Plan Aimed at Desert Park," Las Vegas Review-Journal, January 17, 1996.

164 Letter from John Brown, East Mojave Property Owner's Association, to Property Owners, February 5, 1996; Memo from Dennis G. Casebier to Friends of the Mojave Road, February 8, 1996; National Parks and Conservation Association Press Release, "Mojave National Preserve Suffers Latest Assault," February 17, 1996; Lois Clark, "Jerry Lewis, Guest of Honor at Desert B-B-Q," Baker Valley News March 15, 1996.

165 "White House, Congress near Deal on Huge Spending Bill," USA Today April 23, 1996; Jim Specht, "Mojave at Center of Democrat-GOP Fight," San Bernardino County Sun April 24, 1996.

166 "Budget Highlights," USA Today April 25, 1996; "Education, Environment Cuts Gentler than GOP's First Plan," USA Today April 25, 1996; Chuck Mueller, "Mojave Balancing Act: Increased Tourism, Conservation," San Bernardino County Sun April 28, 1996.

167 "Congressman Won't Battle Over Preserve," Las Vegas Sun June 7, 1996.

168 "Memorandum of Understanding: California's Coordinated Regional Strategy to Conserve Biological Diversity," September 19, 1991; Richard F. Johnson, "Human Uses and Impacts," Technical Reports: Proceedings of the East Mojave Desert Symposium 10 (Nov. 1992): 110.

169 See "California Desert Protection Act of 1994" PL 103-433 Sec. 501(1) for the wording as enacted in the final version.

170 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Desert Tortoise (Mojave Population) Recovery Plan Portland, OR.: Fish & Wildlife Service, 1994. For a discussion of the effect of the listing of the desert tortoise in the greater Mojave desert area, see Darlington, 222-234, 284-297; Hal K. Rothman, Neon Metropolis: How Las Vegas Started the Twenty-First Century (New York: Routledge, 2002), 226-231; for an insightful discussion of the Endangered Species Act, see Shannon C. Petersen, Acting For Endangered Species: The Statutory Ark (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2002).

171 California Desert Transition Work Group, "The California Desert in Transition: The Opportunity for Bioregional Management," October 1993, in CDPA Activation binder, Superintendent's Office, MOJA Headquarters, Barstow CA, 5-6.

172 "The California Desert in Transition," 5-8.

173 "Task Directive: California Desert Protection Act: Bureau of Land Management/National Park Service Transition Action Plan," July 1994, 2.

174 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2.

175 Hunting as an issue is omitted here because the report assumed the creation of Mojave National Park, with hunting prohibited, was the likely outcome of the CDPA.

176 "The California Desert in Transition," 43-44.

177 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; "Kennedy Names Buono to Assistant Superintendent Post," Mohave Valley Daily News, Dec 7, 1994.

178 "Transition Action Plan," 2.

179 "Transition Action Plan," Issue 3, Action D.

180 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

181 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

182 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

183 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

184 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

185 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 7; Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

186 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 8.

187 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Hal Rothman, Devil's Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth Century American West (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1998).

188 Federal Register September 5, 1995, 46132.

189 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

190 Meetings were held in Pasadena, San Bernardino, Barstow, Baker, Needles, Ridgecrest, Independence, Lone Pine, Furnace Creek, and Las Vegas. "Periodic Update on the Interagency Management Plan," Issue 1, Winter 1995/96, 2.

191 "Draft Superintendent's Annual Narrative Report for Fiscal Year 1995," 8.

192 Burk, Mojave National Preserve, 18; David Moore, comment on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

193 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

194 Dennis Casebier, "Development of Yet Another Plan for Parts of the California Desert Begins," Baker Valley News, October 20, 1995.

195 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

196 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Author conversation with David Moore, March 25-26, 2002, Mojave National Preserve headquarters, Barstow CA.

197 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

198 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

199 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

200 Northern and Eastern Mojave Team, "Periodic Update on the Interagency Management Plan #1," Winter 1995/96.

201 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

202 Hildamae Voght, "Changes in the California Desert," Baker Valley News, April 19, 1996.

203 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

204 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

205 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm; National Park Service, Mojave National Preserve, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement & General Management Plan: Mojave National Preserve, California June 2001, 1.

206 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm; David Drudge, "Desert Planning Workshops Offered to Public," Desert Dispatch, April 12, 1997.

207 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

208 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

209 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

210 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

211 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

212 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

213 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

214 Federal Register, September 11, 1998, 48727.

215 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

216 David Drudge, "Report: Maintain Preserve's Protection," Victorville Daily Press, October 13, 1998; Chuck Mueller, "Public Comments Sought on Mojave National Preserve," San Bernardino County Sun, October 19, 1998; Juliet V. Casey, "Desert Park Plan Sparks Dissent," San Bernardino County Sun, October 22, 1998; "Mojave Preserve Draft Management Plan Available For Review," Mohave Valley Daily News, October 29, 1998.

217 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

218 Gordon Reetz remained in the old planning office until he left for a position in the Regional Office. David Moore, comment on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

219 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

220 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

221 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

222 Federal Register, September 6, 2000, 54064-54065.

223 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

224 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

225 Desert Tortoise Recovery Act, 57; Abbreviated Final EIS & GMP, 44.

226 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2.

227 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

228 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

229 See the section in this document about the Kelso depot for more information.

230 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

231 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

232 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 28, 2002, Disc 2.

233 Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 2.

234 Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Mojave National Preserve Receives Honor," August 16, 2001.

235 Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Mojave National Preserve Photo Wins Honorable Mention in National Parks Pass Experience Your America Photo Contest," March 15, 2001.

236 Quoting Charlie Wilcox in Warren Bates, "If A Phone Rings In the Desert," Las Vegas Review-Journal, August 1, 1999.

237 http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojave1.htm, accessed March 1, 2002. Note that Daniels misreports Caffee's name as Crawford, an error repeated by several news stories.

238 http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojave3.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

239 "Joules," comment on 4-26-1999, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail2.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

240 http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojave3.htm, accessed March 1, 2002; http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/bm98/index.html, accessed March 1, 2002.

241 "Charles," comment on 7-4-1999, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail2.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

242 http://www .illuminatrix.com/mojave/, accessed March 2, 2002; http://www.deadpan .net/mpb/, accessed March 2, 2002; Steve Smith, "Telephone Booth a Mojave Mecca for the Faithful," San Bernardino County Sun, August 21, 1999; John M. Glionna, "Reaching Way Out," Los Angeles Times, September 18, 1999.

243 "The Late Show With David Letterman," November 9, 1999.

244 "Jessica P," comment on 10-4-1999, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail3.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

245 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 28, 2002, Disc 2.

246 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 28, 2002, Disc 2; Renee Tawa, "Requiem for a Telephone Booth," Los Angeles Times, May 30, 2000.

247 Deuce of Clubs, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/index.html, accessed March 8, 2002.

248 Brett Taylor letter to U.S. Representative Lynn Woolsey, May 23, 2000, in NPS file A3615 "Complaints," Mojave National Preserve Headquarters, Barstow CA.

249 See Mary Martin letter to Robert Goodale, June 12, 2000, in NPS file A3615 "Complaints," Mojave National Preserve Headquarters, Barstow CA.

250 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 28, 2002, Disc 2.

251 Comment from "romeo" May 20, 2000, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail5.htm, accessed March 1, 2002

252 Comment from "Borys from Poland" Sept 2, 2000, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail5.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

253 Comment from "James B." March 21, 2001, in http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/mojmail5.htm, accessed March 1, 2002.

254 Helen Wagenvoord letter to Mary Martin, May 31, 2000, Claire Perricelli letter to Mary Martin, June 10, 2000, Thomas J. Suk letter to Mary Martin, June 11, 2000, Marilyn Dinger letter to Mary Martin, June 12, 2000, Sherryl Taylor letter to Mary Martin, June 13, 2000, in NPS file A3615 "Complaints," Mojave National Preserve Headquarters, Barstow CA.

255 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 28, 2002, Disc 2.

256Ausmus, 117.

257 Mary G. Martin letter to Sherpa San Harold Horpa, May 27, 1999, in "Read File FY99" tab "Management Team," MOJA HQ.

258 Michael Small, Chief Counsel, ACLU of Southern California, letter to Mary Martin and John Reynolds, October 6, 1999; Mark Luellen memorandum to Mojave National Preserve Superintendent, November 11, 1999, in folder "The Cross at Sunrise Rock" in folder L-58 "Proposed Areas," Park files, Mojave National Preserve Headquarters, Barstow CA.

259 Kathy Davis letter to Mary Martin, December 1, 1999; Larry Bradfish letter to Michael Small, January 21, 2000; Michael Small letter to Robert Stanton, August 3, 2000; in folder "The Cross at Sunrise Rock," MOJA park files.

260 Mary Martin, memorandum to Mojave National Preserve Employees, October 6, 2000, in folder "The Cross at Sunrise Rock," MOJA park files; Chelsea J. Carter, "Parks to Remove Cross From Federal Land," San Bernardino County Sun October 27, 2000; A.J. Gardner, "Long-standing Wooden Cross Removed By Parks Officials," Desert Dispatch November 1, 2000; Che Tabisola, "Cross Targeted for Removal is War Memorial, Baker Woman Says," Victorville Daily Press November 4, 2000; A.J. Gardner, "Congress Says Cross Remains," Victorville Daily Press December 19, 2000; A.J. Gardner, "ACLU Promises Fight Over Cross," Victorville Daily Press December 20, 2000; A.J. Gardner, "ACLU Files Suit," Victorville Daily Press March 22, 2001.

261 David Mondoza, "CBS Show Takes on Cross Battle," Victorville Daily Press August 4, 2001; Ryan Daugherty, "Mojave Preserve's Cross Declared National Memorial," Victorville Daily Press December 21, 2001; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2; U.S. House of Representatives, "Conference Report on H.R. 3338, Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2002," Section 8137, December 19, 2001, H10516, H10799; Gary George, "Judge Orders Removal of Historic Mojave Cross," Victorville Daily Press July 26, 2002; Tiffany Starkey, "Feds Ask Judge to Delay Cross Removal," Victorville Daily Press August 16, 2002; Kelly Donovan, "Land Swap Puts Couple in Spotlight," Victorville Daily Press December 6, 2002; Richard Lake, "That Old Rugged Cross," Las Vegas Review-Journal December 15, 2002; Kelly Donovan, "Justice to Appeal Order to Remove Mojave Cross," Victorville Daily Press February 14, 2003; Kelly Donovan, "Feds Order Cover-up For Mojave Cross," Victorville Daily Press March 13, 2003.

262 Mojave National Preserve, "Report of Accomplishments, October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997," 3.

263 Mojave National Preserve Diversity Plan, 1998, 2-7.

264 Mojave National Preserve, "FY99 Accomplishments for Superintendent's Performance Review,"5; Mojave National Preserve, "Accomplishments for Superintendent's FY2000 Performance Review," 4.

265 Mojave National Preserve, "Superintendent's Annual Report for FY98," 1; Mojave National Preserve, "FY99 Accomplishments for Superintendent's Performance Review,"4.

266 Burk, Critical History, 21.

267 Mojave National Preserve, "Report of Accomplishments October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997," 3; Mojave National Preserve, "Superintendent's Annual Report for FY98," 3; Mojave National Preserve, "FY99 Accomplishments," 17; David Moore, comments on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

268 Mojave National Preserve, "Major Accomplishments for the First Five Years (1994-1999)," 4; Mojave National Preserve, "FY 2000 GPRA Accomplishments," 9; David Moore, comments on first draft, July 2002, copy in possession of author.

269 Mojave National Preserve, "Report of Accomplishments October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997," 1.

270 Mojave National Preserve Press Release 97-005, "Sign Contest Winner," [May 1997].

271 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, via telephone, December 4, 2002.

272 Incidents MOJA0100000155, MOJA0100000156, MOJA0100000158, MOJA0100000047, in file "Case Incident Reports 2001;" Incident MOJA9900000149 in file "Recent - Review Case Incidents," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

273 Incident MOJA9900000155 in file "Recent - Review Case Incidents;" Incidents MOJA0100000015, MOJA0100000029, in file "Case Incident Reports 2001," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

274 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, via telephone, December 4, 2002; anecdotal information from Tim Duncan, in conversation with author, February 9, 2002, Kelso California.

275 Case report MOJA9900000146, Folder "Recent - Review Case Incidents," Chief Ranger's Office Files, Mojave National Preserve HQ.

276 Case report MOJA0100000038, Folder "Recent - Review Case Incidents," Chief Ranger's Office Files, Mojave National Preserve HQ.

277 "Mojave NP (CA) - Drug Lab Arrests," National Park Service Morning Report March 6, 1998; Press Release, "Clandestine Drug Lab Found in Mojave National Preserve," March 16, 2001.

278 Press Release, "Clandestine Drug Lab Found in Mojave National Preserve," March 16, 2001; Incident MOJA0100000025, file "Case Incident Reports 2001," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

279 See 16 U.S.C. 19jj.

280 Folder "[Name Withheld] Road Grade 19jj Case - ICT," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

281 Folder "[Company Name Withheld] Road Grade Building Case," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

282 File (Binder) "Morning Star Airplane Crash, Case MOJA00038," Chief Ranger's Office, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

283 MOJA case #01-26, File "Case incident reports 2001," Chief Ranger's office, MOJA HQ.

284 National Transportation Safety Board, Derailment of Union Pacific Railroad Unit Freight Train 6205 West Near Kelso, California, January 12, 1997, Railroad Accident Report, PB98-916301 (Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Administration, February 6, 1998); Chuck Mueller, "Freeway Closures Turn Baker into Boomtown," San Bernardino County Sun January 15, 1997; Tim Duncan, conversation with author, February 9, 2002, Kelso California.

285 Don Holland, "Father, Son Get Prison Time For Illegal Dumping," Desert Dispatch October 29, 1996; "Man Gets Prison Term For Illegal Dumping," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 27, 1996; Mary Manning, "Las Vegas Draw Prison Time For Illegal Dumping," Las Vegas Sun October 30, 1996; Gene Shlotto, "Man Gets Probation for Dumping Waste," Press-Enterprise March 3, 1997; "A Federal Grand Jury Returns a 21-Count Indictment in Illegal Transporting and Dumping of Hazardous Waste Case," Baker Valley News October 20, 1995; "Man Gets 46 Months Over Toxic Waste," Los Angeles Times October 27, 1996; Mary Manning, "Family Business Faces More Dumping Problems," Las Vegas Sun August 28, 1997; Joe Schoenmann, "Las Vegas Father, Son Face Federal Charges in Waste Dumping Case," Las Vegas Review-Journal August 28, 1997.

286 Binder "Operation Sweet Success - Barrel Cactus Theft - USDI - NPS - DEVA98-00594," binder 1 of 2, Chief Ranger files, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

287 Incidents MOJA9900000146, MOJA9900000155, MOJA9900000152, in folder "Recent - Review Case Incidents," Chief Ranger files, MOJA HQ; Mary Martin letter to Don and Mary Enlow, N1623, February 4, 2000, in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management," MOJA HQ.

288 Kirk Gebicke and Chris Burns, Incident Reports, faxed copy in possession of author.

289 Incident MOJA9900000150, in folder "Recent - Review Case Incidents," Chief Ranger files, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA.

290 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002; author's notes of conversation with Bob Conway, February 8, 2002, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA; corroborated by Tim Duncan, conversation with author, February 9, 2002, Kelso CA.

291 Mike Dougherty, "The Snowbound Ladies of the Sierra Club," Pahrump Valley Gazette April 9, 1998.

292 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002.

293 In this case, I use the male pronoun because as of 2002, all Mojave National Preserve rangers in charge of a patrol area are male.

294 Author's notes of conversation with Bob Conway, February 8, 2002, MOJA HQ, Barstow CA; Author's notes of conversation with Tim Duncan, February 9, 2002, Kelso CA; Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002.

295 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002; Mojave National Preserve, "Major Accomplishments for the First Five Years (1994-1999)," 3; "Mojave National Preserve, "FY 2000 GPRA Accomplishments," 2; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Fiscal Year 2002 Budget and Annual Performance Plans for Mojave National Preserve are Available for Public Review," December 31, 2001.

296 Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002.

297 Gary George, "Deadly Highway Becomes Deadlier," Victorville Daily Press, July 10, 2002; Scott Van Horne, "Postmus, Fire Officials Butting Heads," Desert Dispatch September 13, 2002; David Schwartz, "Training for Firefighters From Baker's Prison to Resume," Desert Dispatch November 20, 2002; Christina L. Esparza, "Baker Fire Takes Hit in Budget," Desert Dispatch March 12, 2003.

298 Mojave National Preserve, "Superintendent's Annual Report for FY98," 8; Mojave National Preserve, "Report of Accomplishments, October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997," 3.

299Mary G. Martin letter to Kristy MacMillan [sic], October 15, 1999, in binder "Read file FY00" tab "Administration/Personnel," MOJA HQ.

300 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 2; Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, 72.

301 Author interview with Mary "Jeff" Karraker, Barstow, CA, March 28, 2002; Author interview with David Moore, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

302 In summary, the themes are concerned with the variety and transitional habitat found in the park; the geology of Mojave; diverse and specially adapted flora and fauna; the fragility of the desert; Mojave's extensive historical and cultural resources; and Mojave's vastness, remoteness, and solitude. Mojave National Preserve, "Long Range Interpretive Plan - Draft," July 8, 2001, 16-17.

303 "Long Range Interpretive Plan," 13-15.

304 Gordon Chappell, et al., An Oasis for Railroaders in the Mojave: The History and Architecture of the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Depot, Restaurant and Employees' Hotel at Kelso, California on the Union Pacific System (California: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 1998), 187-188.

305 Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Restoration of Kelso Depot to Begin," June 7, 2002.

306 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

307 National Park Service, "Final GMP Record of Decision," accessed May 2, 2002, https://www.nps.gov/moja/ rod&fp.htm.

308 Mojave National Preserve, Comments and Responses on the 1998 Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, July 2000, 58-59; Mojave National Preserve, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement & General Management Plan, 73; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 2.

309 "Long Range Interpretive Plan," 62.

310 The map was revised in 1999 and is still handed out by park staff, though the printing costs have been assumed by the NPS. David Moore, electronic message, January 31, 2003, copy in possession of author.

311 Comment by Mary Martin on draft, December 2002, copy in possession of author.

312 Robin Richards, "NPS Considers Visitors Center in Needles," Mohave Valley Daily News July 4, 1996; Robin Richards, "National Park Service to Locate Information Center in Needles," Mohave Valley Daily News June 26, 1997; Robin Richards, "Park Service to Open Soon," Needles Desert Star November 5, 1997; David Drudge, "Park Service Opening Info Center in Needles," Desert Dispatch December 4, 1997; "Mojave National Preserve Opens Center in Needles," Mohave Valley Daily News December 4, 1997; Maggie McShan, "Spring Means Special Events Around Needles," Needles Desert Star March 11, 1998; James Woolsey, "Parks Provide Benefits," Needles Desert Star March 3, 1999; Comment by Mary Martin on draft, December 2002.

313 Author interview with Mary "Jeff" Karraker, March 28, 2002.

314 See chapter three for more information.

315 Author interview with Mary "Jeff" Karraker, March 28, 2002; Mojave National Preserve, "FY2000 GPRA Accomplishments," 11 (IIb1O1).

316 Sean McGuinness to Eric Nystrom, electronic message, December 13, 2002, copy in possession of author; Author interview with Sean McGuinness, December 4, 2002; Author interview with Linda Slater, Barstow, CA, March 27, 2002.

317 Author interview with Linda Slater, March 27, 2002; Author interview with Mary "Jeff" Karraker, March 28, 2002.

318 For an example, see Ted R. Weasma letter to Teresa Cervantes, May 5, 2000, in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management — Mining," MOJA HQ; Author interview with Linda Slater, March 27, 2002.

319 Terri Martin, "RS-2477: A Loophole For Vandals," High Country News March 21, 1994; Elizabeth Manning, "Utah's Burr Trail Still Leads to Court," High Country News April 15, 1996; Larry Warren, "Utah Counties Bulldoze the BLM, Park Service," High Country News October 28, 1996; Christopher Smith, "Feds Sue a Utah County For Building a Road in a National Park," High Country News June 8, 1998; Rachel Jackson, "Counties Cross the Yellow Line," High Country News July 30, 2001.

320 Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Appendix F, "Principles for Wilderness Management in the California Desert," 442-458.

321 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2.

322 "Thirsty Mojave Knee-Deep in Water Controversy," Environmental News Network / CNN.com October 30, 2000; Chuck Mueller, "Council Will Review Desert Water Plan," San Bernardino County Sun October 20, 2000; Tony Perry, "Key Agencies Reach Accord on Wells in Mojave Desert," Los Angeles Times October 4, 2000; "State Must Deal With the Bugs to Build Water Supply," San Bernardino County Sun November 26, 2000; Tony Perry, "High Chromium 6 Levels Found in Mojave Aquifer," Los Angeles Times November 14, 2000; Tom Philp, "Brockovich's Mermaid Cameo in a Water Plot," Sacramento Bee November 14, 2000; "Mojave Water Grab: Severely Flawed Environmental Report Puts Desert At Risk," PR Newswire October 20, 2000; Laura Wides, "Plan To Store Water Under Desert OK'd," Las Vegas Review-Journal August 30, 2002; "State Panel Kills Water Plan," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 9, 2002.

323 Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Mojave National Preserve Named One of America's Top Globally Important Bird Areas," August 16, 2001.

324 Darlington, 222-234; "Tortoise Population Falling, Government Biologist Says," Victorville Press-Dispatch December 29, 1996; Todd Wilkinson, "A Troubled Time for Tortoises," National Parks July/August 1996, 32-39; Chuck Mueller, "Tortoises Face Threat From Kissing Disease," San Bernardino County Sun January 12, 1997; James Woolsey, "Survival Challenges," Needles Desert Star, November 5, 1997; Teri Figueroa, "Creeping Closer to Extinction," Victorville Press-Dispatch June 11, 2000; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2.

325 Author interview with Doug Scovill, December 3, 2002; "Breakdown" was released in theaters in May 1997 by 20th Century Fox/Paramount Pictures, and starred Kurt Russell.

326 Infield, 286-295. As an example, 1998's auction tag fetched $150,000; see Steve Torres, "Apply For Your 'Hunt of a Lifetime'" Tracks: News About California Deer and Other Big Game 16 (1999): 15.

327 See chapter three for analysis of hunting in the creation of the park; comment on draft by Mary Martin, December 2002.

328 See chapter four for more information about the bighorn sheep incident.

329 See chapter four for the Dollar Budget and its effects; Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, 125; Dave Pegg, "Sin City Limestone," Climbing June 15, 1998, 95-100, 163-165.

330Lara Hartley, "Ropin' and Wranglin' Wild Burros," Press-Dispatch May 28, 2000.

331Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Doug Scovill, December 3, 2002; Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft General Management Plan, 127-131; Lara Hartley, "Ropin' and Wranglin' Wild Burros," Press-Dispatch May 28, 2000; Chuck Mueller, "Burros To Be Marked For Aerial Surveys," San Bernardino County Sun, August 14, 1996; "Burros To Move From Mojave Preserve," Mohave Valley Daily News September 4, 1997; Greg Harris, "Adoption Program Moves Burros Out of Mojave National Preserve," Victorville Daily Press September 5, 1997; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Burro Roundup in Mojave National Preserve," April 10, 2001; comment by Mary Martin on draft, December 2002. Cleveland Amory died a very short time after the conclusion of the burro agreement with the Preserve.

332 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

333 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 26, 2002, Disc 2.

334 Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, 124; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Mojave National Preserve Environmental Assessment Released," September 21, 2001; Mojave National Preserve, "Finding of No Significant Impact, Dredging of Lake Tuendae, Habitat for the Endangered Mojave Tui Chub."

335 Draft Environmental Impact Statement: P140 Coaxial Cable Removal Project, Socorro, New Mexico to Mojave, California December 1997, i, xi-xiii, 1-31; Federal Register, May 29, 1998, 29429-29430; Federal Register, September 22, 1998, 50580-50581; Mary G. Martin letter to Preston M. Canzius, L3031, June 15, 1999, binder "Read File FY99" tab "Resource Management," MOJA HQ; Mary G. Martin letter to Dennis Casebier, November 18, 1999, folder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management," MOJA HQ.

336 Mary G. Martin memorandum to Realty Officer, Land Resources, PGBSSO, July 2, 1998, in binder "Read File FY99" tab "Management Team," MOJA HQ; Mary G. Martin letter to Dianne Feinstein, December 1, 1998 Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Blair Land Exchange Finalized," March 15, 2001; Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2.

337Mary G. Martin letter to Randel Aleman, L3019, December 19, 1999, in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management — Grazing," 2, 4, MOJA HQ.

338 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 2; Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 2; Clay Overson and Sandra Overson letter to Mary Martin, January 25, 2000, Mary Martin memorandum to Regional Director, Pacific West Region, February 16, 2000, in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management — Grazing," MOJA HQ; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Granite Mountain Grazing Allotment Donated to Mojave National Preserve," April 18, 2000; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Kessler Springs and Lanfair Valley Allotments Donated to Mojave National Preserve," January 16, 2001.

339 An Animal Unit Month (AUM) is the amount of forage necessary to feed a cow and her calf for one month. Grazing on federal land is measured in AUMs.

340 The National Park Service owned a majority of the Preserve's water rights only after the Overson and Blincoe acquisitions. Mary Martin, comment on draft, December 2002.

341 Frank Clifford, "Firm Threatens to Mine, Build in Mojave Preserve," Los Angeles Times October 31, 1996; Carl Nolte, "Mojave Preserve Land-Swap Deal Stalls Over Price," San Francisco Chronicle November 4, 1996; Frank Clifford, "US Pursues Major Land Swap in Mojave," Los Angeles Times May 21, 1997; Andrew Silva, "Wildlands Expansion Discussion Under Way," San Bernardino County Sun December 1, 1998; Frank Clifford, "$52-Million Deal Seeks to Save Desert Land," Los Angeles Times December 2, 1998; Alex Barnum, "Clinton's Big Plans For Protecting Land," San Francisco Chronicle January 12, 1999; Andrew Silva, "Huge Conservation Deal Advances," San Bernardino County Sun January 12, 1999; Andrew Silva, "Babbitt Predicts Congressional Support of Deal," San Bernardino County Sun January 21, 1999; Bettina Boxall, "US Takes Control of Desert Land," Los Angeles Times January 30, 2000; Teri Figueroa, "$20M Deal Adds Land to BLM, Preserve," Victorville Daily Press July 28, 2000; Scott Gold, "US Acquires Desert Land for Preservation," Los Angeles Times July 28, 2000.

342 Keith Rogers, "Environmentalists Oppose Airport Plans for Ivanpah Valley," Las Vegas Review-Journal June 24, 1998; Mark D. Preston, "Plans For Cargo Airport Advance," Las Vegas Sun August 7, 1998; Tony Batt, "Ivanpah Valley Airport Proposal for Clark County Defeated in the House," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 8, 1998; Clyde Weiss, "Conservation Group Lists Mojave Preserve as Endangered," Las Vegas Review-Journal April 21, 1999; Clyde Weiss, "Push Renewed For Ivanpah Airport," Las Vegas Review-Journal June 1, 1999; Keith Rogers, "Group: Airport Plan a Threat," Las Vegas Review-Journal June 21, 1999; Tony Batt, "Congressional Panel Oks Sale of Land for Airport South of LV," Las Vegas Review-Journal September 24, 1999; Christine Dorsey, "Airport Land Bill Delayed By Senators," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 21, 1999; Launce Rake, "Plans for Second Airport Take Flight," Las Vegas Sun November 7, 1999; Launce Rake, "Environmentalists Air Complaints," Las Vegas Sun November 8, 1999; Benjamin Grove, "House Launches New Airport," Las Vegas Sun March 9, 2000; Christine Dorsey, "Compromise Pushes Ivanpah Airport Measure Forward," Las Vegas Review-Journal March 9, 2000; Christine Dorsey, "Ivanpah Airport Bill Advances," Las Vegas Review-Journal July 14, 2000; Benjamin Grove, "Ivanpah Airport Gets Go-Ahead From Senate," Las Vegas Sun October 6, 2000; Christine Dorsey, "House Oks Sale of Ivanpah Valley Land for Airport," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 18, 2000; Christine Dorsey, "Clinton Signs Ivanpah Airport Legislation," Las Vegas Review-Journal October 29, 2000.

343 Author interview with Dennis Schramm, March 26, 2002, Disc 1.

344 Author interview with Robert Bryson, Barstow CA., March 28, 2002.

345 Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, 105, 149.

346 Also see the section on interpretation in chapter seven for more information about the Kelso depot.

347 Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, 247.

348 Gordon Chappell, et al., An Oasis for Railroaders in the Mojave: The History and Architecture of the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Depot, Restaurant and Employees' Hotel at Kelso, California on the Union Pacific System (California: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 1998); Mojave National Preserve, Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Appendix B, "Kelso Depot Development Concept Plan," 349-368; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Kelso Depot Added to National Register of Historic Places," August 16, 2001.

349 Chuck Mueller, "Park Hopes Old Vulcan Mine Will Be Prosperous," San Bernardino County Sun March 9, 1998.

350 Author interview with Robert Bryson, March 28, 2002.

351 See chapter two for more information on the history of mining in the area of the Preserve. Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, Barstow, CA, February 8, 2002, Disc 2.

352 Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, February 8, 2002, Disc 1-2.

353 "California Desert Protection Act of 1994," Public Law 103-433, Section 509; Author interview with Ted Weasma, Barstow, CA, March 27, 2002, Disc 1. For a map of active mining claims in the Preserve, see Mojave National Preserve, General Management Plan, 101.

354 Author interview with Ted Weasma, March 27, 2002, Disc 1; Author interview with Gordon Pine, Barstow, CA, March 27, 2002.

355 Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, February 8, 2002, Disc 2.

356 Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, February 8, 2002, Disc 2.

357 Mary G. Martin letter to Lorene Caffee [no date], in binder "Read File FY99" tab "Special Uses Team," MOJA HQ.

358 Mary G. Martin, memorandum to Regional Director, August 10, 1999, Mary G. Martin, letter to Terry Caffee and Lorene Caffee, August 10, 1999, in binder "Read File FY99" tab "Management Team," MOJA HQ.

359 Author interview with Mary Martin, March 29, 2002, Disc 1.

360 Robin Sorti (daughter of Lorene Caffee), http://www.deuceofclubs.com/moj/cimamine/mine1.htm, accessed March 18, 2002; J. Lorene Caffee letter to Senator Dianne Feinstein, August 23, 1999; Mary G. Martin letter to Monte E. Ray, January 12, 2000, in "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management — Mining," MOJA HQ; Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, February 8, 2002, Disc 2.

361 Author interview with Andrew Lesczykowski, February 8, 2002, Disc 2; "Molycorp Through the Years," San Bernardino County Sun May 25, 1997; Dave Anderson, "Molycorp Issue Paper," Jan 21, 2000.

362 Steven Church, "Water Watchdogs Ignored Spills," San Bernardino County Sun June 9, 1998.

363 Author interview with Dave Anderson, Barstow, CA, February 7, 2002.

364 "Radioactive Waste Remains in Desert Months After Spill," Desert Dispatch April 25, 1997.

365 Christine Vetter, "Information on the Molycorp Waste Discharge Pipeline Releases," May 4, 1999; Author interview with Dave Anderson, February 7, 2002.

366 Vetter, "Information..."; Author interview with Dave Anderson, February 7, 2002; Steven Church, "An Accident Waiting to Happen?" San Bernardino County Sun March 4, 1998; Greg Harris, "Water Quality Officer to Issue Cleanup Orders to Molycorp," Victorville Daily Press March 21, 1998; Warren Bates, "Company Nearly Finished With Cleanup of Radioactive Spills," Las Vegas Review-Journal February 23, 1998.

367 Greg Harris, "Molycorp Faces Cleanup Orders," Desert Dispatch March 21, 1998; Greg Harris, "Molycorp Temporarily Suspends Wastewater Pipeline Usage," Desert Dispatch March 25, 1998; Steven Church, "Molycorp To Close Waste-Water Pipeline Near I-15," San Bernardino County Sun March 24, 1998; Greg Harris, "Molycorp to Pay $410,000," Desert Dispatch July 11, 1998; "Molycorp Fined $410,000 in Wastewater Pollution Case," Las Vegas Review-Journal July 11, 1998.

368 "Can Molycorp Get A Handle On Spills?" San Bernardino County Sun October 6, 1998; Dave Anderson, "Molycorp Issue Paper," Jan. 21, 2000

369 Steven Church, "Molycorp Faces Water Cleanup Order," San Bernardino County Sun March 7, 1998; Marry Manning, "Mining Company Target of Environmental Lawsuit," Las Vegas Sun May 14, 1998; Greg Harris, "District Attorney Files Suit Against Molycorp Inc.," Desert Dispatch May 21, 1998; Steven Church, "DA Suing Molycorp Over Leaks," San Bernardino County Sun May 20, 1998.

370 Mimi Ko Cruz, "Molycorp Suspends Operations At Mountain Pass Site," San Bernardino County Sun September 12, 1998; Craig Johnson, "Supervisors OK Firms for Mine Environmental Study," Desert Dispatch October 28, 1998; Cerise A. Valenzuela, "Payment Plan OK'd For Mine's Environmental Study on Expansion," San Bernardino County Sun October 28, 1998; Dave Anderson, "Molycorp Issue Paper," Jan 21, 2000.

371 Dave Anderson, "Environmental Cleanup Liability Assessment, Molycorp Mine Site Summary," Sept 25, 2001; Author interview with Dave Anderson, February 7, 2002.

372 Mary Martin letter to Marge Rouch, L3031, April 11, 2000, in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Resource Management," MOJA HQ; Mojave National Preserve Press Release 01-005 (no title), March 13, 2001; Mojave National Preserve Press Release, "Nearly 1000 Tons of Debris Removed," August 16, 2001.

373 Dave Anderson, "Environmental Cleanup Liability Assessment, Kelso Dunes Mine Site Summary," September 21, 2001.

374 Central HAZMAT Fund is the Department of the Interior version of Superfund. Author interview with Dave Anderson, February 7, 2002, Disc 1; Mary G. Martin letter to Kathy Davis, L3019, [no date], in binder "Read File FY00" tab "Management," MOJA HQ; Mary G. Martin letter to Keith Fegert, N3617, August 10, 1999, in binder "Read File FY99" tab"Resource Management," MOJA HQ; Dave Anderson, "Environmental Cleanup Liability Assessment, Morning Star Mine Site Summary," September 21, 2001.

375 Mojave National Preserve, "Report of Accomplishments October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997," 2.

376 See the section on resource and visitor protection in chapter seven for an account of the incident.

377 Mojave National Preserve, "Major Accomplishments for the First Five Years (1994-1999)," 8.

378 Mojave National Preserve, "Major Accomplishments for the First Five Years (1994-1999)," 8.

379 "Wilderness Act," Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964, Section 2(c).

380 See Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) and William Cronon, "The Trouble With Wilderness, or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature," in William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1995), 69-90.



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