Fort Laramie and the Forty-Niners
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Old Bedlam
Old Bedlam, mentioned prominently in romantic novels of the period, was long used as quarters for the unmarried officers. The name was probably descriptive of its use as the center of social activities. Work was begun on this structure in 1849. This photograph was made by the U. S. A. Signal Corps in the 1880's. Courtesy Wyoming Historical Department.


1 Philip A. Rollins, ed., The Discovery of the Oregon Trail, Robert Stuart's Narrative, New York, 1935. pp. 195-196, 204.

2 Paul C. Phillips, ed., Life in the Rocky Mountains: A Diary . . . by W. A. Ferris, Denver, 1940, pp. 34-35.

3 Washington Irving, Adventures of Captain Bonneville, New York, n.d., pp. 68-69.

4 "Abstract of licences issued to trade with the Indians, etc.," in House Documents, Congress 33, Session 2, No. 97, cited by LeRoy R. Hafen and Francis M. Young, Fort Laramie and the Pageant of the West, Glendale, 1918, pp. 26-27.

5 W. F. Wagner, ed., Adventures of Zenas Leonard, 1811-1816, Cleveland, 1904, pp. 30-40.

6 M. M. Quaife, ed., Forty Years a Fur Trader, Chicago, 1031, pp. 24-21.

7 Albert J. Partoll, ed., "Anderson's Narrative of a Ride to the Rocky Mountains in 1834." Frontier and Midland, Vol. 19, No. 1.

8 Samuel Parker, Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains, Boston, 1844, pp. 68-70.

9 Myron Eells, Marcus Whitman, Pathfinder and Patriot, p. 71, cited by Hafen and young, op. cit., p. 43.

10 Three sketches of Fort William are included in the Miller collection; two of them reproduced in Hafen and Young, op. cit. The Miller notes are reproduced in part in Bernard De Voto, Across the Wide Missouri, Boston, 1947, p. 446.

11 Hiram M. Chittenden and Alfred T. Richardson, eds., Life Letters and Travels of Father Pierre-Jean De Smet S. J., 1801-1873. Cleveland, 1905, p. 211.

12 Rufus B. Sage, Rocky Mountain Life, Boston, 1857, p. 100.

13 J. C. Fremont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, Washington, 1945. pp. 35, 39.

14 Overton Johnson and William Winter, Route Across the Rocky Mountains, Princeton, 1932, p. 14.

15 John Minto, "Reminiscences of the Oregon Trail," Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 2 (June 1901), p. 158.

16 Joel Palmer, Journal of Travels Over the Rocky Mountains, Cincinnati, 1847. pp. 25-28.

17 Stephen W. Kearny. "Report of a Summer Campaign," Senate Executive Documents, Congress 29, Session 1, No. 1.

18 Mason Wade, ed., The Journals of Francis Parkman, New York, 1947. pp. 419-442,

19 William Clayton's Journal, Salt Lake City, 1921, pp. 206-214.

20 J. D. Richardson, A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. IV, p. 396.

21 Files of the Adjutant General's Office, cited by Hafen and Young. op. cit., p. 140.

22 Cullum, Biographical Register, Vol. I, pp. 496-497, cited by Georgia W. Read and Ruth Gaines, eds., Gold Rush: The Journals, Drawings etc. of J. Goldsborough Bruff, New York, 1944, p. 488.

23 Files of the Adjutant General's Office, cited by Hafen and Young. op. cit., pp. 140-141.

24 F. B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, p. 859.

25 War Department Archives, Fort Myer, Virginia (microfilm document No. 1).

26 Ibid (document No. 4).

27 Ibid (document No. 5).

28 Missouri Republican, July 6, 1849, cited by Hafen and Young, op cit., p. 146.

29 Mormon Church Archives, cited by Hafen and Young, op. cit., p. 149.

30 William Kelly, An Excursion to California, London, 1891, pp. 154-155.

31 Drips Papers, Missouri Historical Society. St. Louis, cited by Hafen and Young. op. cit., pp. 132- 133.

32 William G. Johnston, Experiences of a Forty-Niner, Pittsburgh, 1892, pp. 120-124.

33 George P. Burrall, Typescript Diary, in Newberry Library, Chicago.

34 Alonzo Delano, Across the Plains, New York, 1916, p. 29.

35 Elisabeth Page, Wagons West, New York, 1930, pp. 143-144.

36 Joseph W. Wood, Manuscript Diary, photostat copy in Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois, from original in Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

37 David M. Potter, ed., Trail to California, New Haven, 1945, pp. 106-107.

38 Isaac Jones wistar, Autobiography, 1827-1905, New York, 3917, pp. 83-86.

39 Elijah Bryan Farnham, Manuscript Journal, in family possession.

40 Nebraska State Historical Collections, Vol. xx 1922), pp. 192-193.

41 Lucy F. Sexton, ed., The Foster Family, California Pioneers, Santa Barbara, 1925, pp. 31-32.

42 Wistar, op cit.

43 Farnham, op. cit.

44 Amos Steck, Diary Manuscript, Colorado Historical Society, cited by Hafen and Young, op. cit., pp.. 151-152.

45 Sterling B. F. Clark, How Many Miles from St. Joe?, San Francisco, 1929. pp. 15-16.

46 Joseph Schafer. Ed., California Letters of Lucius Fairchild, Madison, 1931, pp. 31-32.

47 Raymond Settle, Ed., March of the Mounted Riflemen, Glendale, 1940, pp. 97-99.

48 Ibid. pp. 324-327.

49 War Department Archives, Fort Myer, Virginia (microfilm document No, 7).

50 War Department Archives, cited by Hafen and Young, op. cit., pp. 141-142,

51 War Department Archives. Fort Myer, Virginia (microfilm document No, 8).

52 John E. Brown, Memoirs of a Forty-Niner, New Haven, 1907, pp. 13-14.

53 Joseph Sedgley, Overland to California in 1849, Oakland, 1877, pp. 32-33.

54 Oliver Goldsmith, Overland in Forty-Nine, Detroit, 1896, pp. 41-43.

55 David Dewolf, Typescript Diary, in family possession.

56 Read and Gaines, op. cit., Gold Rush, pp. 19-39.

57 Original journal scheduled for publication, to be edited by Dale Morgan, Salt Lake City, Utah.

58 Capt. Howard Stansbury, Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Washington, 1853, pp. 54-55.

59 Missouri Republican, August 5, 1849, reprinted in Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. XX (1922), pp. 206-209,

60 Ibid.

61 Ibid.

62 T. L. Green, Nebraska History, Vol. XV, 1 (January 1934), pp. 38-46; Vol. XIX, 3 (July 1938), 175-190.

63 H. H. Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, 1540-1888, San Francisco, 1890. pp. 690-691; War Department Archives, Fort Myer, Virginia (microfilm document No, 9).

64 War Department Archives, Fort Myer, Virginia (microfilm document No, 11).

65 Ibid (microfilm document No, 12).

66 Ibid (microfilm document Nos. 16 and 17).

67 Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. XX, p. 221.

68 Ibid. pp. 214-216.

69 Mormon Church Archives, cited by Hafen and Ghent, op. cit., p. 155.

70 War Department Archives, Adjutant General's Office, File Case 10.

71 Senate Executive Documents, 31st Congress, 1st Session, No, 1, Part 1, p. 225.

72 Jess H. Lombard, "Old Bedlam," Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 13. No, 2 (April 1941), pp. 87-91; Merrill J. Mattes, "The Sutler's Store at Fort Laramie," Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 18, No, 2 (July 1946), pp. 93-138; also, "Surviving Army Structures," Manuscript, files of the National Park Service.


Fort Laramie and the Forty-Niners
©1949, Rocky Mountain Nature Association
mattess/endnotes.htm — 10-Mar-2003