Hopewell Culture
Administrative History
NPS Logo


Document Approval Sheet


List of Figures

Preface and Acknowledgements

Chapter One: A Brief History of the Hopewell Culture

The Hopewell Experience
Squier and Davis at Mound City Group
Mythology of the Moundbuilders
Modern American Archeology and Hopewell Culture

Chapter Two: Preservation of the Mound City Group

The War Department and Camp Sherman
President Harding Proclaims a National Monument
Ohio Establishes a State Memorial
The National Park Service Assumes Control

Chapter Three: Clyde B. King, "Mr. Moundbuilder," 1946-1962

From Custodian to Superintendent
Recreation Overwhelms the National Monument
Era of Development: MISSION 66 at Mound City Group

Chapter Four: Administering the Mound City Group

National Park Service Staff
History of Boundary Changes
A Special Emphasis: Energy Conservation

Chapter Five: Relations with the Community

Veterans Administration
Prisoners as Neighbors
Ohio State Agencies
The State Coordinator Program

Chapter Six: Exhibiting the Hopewell Culture

Attempts to Retrieve Squier and Davis' Collection
Ohio and the 1920-21 Mound City Group Collection
Mound City Group Visitor Center
Exterior Exhibits
Curatorial Services
Native Americans and the Human Remains Issue

Chapter Seven: Maintenance of Mounds and Park Infrastructure

Grounds Maintenance
Maintenance Challenges
History of the Physical Plant
Temporary Work Programs

Chapter Eight: Resources Management and Visitor Protection

Resources Management Concerns
Law Enforcement

Chapter Nine: Interpreting the Mound City Group

The Interpretive Program
Environmental Education
Eastern National Park and Monument Association
Interpretive Dilemma: The Prehistoric Landscape

Chapter Ten: The Long Road to Hopeton

Significance of the Hopeton Earthworks
Park Expansion and Local Reaction
Threats Escalate, but Congress Is Slow to Act
Transformation: Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Appendix A: List of United States Government Personnel Connected with Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
Appendix B: Annual Visitation Figures
Appendix C: Legislation
Appendix D: Chronological List of Significant Events


Index (omitted from on-line edition)



1 entrance to Hopewell Culture NHP, Mound City Group
2 Hopewellian hand made from mica
3 Edwin Hamilton Davis
4 Ephraim George Squier
5 Squier and Davis' Mound City drawing
6 Scioto Valley monuments map
7 1858 Davis prospectus
8 Mordecai C. Hopewell
9 Camp Sherman barracks
10 cross-section of Mound 18
11 excavation of Mound 7
12 excavation of Mound 7
13 Shetrone and Mills
14 mica deposit
15 Mound City Group restoration
16 Mound City Group restoration
17 Mound City Group restoration
18 Mound City Group restoration
19 state park entrance sign and gate
20 custodian's residence and maintenance building
21 maintenance building
22 shelter house
23 visitors enjoy recreation
24 YMCA group tours mounds
25 railroad spur and parking lot
26 Mound City Museum
27 Mound City Committee
28 first national monument entrance sign
29 comfort station
30 Clyde King and exhibits
31 Clyde King with fifth-graders
32 Adena State Memorial
33 school group at shelter house
34 John L. Cotter at visitor center dedication
35 chestnut rail boundary fence
36 ethnobotanical trail along Scioto
37 Mound City Group staff, 1969
38 General Superintendent William C. Birdsell
39 Superintendent Fred Fagergren, Jr.
40 Superintendent Kenneth Apschnikat
41 Superintendent William Gibson
42 Raymond S. Baby
43 post mold pattern of Mound 10
44 southwest corner borrow pit
45 excavation of Mound 13
46 post patterns at Mound 13
47 mica grave exhibit
48 excavation of Mound 5
49 Elmo Smalley, Sr., removes Mound 17
50 Martha Potter at Mound 17
51 VA incinerator
52 B & O railroad spur line
53 burial ceremony mural
54 copper hands on exhibit
55 visitor center
56 charnel house model
57 glare problem in museum
58 observation platform audio program
59 Mound City necropolis wayside
60 charnel house exhibit
61 "Pipe Mound" wayside
62 construction of mica grave exhibit
63 visitor circulation to mica grave
64 James Coleman and J. Vernon Acton
65 Phillip Egan on mower
65a lawn maintenance around entrance sign
66 quarters building
67 repairs to flat visitor center roof
68 redesigned visitor center roof
69 old maintenance utility building
70 modern maintenance building
71 Frances Spetnagel and ground squirrels
72 Ranger Jim Anderson on guided tour
73 modern turf grass verses prehistoric landscape
74 aerial view
75 tree protrudes from a mound
76 aerial view of turf practices
77 Squier and Davis' Hopeton Earthworks
78 Hopeton study area map
79 Hopeton Earthworks
80 Chillicothe Sand and Gravel Company


For Three Men Who Have Made a Difference --

"Mr. Moundbuilder," Clyde B. King, first Mound City Group National Monument superintendent;

And for my two National Park Service mentors:

F. A. "Andy" Ketterson, Jr., Chief, cultural resources management, Midwest Regional Office (retired)

Edwin C. ("Ed") Bearss, National Park Service Chief historian (retired)


As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the United States Department of the Interior has basic responsibilities to protect and conserve our land and water, energy and minerals, fish and wildlife, parks and recreation areas, and to ensure the wise use of all these resources. The department also has major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under United States administration.

The document was prepared by the author for reproduction in the Division of Cultural Resources Management, Midwest Support Office, Midwest Region, National Park Service.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service

Superintendent, Hopewell Culture National Historical Park (formerly Mound City Group NM)
Date: 03-01-1999


Superintendent, Midwest Support Office
Date: 03-10-1999

Regional Director, Midwest Region
Date: 03-10-1999

Last Updated: 04-Dec-2000