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Hazen's men landing from pontoon boats
Hazen's men landing from pontoon boats at Brown's Ferry, Tennessee River. Theodore R. Davis wartime sketch.
From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.

Lifting the Siege—The Battle of Chattanooga

With the Confederate Army in front of Chattanooga divided into two corps, Hardee on the right and Breckinridge on the left on Missionary Ridge, and General Stevenson with a small force occupying Lookout Mountain, Bragg waited.

Grant's plan of battle was for Sherman with his four divisions to cross the Tennessee River at Brown's Ferry and march behind Stringer's Ridge, concealed from the eyes of the Confederates, and take a position near the North Chickamauga Creek. He was to recross the river by pontoon bridge at the mouth of the South Chickamauga Creek, strike the north end of Missionary Ridge and capture it as far as the railroad tunnel. Thomas was to move his Army of the Cumberland to the left, and connect with Sherman. This united force was to sweep the Confederates southward off Missionary Ridge and away from their base of supplies at Chickamauga Station. Howard's Corps was to act as a general reserve for this force. Hooker, with the Twelfth Corps and Brig. Gen. Charles Cruft's Division (Fourth Corps), was to hold Lookout Valley. Col. Eli Long's Cavalry was to cover Sherman's left and when no longer needed for this task was to strike Bragg's communications. This original plan, however, was changed several times to fit the situation.

The rains that hampered movement of Union supplies also delayed Sherman's movement across the Tennessee. High water broke the bridge at Brown's Ferry and Osterhaus' Division could not cross the river. Subsequently it received orders to join Hooker in Lookout Valley.

On November 22, Grant received word that Bragg was withdrawing his army; actually the movement reported was Buckner leaving to reinforce Longstreet. To "test the truth" of the report, Grant changed his plans and ordered Thomas to make a demonstration to his front on the 23rd. This began the battles of Chattanooga.

map of The Battle of Chattanooga
(click on map for an enlargement in a new window)

TABLE 3. — Union Army at Chattanooga

Army of the Cumberland— Maj. GEN. GEORGE H. THOMAS

    Fourth Army Corps—MAJ. GEN. GORDON GRANGER
        1st Division—Brig. Gen. Charles Cruft
        2d Division—Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan
        3d Division—Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood

    Fourteenth Army Corps—MAJ. GEN. J. M. PALMER
        1st Division—Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson
        2d Division—Brig. Gen. J. C. Davis
        3d Division—Brig. Gen. Absalom Baird

    Engineer Troops—BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM F. SMITH

    Artillery Reserve—BRIG. GEN. J. M. BRANNAN
        1st Division—Col. James Barnett
        2d Division

        2d Division
        —2d Brigade—Col. Eli Long

    Post of Chattanooga—COL. JOHN G. PARKHURST

Detachment from the Army of the Potomac—Maj. GEN. JOSEPH HOOKER

    Eleventh Army Corps—Maj. GEN. O. O. HOWARD
        2d Division—Brig. Gen. Adolph von Sreinwehr
        3d Division—Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz

    Twelfth Army Corps—Maj. GEN. HENRY W. SLOCUM
        2d Division—Brig. Gen. John W. Geary

Army of the Tennessee—MAJ. GEN. WILLIAM T. SHERMAN

    Fifteenth Corps—Maj. GEN. FRANK P. BLAIR, JR.
        1st Division—Brig. Gen. Peter J. Osterhaus
        2d Division—Brig. Gen. Morgan L. Smith
        4th Division—Brig. Gen. Hugh Ewing

    Seventeenth Army Corps
        2d Division—Brig. Gen. John E. Smith

TABLE 4.—Confederate Army at Chattanooga

    Cheatham's Division—Brig. Gen. John K. Jackson
    Stevenson's Division—Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson
    Cleburne's Division—Maj. Gen. P. R. Cleburne
    Walker's Division—Brig. Gen. Stares R. Gist

Breckinridge's Corps—Maj. GEN. JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE
    Hindman's Division—Brig. Gen. J. Patron Anderson
    Breckinridge's Division —Brig. Gen. William B. Bate
    Stewart's Division—Maj. Gen. Ambrose P. Stewart
    Reserve Artillery
        Robertson's Battalion—Capt. Felix H. Robertson
        Williams' Battalion—Maj. S. C. Williams

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