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Standards and Details—Construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers (June 8, 1942)

June 8, 1942.


(As agreed upon 6-8-42 by Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt and Colonel L. R. Groves from the Office of the Chief of Engineers)

1. For the purpose of providing uniformity of construction and in order to obviate she necessity of miscellaneous correspondence in connection with construction of Reception Centers in Relocation Areas, it is requested that the following standards and details be observed in all future construction and to the extent possible in current construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers.

2. In general facilities to be provided by the U. S. E. D. will include the following:

a. Shelter for evacuees arranged in rectangular block units, each containing mess, recreation or vocational building, baths, latrines, and laundry.

b. Hospital facilities based on minimum 150 beds for 10,000 population and 250 beds for 20,000.

c. Warehouse facilities based on one (1) 20'x100' refrigerated storehouse and twenty (20) x 100' storage warehouse or equivalent in floor space per 5,000 population.

d. Administrative facilities, including store and post office buildings, and one shop building.

e. Quarters for administrative personnel, including messing facilities.

f. Shelter and facilities for MP units.

g. Utilities to include:

(1) Adequate water for culinary, sanitary and fire protection purposes.

(2) Water-borne sewage disposal conforming to minimum health requirements.

(3) Electric power and light.

(4) Necessary access and service roads.

h. Adequate fire protection.

3. Layouts should be made conforming to recommendations supplied by the Civil Affairs Division of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army. Schools, churches, theaters, stores and shop facilities will be constructed by the operating agency, but space and basic utilities must be provided for these items. in layouts made by the engineers.

4. The typical block should be designed to house not to exceed 300 persons. General standards to be as follows:

a. Barracks. to be T/O type construction modified to include partitions for family groups, asphaltic roofing weighing more than 45 lbs. per square, interior lining where warranted by climatic conditions, concrete or wooden floors, and electrical service to include one drop outlet in each apartment, with circuit capacity to per mit future installation of one convenience outlet in each apartment.

b. Bath and Toilet Facilities will generally conform to mobilization type requirements and will provide bath and toilet fixtures on the following basis per 300 persons, or per block.

(1) Men
Bath Tubs—0
Slop Sink—1
Bath Tubs—4
Slop Sink—1

Showers will be individually controlled for women, but with central thermostatic installation for men, and control valve for maximum hot water temperature will be provided.

Individual control valves for showers will be placed low enough so as. to permit operation by a person of 5'-0" height. Foot baths will be installed in the entrance to each shower room. Showers and toilets will be spaced sufficiently far apart and for women provided with separate partitions to allow reasonable degree of privacy.

c. Laundries will contain six tubs with hot and cold water and six ironing boards per 100 persons. Standard benches in the laundry and tables in the ironing room should also be provided.

Convenience outlets for ironing, laundry tubs and ironing boards should be installed lower than usual due to small stature of users.

d. Kitchen and Mess Hall to be of modified T/O construction, with concrete floor, if practicable, otherwise double wood floor.

Refrigerator of suitable capacity will be installed.

Ranges should be provided on rise basis of one standard No. 5 Army Range or suitable substitute per 100 persons served. Certain No. 5 Army and other ranges will be supplied upon request to Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, from evacuated Assembly Centers or from available Army stocks. When fuel other than coal and wood is to be used, the construction engineer will supply necessary type of range and advise this Headquarters so that the shipment of No. 5 ranges will nor be made. When oil is to be used as fuel, suitable con version units may be provided for the No. 5 ranges by the Engineer. Ranges will be installed with insulation to protect floors and adjacent walls, also with ventilated hood. Hot water facilities will include storage tanks of not less than 160 gallons capacity and booster hearers in addition to water jackets in ranges. Dishwashing facilities will be arranged so as to have scullery directly connected with mess hall and will include nor less than two three-compartment or one two and one three-compartment sinks with necessary drainboards and counters. Standard sit down, wooden mess tables will be provided, tables to be covered with pressed wood or plywood and varnished.

e. Recreation Building to be modified T/O type construction with concrete or wood floor. Ten convenience outlets will be installed along walls to permit use of sewing machines etc.

5. Hospital Facilities.

Hospital to be modified mobilization type construction. Instructions. for layout and equipment will be provided by the Civil Affairs Division, Western Defense Command and Fourth Army.

6. Warehouses.

a. Warehouse to be improved T/O type construction with heavier roofing and concrete floor. Refrigerated storehouse to be designed according to local conditions.

b. Railroad siding should be provided in connection with warehouse area when possible, but no spurs for branch lines will be constructed. Some toilet facilities, pit. chemical or flush type and drinking water should be provided in warehouse area if such facilities are nor immediately adjacent.

7. Administrative Facilities should include the following:

a. On the basis of 10.000 population two (2) 40'x120' buildings, one (1) 20'x100' warehouse, garages for emergency vehicles, one shop building approximately 40'x100', and buildings to house post office, store and fire station. Construction to be of T/O type. Suitable electric outlets and necessary plumbing to be provided in administrative buildings, post office and fire station.

8. Quarters for Administrative Personnel.

On the basis of 10,000 evacuees provide dormitories, for minimum 40 persons, four modified T/O type buildings 20'x100' divided into 8'x12' or 16' cubicles and equipped with bath and toilet facilities. Wiring should include one drop and one convenience outlet in each cubicle. One central mess and one recreation building to be provided for a capacity of about 100 persons.

9. Shelter and Facilities for MP Personnel to be provided for a strength of a minimum of one company of four (4) officers and 126 enlisted men. Actual strength will be indicated in specific directives. Officers' quarters should provide individual cubicles for sleeping quarters with bath and toilet facilities in the same manner as for administrative personnel quarters. One 20'x100' building will be provided for each of the following: Administrative Headquarters and Unit Supply, Guard House, Recreation Room and Post Exchange, and one 20'x30' equipped with hot water and sanitary facilities to be used as a dispensary. Garage or shed (depending on climate) to house emergency vehicles of the Unit.

10. Utilities.

a. Water supply should be designed on the basis of 100 gallons per capita per day with sufficient pressure to give adequate fire protection, and should have necessary standby supply facilities.

b. Sewage Disposal. Sewer capacity should be based on approximately 75 gallons per capita per day. Complete sewage treatment should be provided where indicated by local conditions.

c. Electric Power and Lighting. Installations should be designed on the basis of 2000 KVA per 10.000 population, so as to handle a reasonably ample load for all needs and with sufficient capacity of individual building circuits to prevent constant blowing of fuses. In lieu of street lighting, one (1) light at each end of all main buildings (one for warehouses) should be provided.

11. Fire Protection, generally to be the same as provided for mobilization type Army Camps. Barrels and buckets to. be provided on the basis of one set for every four (4) buildings. Fire hydrants should be located throughout area. Two (2) trucks equipped with pumping equipment, hose and ladders to be stationed in each Center (on the basis of 10,000 evacuees.)

12. Access and Service Roads should be properly graded and drained and provided with a simple type of surfacing material, preferably bituminous. A reasonable amount of surfacing material will be left at the Center by the Engineer, to be used for maintenance.

13. General.

a. Space heating in suitable form, depending on climate and fuel, moss easily and economically obtained, to be provided in accordance with zone requirements established by the Chief of Engineers.

b. Standard mobilization type plumbing fixtures to be provided in hospital, administration and MP installation.

c. Electrical installation to provide for special requirements for equipment in hospital and warehouses as well as refrigeration, should be installed in accordance with good building practice and should have a central cut-out switch for blackout needs if the Center is located within an air frontier zone. Separate circuits to be provided for central storage refrigerator and hospital installations to permit operation during blackout.

d. Adequate refrigeration consistent with local climatic conditions to be provided in all kitchen,. Meat Blocks will be provided, one for each kitchen.

e. Suitable shelving will be constructed in kitchen storerooms and MP supply room, Post Exchange and barracks,

f. All buildings will be screened unless local climatic conditions dictate otherwise and in any case hospitals, messes and latrines will be screened.

g. Materials for interior lining of barracks, and screening for windows may, when not installed during normal course of construction, be left at the Center by the Engineer for installation by Camp Manager with Japanese labor.

14. Special Items.

a. Watch towers of a height commensurate with terrain conditions and equipped with searchlights as required shall be constructed around outside of Camp in locations and numbers requested by local MP, Commander or Center Managers, but not more than eight to each Center, without approval by this Headquarters.

b. Standard stock fence will be built around the occupied area, excluding MP area. Materials may be left for construction with Japanese labor. Military Police area should be located to provide easy access to main highway serving the Center with out having to pass through evacuee area.

c. A 90' flagpole to be erected in suitable location of the MP area.

d. One (1) T/O type barrack-building equipped with benches and tables and a receiving counter to be constructed near entrance to Center to be used for visiting purposes. Adequate parking space for visitors also to be provided.

e. When required, suitable coal bins will be provided for each kitchen and in such other locations as may be indicted. Materials to be provided by the Engineer, and left with Camp Manager for construction with Japanese labor. Screened garbage racks will be provided in connection with each kitchen, to be constructed in same manner as coal bins.

15. Engineer will submit to Civil Affairs Division, W. D. C., and Fourth Army for approval the following:

a. Site plan.

b. Hospital plans,

c. Kitchen and mess layout (floor plan).

d. Bath, toilet and laundry building floor plans.

16. As soon as available, three complete sets of plans will be forwarded to the Civil Affairs Division, W. D. C., and Fourth Army, Two of these sets will be for the W. R. A.. one of which is for the Center Manager.

Supplement No. 1 June 18, 1942.


1. The following list of hospital equipment is added as a supplement to Paragraph 5 of "Standards and Details—Construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers", dated June 8, 1942, as prepared by this Headquarters. Included are items to be provided by the U. S. E. D. and items to be procured by the Medical Depot upon request by the War Relocation Authority.

2. Hospital equipment to be provided and installed by the U. S. E. D. will include the following:

a. Refrigerators

(1) Main hospital kitchen—one extra large electric refrigerator of approximately 40 cu. ft. capacity.

(2) Ward kitchen—one medium size electric refrigerator of approximately 8 cu. ft. capacity for each kitchen.

(3) Neighborhood dispensary building—(when Center layout indicates need), One small electric refrigerator to be placed in pharmacy room of approximately 4 cu. ft. capacity.

(4) Out-patient building—one medium-size electric refrigerator of approximately 8 cu. ft. capacity to be placed in laboratory.

(5) Morgue—morgue refrigerator for three or four bodies, preferably four,

b. Kitchen Equipment

(1) Large mechanical dishwasher for main hospital kitchen—one dishwasher, electric, large (capacity 150-250 hospital beds); automatic; with pump and motor; with capacity 265 gallons per minute; with 3/4" Powers steam and hot water mixing valve for final rinse; including necessary racks and other equipment to operate. Equipment requires connections to maintain water for washing at 140 degrees, and to deliver rinse water at 195 degrees. Reference: Hobart Model CM preferred. Second choice, Crescent or equal. Powers valve extra on all makes.

(2) Small mechanical dishwasher for hospital and isolation ward—one dishwasher, electric; small; semi-automatic; rack type dishwasher with three doors; with pump and motor to deliver 120 gallons per minute; with 3/4" Powers steam and hot water mixing valve; with steam sterilizer attachment; with necessary racks. For hospital isolation ward of 35 beds. Equipment requires connections to maintain wash water at 140 degrees, and to deliver rinse water at 195 degrees. Reference: Hobart Model AM-4. Second choice: Crescent, or equal. Powers valve and steam sterilizer attachment extra on all makes.

(3) Usual drain sink in each ward kitchen.

(4) Large double compartment drain sink in main kitchen for cooks' use.

(5) Usual vegetable preparation sink in kitchen scullery.

(6) Small electric range for each ward kitchen, Hotpoint model RB-11 or equal. This model has four hot plates and one oven.

(7) Standard Army ranges for main kitchen. Note: Other kitchen equipment such as steam tables, deep fat fryer, large coffee urn, etc., is not detailed here, assuming it is included in the standard Army hospital kitchen. However, an electric potato peeler and other equipment of the purely labor-saving type should not be provided in these Centers.

c. Laundry Equipment

(1) One 42" x 84" wood washer, having one vertical partition, two doors, and two compartments; motor drive; with unit control; with water piping and automatic valves; with dial type thermometer.

(2) One 30" x 36" wood washer; one compartment; motor drive; with unit control with water piping and automatic valves and dial type thermometer.

(3) One 30" solid curb extractor; with motor drive; with unit control with galvanized basket.

(4) One 20" solid curb extractor; with motor drive; with unit control; with galvanized basket.

(5) Two 36" x 30" air drying tumblers; with double steam coil; with motor drive.

(6) One 16" x 100" single cylinder return apron flatwork ironer; steam heated; motor drive.

(7) Two 32" x 22" x 24" galvanized washroom trucks with casters.

(8) Two 32" x 22" x 24" wood washroom trucks with casters.

(9) Eight canvas washroom baskets, 30" x 20", with casters.

(10) One 5-gallon copper starch cooker.

(11) Four ironing boards (Troy No. 1-D or Bishop No. 7 type or equal); with suitable electric irons. Approximate weight 6 lbs.; and cords. Note: Some variation in sizes of this equipment may be necessary due to procurement difficulties.

The above laundry equipment was planned on the basis of a hospital capacity not in excess of 200 beds. Larger hospital capacity will require washers and extractors of slightly larger capacity.

d. Ventilators

(1) Ceiling fan type with motor for:

(a) X-ray developing room.

(b) Main laboratory.

(c) Dental laboratory.

e. Special Ceiling Lights

For Operating Room, Major Surgery standard Army design.

For Operating Room. Minor Surgery, and for obstetrical delivery room—see typical hospital plan.

f. Autopsy or Morticians' Table

Standard Army type acceptable.

3. The surgery, delivery room, obstetrical ward, and all wards in the isolation building shall be so painted as to permit frequent soap and water washing.

4. The following list of hospital equipment will be requested by the War Relocation Authority for procurement by a Medical Depot. However, all items not installed by the manufacturer to be installed by the U. S. E. D.

a. Sterilizers

(1) Operating Room Unit—one four-piece battery unit for use with steam, to be installed in surgery sterilizing room. Battery unit to consist of one dressing pressure sterilizer # 6 size; One water sterilizer # 2 size with separate tanks for cold and hot water; one instrument sterilizer, boiling type, # 4 size; one utensil sterilizer, boiling type. # 1 size.

(2) Obstetrical Ward Sterilizing Room—one utensil sterilizer, # 1 size, for use with steam.

(3) Disinfecting Room—one bulk pressure sterilizer and disinfector, rectangular type, for use with steam, double door, size 36" x 42" x 84".

(4) Small electric instrument sterilizers, 1000 Watt type. Wall plug outlets should be provided in each ward utility room, the dispensary buildings, and the out patient building, as shown on the typical hospital plan. Note: All of the above sterilizers, except the small electrical instrument sterilizers, will require water. steam, and waste outlets and proper connections after delivery of equipment. All steam supply lines should have suitable piping to permit uniformly maintained, adequate pressure at the instrument to assure a steam supply for capacity operation of the equipment.

Steam supply systems should deliver normal steam, free from moisture.

b. X-Ray Equipment

(1) One X-ray machine for fluoroscopy and radiography, 100 to 200 MA type.

(2) One X-ray machine, portable, 15 to 50 MA type, for use with base plug connection in each ward.

(3) One developing tank.

Note: Necessary wiring detail and developing room arrangement are shown on the typical hospital plan. Barium plaster or lead lining should be provided on all inside walls of X-ray room, whichever is cheaper. Control Room partition should be lead shield with leaded window. Hall door and developing room door should be lead covered.

c. Operating Room Table

No special attachments necessary.


June 29, 1942.

SUBJECT: Equipment for Fire protection in Japanese Relocation Centers.

TO: The Division Engineer, South Pacific Division, U. S. E. D., 351 California Street, San Francisco, California.

1. Reference par. 2h and par. 11 of "Standards and Details—Construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers," dated June 8, 1942. The following are submitted as minimum requirements:

a. Fire Trucks—Two of these to be provided for each center of 10,000 capacity or less. For centers of greater capacity one truck will be provided for each 5,000 capacity. When service pressure in water mains averages 60 lbs. or more, pumping equipment may be omitted from the trucks. These trucks will be equipped with minimum 600' of 2 1/2" hose, wrenches, hand operated chemical extinguishers and two ladders 12' long. When pressure is less than average of 60 lbs. conventional pumper engines with capacity of not less than 600 GPM will be provided, Not less than 600' of 2-1/2" hose and two ladders 12' long will be included in the equipment.

b. Extinguishers—To he provided for each building on the following basis:

Building1 2-1/2 Gal.
S & A2
2-1/2 Gal.
1 Qt.
Mess Hall11..
H Type Sanitation Building11..

c. Fire Hose—Sufficient hose should be provided so that including what is carried on the trucks or engines minimum 2000' of hose is available. Hose to be 21/2" single jacket, rubber lined, in 50' lengths with pin lug couplings.

3. Request that every effort be made to have the equipment listed above actually on hand is, each Center at such time as may be set for completion of essential facilities required for beneficial occupation.

For the Commanding General:
Colonel, A.G.D.,
Asst. Adjutant General.

September 23, 1942.


(Based on "Standards and Details—Construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers" and "Directive for War Time Construction," O. C. E.)

1. General—Shelter and facilities to be provided on the basis of a company of four (4) officers and 126 enlisted men. Buildings to be of modified Theater of Operations type.

2. Buildings—Administration and Supply; Guard House; Recreation Room and Post Exchange; Dispensary; Garage; Mess Hall and Kitchen; Officers' Quarters; Latrine and Bath House; Enlisted Men's Barracks Buildings (4).

3. Utilities:

a. Water—Adequate water for culinary, sanitary and fire protection purposes on basis of 100 gallons per capita per day.

b. Water-borne sewage disposal.

c. Electric light and power.

d. Heating by separate space heaters such as cannon stoves.

4. Officers' Quarters—Individual rooms, approximately 8'x12' for sleeping quarters. Each room to have one ceiling outlet and one convenience outlet. Toilet and shower room in building. Hot water to be provided by individual water heater. Recreation room to be provided. Windows to be screened against flies. Building to be lined with sheet rock or other type wall board.

5. Enlisted Men's Barracks (4)—Buildings to be 20'x100' each, of modified T/O type. One-room building.

6. Administration and Supply Building—To be 20'xl00' in size. Office space to be provided and space for company supply storage and issue. Toilet facilities. Shelving to be constructed in supply room.

7. Guard House—To be divided into prisoners' quarters, guards' quarters, prisoners' toilet and shower room, guards' toilet and shower room, and space for the office of the Sergeant of the Guard.

8. Recreation and Post Exchange Building—Space to be provided for Post Exchange with suitable shelving for merchandise; major portion of building to be large open room for use as recreation room.

9. Dispensary—Building approximately 20'x30' with hot water and sanitary facilities consisting of water closet, lavatory and sink.

10. Mess Hall and Kitchen—To have standard sit-down mess tables, with tops covered with pressed wood or ply wood, and varnished; two (2) # 5 Army ranges, 40 cu. ft. mechanical refrigerator, hot water heater and tank, meat block. kitchen store room with shelving. Building to be screened. Scullery sink. Serving counter or tables. Where gas is the fuel, two heavy duty restaurant type ranges having capacity equal to two (2) # 5 Army ranges will be provided.

11. Latrine and Bath House—Plumbing fixtures to be provided on the following basis:

Flush toilets1 per 20 enlisted men
Urinals1 per 30 enlisted men
Lavatories1 per 20 enlisted men
Showers1 per 20 enlisted men

Foot baths to be provided at entrance to shower stalls.

12. Garage—To provide space for four (4) vehicles. In warmer sections of country, will be of open shed type.

13. Watch Towers—Towers of a height commensurate with terrain Conditions and equipped with searchlights as required shall be constructed around outside of occupied area in locations and numbers requested by local Military Police Commander, but not more than eight to each Center without the approval of this Headquarters.

14. Fences—Fences will not be built around Military Police area. Materials will be furnished Center directors to fence the evacuee occupied areas only.

15. Flagpole—Ninety-foot flagpole will be erected in suitable location in the Military Police area.

16. Fire Extinguishers—To be provided for each building on the following basis:

Building1 2-1/2 gal.
S & A2
2-1/2 gal.
Mess Hall11
Officers' Quarters2..
Guard House2..

17. Miscellaneous—All buildings with the exception of the garage will be screened and the interiors lined with wall board. Material for coal bins and screened garbage racks will be furnished the Center directors who will construct same with Japanese labor.

1When oil is used for heating purposes one 2-1/2 gallon foamite extinguisher will be substituted for one S & A where the oil is used.

2Pump type extinguishers nor he. substituted for S & A type when he latter are note obtainable.

3One qt. C. T. C. extinguishers to be provided for us, in operating delivery, and other room, where electrical appliances, or central electric switches are located.

1. U.S. War Department, Final Report, pp. 584-91.

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