Administrative History
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The purpose of this chapter is to present the historical development of the administration and management of Crater Lake National Park under the National Park Service. As a prelude to the historical development of administrative policy and organizational structure of the park sections will be devoted to the reservation's superintendents, rules and regulations, and U.S. commissioners.


Since the inception of the National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park has been served by some nineteen superintendents, each of whom has played a role in the growth and development of the reservation. As the persons in immediate charge of the day-to-day operations of the park, the superintendents have had a major impact on its management, administrative policy, design and construction of facilities, and protection of resources.

William G. Steel resigned as park superintendent on November 20, 1916, to become U.S. Commissioner for the reservation. While the circumstances surrounding his resignation are not well documented, it is clear that he and NPS Director Mather had personal differences that would soon become highly-publicized. Steel had close personal and financial ties with Alfred L. Parkhurst, president of the Crater Lake Company a firm that Mather became increasingly interested in replacing as park concessioner in his zeal to provide quality accommodations and facilities for park visitors. It is also probable that Democrats, following the reelection of Woodrow Wilson to a second term as President of the United States, were interested in replacing Steel, a life-long Republican.

Steel was replaced as superintendent by H. E. Momyer who had been the first park ranger to be hired at Crater Lake some years before. Apparently, Mather named Momyer to serve as acting superintendent until a permanent superintendent could be found. Momyer served in this capacity for less than a year, covering the period from November 22, 1916, to August 1, 1917. [1] In 1924, several years after leaving the park staff to establish a Klamath Falls branch office of the World Fire and Marine Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut, Momyer described his experiences:

I was appointed as Ranger in August 1907, I think, was the first Ranger, resinging [sic] in 1920, was appointed as Acting Supt when Mr Steel was apointed [sic] Commissinor [sic] Nov 24 1916, and served until Mr Sparrow was appointed July 25 1917.

During that time I was notified to send reports to Mr G.E. Goodwin, and think I sent one report to him but as he never was in the Park, and I never recieved [sic] any orders from him, never considered that he was Supt in any thing only name, as all mail came to me, part of the time addressed as Acting Supt, and part as Ranger in Charge, there was nothing particular happened during my administration, just regular routine business, so do not suppose I will figure very high in the Roll of Fame. . . . [2]

Alex Sparrow was the first full-time superintendent at Crater Lake to be appointed by Mather. His dates of services extended from August 2, 1917, to February 15, 1923. Born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Sparrow was a veteran of the Spanish-American War, having served both in Cuba and the Philippines. Prior to his superintendency, Sparrow settled in the Rogue River Valley and established a farming operation. During the summers of the four years before he became superintendent, he served as an engineer in the park road construction program under the direction of the U.S. Corps of Engineers. In 1916 he served briefly with Brigadier General John J. Pershing during the Mexico border campaign. While serving as superintendent at Crater Lake, Sparrow was named acting superintendent of Mount Rainier National Park from April 19 to May 28, 1919. After leaving the Park Service he became a Jackson County judge with offices in Medford. [3]

Charles Goff Thomson became park superintendent on February 15, 1923, and served for six years until February 15, 1929, when he was transferred to the superintendency of Yosemite National Park, a position he held until March 22, 1937. After graduating from Cornell University in 1907, he was appointed to the veterinary corps in the Philippines under the Department of Agriculture. Two years later he was appointed superintendent of the government serum laboratory. In 1911 he joined General Pershing, who was then civil governor of Mindanao, with the assignment of eliminating the outbreak of a lethal disease menacing the supply of work animals in the province. From July 1914 to April 1917 he served as assistant director of prisons in the Philippines, in which position he had executive control of 46 institutions with some 8,400 prisoners.

After returning to the United States in 1917, he joined the armed forces, being commissioned a captain in the remount service. He organized and commanded the remount depots at Camp Gordon, Georgia, and Camp Dix, New Jersey, before being promoted to major and assigned overseas. He advanced to lieutenant colonel in command of 2,600 officers and men at Lux, France, where he handled 76,000 horses and mules for the First and Third Armies of the Allied Powers. On July 19, 1919, he was cited for "exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous services as commanding officer, United States troops, at Lux, France."

Thomson joined the National Park Service as superintendent of Crater Lake National Park. In December 1923, nine months after taking office, he declared that "the park service is the best in the world and that he expects to die in it."

Thomson s avocation was free-lance writing. Among his published works were two books based on his experiences in the Philippines: Terry: A Tale of the Hill People (1921) and Time Is A Gentleman (1923). He also wrote short fiction pieces for such periodicals as Pictorial Review, Country Gentlemen, and Munsey and outdoor articles for Field and Stream and Scenic America. [4]

Succeeding Thomson as superintendent was Elbert C. Solinsky who served from February 15, 1929, to September 1, 1934. Solinsky was born in the mountains of California and his childhood was spent in an environment of lumbering and mining around Mokelumne Hill, a small mining town on the western slope of the Sierra Nevadas. He attended Berkeley High School and the University of California where he studied mining engineering and played football for two years. In 1915 he was employed at Yosemite National Park, supervising all timber operations in the park and serving as representative of the government's interests on the Hetch Hetchy water and power project. As assistant to the Yosemite superintendent from 1926-29, he supervised protection and control of the park forests and maintenance and development of roads, trails, and park facilities. [5]

Prior to offering Solinsky the position at Crater Lake, NPS Director Horace M. Albright described the type of person needed as superintendent of the park in a memorandum to Secretary of the Interior Roy 0. West. He stated:

The position of the Crater Lake Park Superintendent carries a salary of $5,800, less $300 for quarters. The position is very important because it is the only executive position in the park. There is no assistant superintendent and no resident engineer. Unless a National Park Service man is promoted to the position from another park, there can be no assurance that the work will be done satisfactorily, particularly the first year. Mr. Solinsky can do this.

The park is located on the summit of the Cascade Mountains. The snowfall is very deep. It is a terrific task to open the roads and trails even by the first of July. The superintendent should have experience in snow removal, repair and upkeep of roads and trails, and must be capable of selecting good men and holding them. He should also have experience in overhauling equipment, purchasing and handling Government supplies and materials and using them efficiently and economically. [6]

Albright believed that Solinsky was the best qualified candidate for the position. On February 7, 1929, the director congratulated the new superintendent on his appointment:

This position comes to you because it was believed by the Washington Officers of the Service and by the Secretary that it would be in the interest of the Service to promote you from your present position to the grade of Superintendent. Your work at Yosemite Park as a forester, and later as Assistant to the Superintendent, has demonstrated that you have executive ability of a very high order and I have no doubt of your success at Crater Lake.

You understand, of course, that the responsibilities of the position are heavy. In the State of Oregon you will be the representative of the National Park Service and the personal spokesman of the Director. It will be necessary for you to exercise at all times the utmost tact and good judgment and every official act must be in harmony with National Park Service policies.

We shall expect you to make public contacts throughout the State. We shall expect you to identify yourself with such organizations in Medford as are open to you, and we hope that as a personal matter you will want to use your official position and your home to make friends for the National Park Service and for the Department of the Interior. We know that in Yosemite it was the disposition of Mrs. Solinsky and yourself to work along these lines and you did so with consummate success. I have no doubt that your personality and the hospitality of your home were taken into consideration, with your executive ability, in judging your qualifications for the Crater Lake superintendency. [7]

Solinsky was dismissed as superintendent on August 30, 1934, after an investigation by the Division of Investigation created by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes disclosed misappropriation of funds and irregularities in park accounts. After Solinsky's dismissal David H. Canfield, who had been the chief ranger at Crater Lake since May 1931, became acting park superintendent on September 1, 1934. A native of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and a graduate of the University of Minnesota, he had joined the National Park Service as a park ranger at Mesa Verde National Park in 1929, later becoming acting chief ranger. On December 15, 1934, Canfield was appointed superintendent at Crater Lake, thus becoming the youngest park superintendent in the United States. As a result of his talents he was recognized in the America's Young Men's Who's Who. Canfield served as superintendent until August 1, 1937, when he left to become superintendent of Rocky Mountain National Park, a position he held until April 16, 1943. [8]

From August 1, 1937 to March 14, 1952, Ernest P. Leavitt served as park superintendent, the longest tenure of any person in that position. Born in San Francisco, California, in 1885 he worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1907 to 1910. In the latter year he began his Park Service career as a clerk at Yosemite National Park, later becoming an administrative assistant to the superintendent and ultimately assistant superintendent from 1918 to 1930. Thereafter, he served in successive superintendencies at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (1931-33), Mesa Verde National Park (1933-35), and Lassen Volcanic National Park (1935-37). While at Lassen a gas explosion destroyed the superintendent's residence, severely injuring Leavitt and killing his wife. After his recovery Leavitt was transferred to Crater Lake. He retired from the Park Service in 1952 and Leavitt lived in the Medford area until his death in 1961. [9]

John P. Wosky served as park superintendent from March 30, 1952, to November 1, 1953. During the mid-1920s he served as field landscape architect at Crater Lake. From 1928 to 1933 he was the resident landscape architect in Yosemite National Park, where he became assistant superintendent in 1934. After leaving Crater Lake he became superintendent of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, serving there from 1953 to 1959. Thereafter, he was named Chief of Operations for the Western Regional Office in San Francisco. [10]

Fred T. Johnston was the superintendent at Crater Lake from November 1, 1953, to August 28, 1954. During 1942-43 he had been acting regional director of the Region One Office in Richmond. Prior to coming to Crater Lake he was superintendent at Lassen Volcanic National Park in 1952-53. From 1959 to 1965 he served as superintendent of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. [11]

Thomas J. Williams was superintendent at Crater Lake from August 28, 1954, to October 3, 1959. This was his first superintendency. [12]

Otto M. Brown became park superintendent on October 3, 1959, and served in that capacity until April 1, 1961. Prior to the Crater Lake assignment, his first superintendency, he was chief ranger at Yellowstone National Park. He retired in 1961 after more than 33 years of federal service. [13]

W. Ward Yeager was superintendent at Crater Lake from April 1, 1961, to April 11, 1964. Yeager began his Park Service career in 1928 as a ranger at Yellowstone National Park. Subsequently, he had tours of duty as a park ranger at Lassen Volcanic National Park, chief ranger at Kings Canyon and Mount Rainier national parks; assistant forester and assistant superintendent at Mesa Verde National Park; assistant superintendent at Lake Mead National Recreation Area; associate forester in the NPS Region Three Office at Santa Fe, New Mexico; and assistant superintendent at Grand Teton National Park. He retired from federal service in 1964. [14]

Richard A. Nelson served as superintendent of Crater Lake from May 10, 1964, to April 22, 1965. This was his first superintendency, although prior to his appointment he was assistant superintendent of Yellowstone National Park. [15]

J. Leonard Volz was park superintendent from June 28, 1965, to April 9, 1967. Later he would serve as regional director of the Southeast Regional Office in Richmond from 1968 to 1970 and the Midwest Regional Office in Omaha from 1970 to 1975. [16]

Donald M. Spalding served as park superintendent from April 23, 1967, to June 23, 1969. Prior to his Crater Lake assignment he was superintendent of Effigy Mounds National Monument (1962-64) and Platt National Park (1964-67). On July 1, 1969, he became general superintendent of the Klamath Falls Group, a new "mini-regional" office established to administer Crater Lake and Lava Beds and Oregon Caves national monuments. Subsequently, he served as superintendent of Buffalo National River (1972-76) and Death Valley National Monument (1976-78), and Chief, Office of Operations Evaluation of the Western Regional Office (1979-83). [17]

Einar L. Johnson was superintendent of Crater Lake from July 12, 1970, to August 19, 1973. This was his first superintendency. [18]

Richard H. Sims served as park superintendent from October 28, 1973, to September 13, 1975. Prior to his Crater Lake assignment he was park management assistant at Oregon Caves National Monument (1971-73). Later he would be superintendent of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park from 1979 to 1986. [19]

Frank J. Betts was the Crater Lake superintendent from September 14, 1975, to August 26, 1978. Subsequently, he served as superintendent of Denali National Park from 1978 to 1980. [20]

James S. Rouse was park superintendent at Crater Lake from August 27, 1978, to February 12, 1984. This was his first superintendency. He is now Assistant Superintendent at North Cascades National Park Service Complex. [21]

Robert E. Benton has served as superintendent at Crater Lake from April 16, 1984, to the present. Prior to his Crater Lake assignment he served as superintendent of Colorado National Monument (1972-80) and Bryce Canyon National Park (1980-84). [22]


Effective May 1, 1917, the National Park Service issued a comprehensive set of regulations to govern the administration and operation of Crater Lake National Park. The regulations were established pursuant to authority conferred by acts of Congress approved on May 22, 1902 (32 Stat. 202), August 21, 1916 (39 Stat. 521), and August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535). The rules were grouped into four categories: general, impounding and disposition of loose livestock, location of mining claims, and automobile and motorcycle. The following topics were listed under the general category:

Preservation of natural curiosities
Private Operations
Patented Lands
Saloons and Bars
Travel on Trails
Horse-Drawn Vehicles
Employees of Concessioners
Dead Animals
Miscellaneous - Travel
Miscellaneous - General
Dogs and Cats
Fines and Penalties [23]

The following year, on May 13, 1918, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane sent a letter to NPS Director Mather, articulating a general policy statement that would provide a sound basis for administration of the National Park System. This general policy statement was based on three principles:

First -- That the national parks must be maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations as well as those of our own time;

Second -- That they are set apart for the use, observation, health and pleasure of the people;

Third -- That the national interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in the parks.

The statement thus provided a broad framework for the management and development of Crater Lake National Park and the other units of the embryonic system. Future revisions of Crater Lake park regulations would be based on the conceptual details of park administration outlined in Lane's letter. [24]

Each year the park rules and regulations were amended as conditions warranted. The park superintendents would forward recommended changes based on the past season s experiences to the Washington Office, which in turn would review and approve/disapprove the amendments. The regulations were posted in the park administrative office and the ranger stations, as well as area public contact offices for perusal by the public. They were also printed in various park publications such as the annual circulars. [25]

By the early 1930s the National Park Service had committed itself to standardizing the format for the regulations of each unit in the system. This called for a "complete restatement" of the Crater Lake regulations in 1932 (a copy of which may be seen in Appendix C). By the mid-1930s the complete park regulations were posted at various points in the parks, while park publications contained only a synopsis of the rules (a copy of such a synopsis for 1940 may be seen in Appendix D). [26] Such synopses would appear in park publications into the 1950s.


On November 21, 1916, three months after enactment of 39 Stat. 521 established the position of U.S. Commissioner at Crater Lake, Judge Charles E. Wolverton of the U.S. District Court appointed William G. Steel to that position. Steel resigned as park superintendent on November 20 to assume his new duties. In this position Steel had authority to handle misdemeanor cases in the park. [27]

The position of U.S. Commissioner in the park apparently had few duties and responsibilities. In 1921, for instance, Superintendent Sparrow reported that during the year one man was brought before Steel "for rolling rocks inside the rim of the lake." After a brief hearing the man was "reprimanded and escorted out of the park." [28]

In February 1921 the Department of Justice informed the U.S. District Court for Oregon that Steel's term had expired on November 20, 1920. While it is likely that officials of the new administration of Warren G. Harding were interested in naming their own man to the position, the department based its decision to terminate Steel on the premise that his appointment was limited to the same four-year term as other United States Commissioners as provided in an Act of Congress on May 28, 1896. In response the U.S. District Court for Oregon argued that the position of Crater Lake National Park commissioner was different from that of United States Commissioners as provided in the 1896 act and was thus a new office. The 1916 act (39 Stat. 521) contained no language for a fixed term, and thus the court argued that Steel's position was "a continuing appointment." After accepting the court's arguments, the Department of Justice recommended that Steel be reappointed on a continuing basis retroactive to November 20, 1920, and that his authority and acts also be declared retroactive to that date. The reappointment process was ordered by Judge R.S. Bean on March 7, 1921. [29]

After his formal reappointment Steel continued to serve as U.S. Commissioner in the park until his death in October 1934. Park records indicated that he handled few cases during those years. In 1927, for instance, Superintendent Thomson reported that there were no automobile accidents and not a single arrest in the park. [30] Various records show that no cases were brought to the attention of Steel in 1929, 1930, and 1932. [31]

After the death of Steel in 1934, his daughter Jean Gladstone Steel was appointed park commissioner. She would remain in that position until the early 1940s. [32]

During the 1940s the U.S. Commissioner's position at Crater Lake became a matter of controversy between the Department of Justice and the National Park Service. The position was vacated during the war when the Department of Justice asked for the commissioner's resignation as an economy measure due to the reduction in park visitation and restricted park operations. After the war U.S. District Court Judge James A. Fee refused to appoint a new commissioner. His refusal affected Park Service law enforcement and irritated Superintendent Leavitt. In June 1947 Leavitt reported on the need for a U.S. Commissioner:

. . . it was found that we had an entirely different class of visitors to the park last year, people who had little or no appreciation of what the parks represented or what they stood for, so that there was a wanton disregard of the park rules and regulations and they did not take kindly to requests to obey these rules and regulations when they were called to their attention. We needed a U.S. Commissioner in the park last year as we have never needed one before, and there is every reason to believe that this need will continue in future years. . . .

For a year the National Park Service has been urging the Department of Justice to appoint a U.S. Commissioner for the park. The appointment, which is in the hands of Judge James Alger Fee of Portland, has been held up. Judge Fee has insisted that the Commissioner selected should be a law-trained man. It has not been practicable to secure a law-trained man who would be willing to "bury" himself in the park where his jurisdictional duties would be very light and where he would be too far away from a city to conduct a law practice on the side. If he remains in the city, he would be too far away from the park to satisfactorily handle the duties of his position there. The Superintendent has urged that a person without law training be appointed to the position, experience in the past indicating that such a person can handle that position satisfactorily.

When Congress passed a new judicial code on June 16, 1948, the legislation vested in the U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon discretionary authority to appoint a U.S. Commissioner for Crater Lake. Since the section dealing with Crater Lake was phrased in permissive language, Judge Fee continued to refuse to appoint a commissioner. He based his refusal on the ground that Congress had granted to the park commissioners authority that was unconstitutional:

In the first place, it puts a judicial official under the control of the Secretary of the Interior as to residence. In the second place, it requires that the commissioner, if appointed, be vested with the powers to try what are euphemistically called minor offenses on government reservations. In the third place, I believe that the section is unconstitutional because of the fact that there is an attempt to confer upon a commissioner so appointed power to forfeit property. This power can only be conferred upon a United States District Judge. [33]

Since nothing could be done to force Fee to appoint a commissioner, Secretary of the Interior Oscar L. Chapman took the matter to the Judicial Council for the Ninth Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals of which Chief Judge William Denman was the head. Writing on February 8, 1949, Chapman detailed the reasons why it was important to have a U.S. Commissioner at Crater Lake:

The basic need for a special commissioner for Crater Lake National Park arises from the fact that the United States has exclusive jurisdiction over the Park. This situation, coupled with the fact that we are now getting approximately a third of a million visitors to the Park annually, results in a great many law-enforcement problems dealing chiefly with violations of Park laws and regulations. A commissioner residing in or near the Park, who can handle these cases promptly and efficiently, is urgently needed. The lack of a special commissioner necessitates considerable travel to distant points away from the Park since it is necessary to take arrested persons before the United States Commissioner in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Such Commissioner, if there is sufficient evidence, bonds the person over for trial by the Federal District Court in Portland, Oregon. This procedure results in an increase in expenses and a loss of time on the part of personnel. Administrative difficulties in connection with Park administration are multiplied. An excessive loss of time for persons who are charged with violations of Park laws and regulations also results from the lack of a commissioner. In many cases the persons charged with violations must return to their work or engagements on the day following their arrest. This becomes almost impossible when there is no Park commissioner available to handle their cases promptly. The situation is complicated further because there is no jail in the Park. As a result, the rangers must spend considerable additional periods of time with arrested persons, which time is urgently needed elsewhere in the administration of the Park. [34]

The issue of a resident commissioner at Crater Lake became embroiled in the general debate over the need for commissioners in numerous other parks. Accordingly, the National Park Service was requested to provide data to justify the need for such persons in fourteen national parks. On April 20, 1949, Superintendent Leavitt submitted information and recommendations concerning the necessity of having a commissioner at Crater Lake. The data emphasized the need for a part-time park commissioner. During the period 1946-49 Leavitt noted that:

. . . there were many cases of misdemeanors in the park that could have and should have been taken before the United States Commissioner for hearing, but could not be handled because of our lack of a commissioner.

Only the most flagrant cases were handled by taking them before the nearest United States Commissioner, who is Burt Thomas of Klamath Falls. Under present regulations, he is authorized to hold only a preliminary hearing and fix bail by remanding them to the Federal District Court in Portland, Oregon.

During the year 1947 there were two cases of theft, and during 1948, one case of dumping garbage within the park and one case of drunkenness and disorderly conduct.

I have no suggestion to make concerning additional powers and functions that might be granted to a commissioner, and only one comment to make. Because of the nature of his duties in most parks and he would not be regularly and continuously employed, he would be happier if he could be authorized or permitted to assist in the park work, in such duties as would not be incompatible with his duties as park commissioner. I refer to such duties as giving information to park visitors, serving as librarian, helping to entertain official, distinguished, or important visitors by serving as guide to points of interest in the park, and other duties of a similar nature. There is frequent need for someone to perform these duties and often times there is not the necessary personnel available who can be spared from regular work. [35]

As a result of these recommendations, a park commissioner was finally appointed. Documentary evidence, however, indicates that the position continued to decline in importance and in some cases may have been a hindrance to park law enforcement. In 1967, for instance, Chief Park Ranger Larry L. Hakal wrote:

The inavailability of the commissioner hinders law enforcement action. Many cases are dropped after a severe warning rather than take the time to contact the Commissioner. Only the worst cases are brought to court. And usually this follows some what of a delay in contacting him. Then when court time is set either he comes to the Park or the Ranger must take his case and violator to Medford.

The commissioner is Mr. Frank Van Dyke with his office located in Medford. Mr. Van Dyke is a very busy person. He is a partner of a law firm, and president of the Medford Chamber of Commerce. In court he goes all out to see that the violator knows his rights. This may take a good half hour. He usually holds himself neutral but will give advice on tough legal matters. Some times he asks what we would like for punishment following a conviction. This we should never do as this is his and only his decision. His fines are light unless the offense is major. Traffic offenses usually will have half of the fine suspended. [36]


In the early years under the National Park Service Crater Lake National Park was administered by a small staff. In 1917, for instance, the staff consisted of Superintendent Sparrow, one permanent first-class ranger, and three seasonal rangers for the months of July, August, and September. [37]

One of the first issues with which Sparrow had to grapple was the question of quarters and office distribution for his fledgling staff. In May 1918, as the summer season approached, Sparrow wrote a lengthy letter to Acting NPS Director Horace M. Albright:

As the opening of the park season approaches, the question of quarters again claims attention. So far as I am concerned a tent or stable is good enough, but there are times when I should be in a position to offer meals or a bed to stragglers or guests. This is only possible by retaining the big house and having some one live in it that is willing to feed me and any person I choose to entertain, and have all meals charged to myself. Had such an arrangement with Mrs Momyer last season, for meals, but did not feel justified in making much use of it in her small cottage, and the big house was practically empty after Mr. Steel went to Medford, Aug 28, he came in when you did, July 25.

I would suggest converting two rooms into an office and retaining two bed rooms for myself and guests, turn the kitchen, dining room and two bed rooms over to some person that could fill the bill.

Mrs. Steel would not do this and could not if she would, she appears to have a holy horror of anything that suggests work. With the exception of 1914 when her sister was clerk at headquarters, she never remained in the park more than four or five weeks during the season, and Mr. Steel must be where his family is. Those were the conditions when he was Superintendent, and we could not expect any more from a Commissioner.

Mrs. Momyer is capable of filling the bill and I believe she would be willing to do it, if not, I can find some one that will. Another arrangement would be to have some one live in the house and feed the employees, including myself, at a per diem rate, or I could get a cook of my own and let Mr. Steel have a bed room, provided he did not ask me to feed his wife.

With Mr. Momyer in the big house, the small cottage would be available for Mr. Steel, if he should take a notion to visit the park. For the short time that he is likely to remain there, it seems to me that he should get a tent at the rim and live in it or at the hotel.

I want to be reasonable with all concerned, especially Mr. Steel, but I don't feel justified in impairing the administration of the park to make it comfortable for people who did not live there when they were paid for doing so.

In justice to Mr. Steel and Mr. Momyer, I will say that they have not mentioned quarters to me in any way, and any arrangement with them can be changed on short notice.

This letter is written in view of verbal instructions last August, relative to the big house, and I would appreciate an expression of your opinion at this time. Any suggestions will be cheerfully carried out as of my own initiative. [38]

One week later, on May 24, Albright responded to Sparrow's letter by supporting the recommendations of the superintendent. He went on to state:

There is no likelihood of Congress authorizing the construction of the new administration building this year. It is, therefore, incumbent upon us to put the buildings we now have to the use that best meets the convenience of the superintendent and the more important park interests.

You are authorized, therefore, to assign the small building heretofore occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Momyer to Commissioner Steel and his wife, and to utilize the superintendent's residence as you see fit, permitting Mr. and Mrs. Momyer to reside in part of the building and utilizing another part of it for your offices as seems best to you.

Last summer when I was in the park you will recall that I told Mr. Momyer to remain in the cottage where he was then living. I gave him these instructions after he had apparently told Mr. Steel that he would have to move out of the superintendent's residence. My object in taking this action was to let Mr. Momyer clearly understand that he was not in charge of the park and that no disposition should be made of public buildings until after you had assumed control.

With further reference to Mr. Steel, I would observe that it is probably your duty to urge Mr. Steel to remain in the park during the entire tourist season. Congress authorized the appointment of a Commissioner to reside in the park in order to make it possible to promptly punish violations of the rules and regulations to points outside of the park, for trial before a U.S. Commissioner or a Federal Court. If the purpose of the Crater Lake Jurisdiction Act is not to be defeated Mr. Steel must remain in the park throughout the season, and as long thereafter as there is any danger of depredations being committed upon any of the natural features of the park. [39]

During the next several years the park staff increased slowly. In 1918 the number of employees was expanded to include one permanent ranger at headquarters, who manned the Anna Spring checking station during the summer, three seasonal mounted patrol rangers, three seasonal rangers at the entrance checking stations, and one temporary clerk-stenographer. [40]

By 1923 the park staff had expanded further. That year Superintendent Thomson described the park organization as follows:

The superintendent is the park executive. A clerk and a chief ranger assist him throughout the year, and during the travel season 6 additional rangers and about 50 men are employed. The superintendent directs all park activities except the United States commissioner's court and the post office; he also supervises public utilities. [41]

It was determined in 1923 to move gradually the park headquarters to what would become known as Government Camp in the Munson Valley area of the park.

Continuing low appropriations during the 1920s prevented the development of an adequate administrative staff and facilities at Crater Lake. In 1927, for instance, Superintendent Thomson observed that the park was "not abreast with requirements administratively, being among the most backward in this respect of any of the large parks." There was "a shortage of permanent and of temporary personnel and a regrettable lack of administrative facilities." There was, for example, just one employee's cabin which had been built that year. The park needed additional employee housing, a new bunk house and kitchen for work crews, mechanical snow equipment, several new trucks to replace worn-out vehicles that had been derived from war surplus, a new administrative building to replace the present unfit small log structure, warehouse and garage facilities, and expanded sewage disposal facilities. [42]

The following year Superintendent Thomson elaborated further on the administrative difficulties facing park management. The number of employees in the park ranged from a minimum of four in winter to a maximum of 75 in summer. Up to 70 temporary employees were added to the park rolls from June to October, including a maximum of ten rangers. Administrative problems facing the park included:

The Park season is from July 1st to September 20th but travel sets in when the road is free of snow in May or June and persists until snow permanently closes the Park in November or December. The rail head is Medford 79 miles from Park headquarters, the long truck haul of supplies and personnel adding to administrative difficulties and cost. The Park area is rugged and very heavily forested, presenting a serious fire hazard during the dry season. The heavy increase in travel has strained Park facilities, particularly as to campgrounds, water supply, and sanitation. In personnel we have been seriously cramped, being limited in permanent employees to a disbursing agent, a stenographer, and one permanent ranger.

Park visitation had multiplied "seven or eight times" during the past two decades, while appropriations had "little more than doubled." Thus, the "disparity between administration and demands upon it" was "becoming increasingly apparent." [43]

During 1929-30 the park staff was organized into departments, each with clearly defined responsibilities under the supervision of Superintendent Solinsky. The park's organization reflected the expanded scope and increasing complexity of park operations. The administrative department employed a chief clerk and a senior stenographer. This office staff was augmented during the summer by two clerk-stenographers and one telephone operator. These personnel handled general office work, correspondence, financial matters, information, timekeeping, and other administrative duties. The engineering department was in charge of Engineer Ward P. Webber who was connected with the Park Service field headquarters office in San Francisco and loaned to the park during the travel season This department was in charge of roads and trails and improvements and maintenance, snow removal, and building construction and maintenance. The sanitation department, consisting of four men, handled garbage and refuse removal and kept the campgrounds clean. The protection department headed by Chief Ranger W.C. Godfrey included ten to twelve seasonal rangers whose duties were road patrol, information, guide, and lecture service, compilation of travel statistics, communications and campground services, entrance travel checking, fish planting, wildlife protection, and insect and fire control. The information or educational department, which was in charge of lecture, guide, interpretive, and museum services, was under the supervision of Park Naturalist Earl U. Homuth (replaced by F. Lyle Wynd in July 1930), assisted by three temporary ranger naturalists. A master mechanic headed the mechanical department (consisting of two to three seasonal mechanics) and was responsible for keeping park vehicles, trucks, and equipment in repair. The maximum number of employees on the work-force at one time in 1930 was 160. [44]

Medical and first-aid services were provided in the park for employees, as well as visitors, for the first time during the summer of 1930. Dr. Fred N. Miller, head of the University of Oregon's health service program, provided such services under contract. His sister Elizabeth Miller, who was affiliated with the Public Health Service of the Pennsylvania State Department of Health, aided Miller during the summer season. Tents were set up at Government Camp, the park headquarters area at Anna Spring, where the medical services were dispensed. Miller would continue to provide such services during the summer seasons under contract until the early 1940s when he engaged in medical services for the war effort. Throughout this period in the park he was paid by monthly deductions from the paychecks of employees of the park, concessioner, and road contractors operating in the park. [45]

The park staff continued to expand during the early 1930s. A park personnel list from 1932 indicated that the staff consisted of 8 permanent and 22 temporary positions. The permanent positions were superintendent, chief clerk, associate park naturalist, chief ranger, general park mechanic, two park rangers, and senior stenographer. The temporary positions were senior stenographer, assistant clerk, junior stenographer, clerk-telephone operator, twelve park rangers, three ranger-naturalists, two fire guards, and one storekeeper. Approximately 220 per diem employees were employed on park construction and maintenance projects during the year. [46]

The administrative work of Crater Lake National Park was increased greatly in August 1933 as a result of the placement of Oregon Caves and Lava Beds national monuments under the supervision of the park superintendent. The two monuments were transferred to the National Park Service from the U.S. Forest Service as part of the government-wide reorganization under Executive Order 6166 issued on June 10, 1933. While funds for the administration of these areas did not become available until July 1, 1934, Ranger Don C. Fisher, by a transfer of funds, was stationed at Lava Beds by June 1, 1934, and Breynton Finch, a veteran temporary park ranger, was assigned to Oregon Caves. [47]

The economic downturn of the Great Depression had a major impact on the park staff during the fall of 1933. After the park staff was analyzed in terms of park needs by Superintendent Solinsky under directives issued by the Bureau of the Budget seven permanent and twenty-two seasonal or temporary positions were retained. These included the permanent positions of superintendent, chief clerk, senior stenographer, chief park ranger, general park mechanic, associate park naturalist, and park ranger. The seasonal/temporary positions were: park ranger naturalist (4); park ranger (9); park ranger checker; senior stenographer; storekeeper; and assistant storekeeper. [48]

Investigations of park financial affairs and operations were begun in March 1934 by agents of the Division of Investigation created by Secretary of the Interior Ickes. Two accountants from the General Accounting Office arrived in June to make an examination of park financial records. As a result of the preliminary investigations three men were suspended from the park staff by Ickes without pay pending further study--Superintendent Solinsky and Chief Clerk A.R. Edwin on May 15 and Superintendent of Construction I. F. Davidson on June 8. On August 30 the three men were given involuntary dismissals. David H. Canfield, former chief park ranger, was named as acting interim superintendent. [49]

The investigations by the General Accounting Office auditors and Division of Investigation agents continued for some thirteen months. In December 1934 Solinsky, Edwin, and Davidson were indicted on charges of conspiring to falsify park payrolls from May through October 1932 and presenting false claims against the government which were paid by Edwin as park disbursing officer. The total fraudulent proceeds charged to Solinsky were approximately $3,000, a sum which he apparently used to construct a residence in Medford. At the trial which began in April, Edwin and Davidson pleaded guilty to the charges and testified against Solinsky. Defense attorneys contended that Solinsky was the victim of government red tape and had condoned accounting irregularities at the park to better visitor services, purchase new equipment, and construct a new park boat. On April 30, however, Solinsky was found guilty on fourteen counts, and on May 4 he received a two-year sentence at the McNeil Island Federal Prison and a $2,500 fine. Edwin and Davidson received lesser sentences of thirteen and eight months, respectively. [50]

The investigations and scandal had a major impact on park administration and operations. In July 1935 Superintendent Canfield observed that an almost complete turnover in key personnel had occurred:

Directly or indirectly resulting from investigations of park affairs the superintendent, chief clerk, chief ranger, permanent ranger, superintendent of construction, and storekeeper changed, making smooth operation difficult until such time as the new appointees are thoroughly broken in. . . . [51]

During the summers of 1934 and 1935 the park administrative officers were quartered in the recently completed Ranger Dormitory pending completion of the new Administration Building. These years also witnessed an effort by Klamath Falls to have the park winter headquarters transferred there from Medford. In 1935, for instance, Superintendent Canfield observed that favorable "arguments and data, for years in the embryonic stage, are approaching crystallization in Klamath Falls' bid to have the park offices transferred there." He noted, however, that it was "possible that at the last moment the formal request will never be made because of enmity that might be incurred." [52]

By 1936 the issue of moving the winter headquarters office from Medford to Klamath Falls had lessened in intensity. Canfield noted wistfully that the "maintenance of a branch office" in Klamath Falls would "take care of the situation no doubt for some time to come." [53] The following year Canfield reported wryly that "an old ambition" of Klamath Falls "to eventually move park headquarters there from Medford has been kept in bounds by advice from the park superintendent." [54]

The new Administration Building was completed in the autumn of 1935 and park personnel moved their summer offices into the structure in June 1936. Superintendent Canfield noted happily that the building "can be regarded as one of the most modern in any of the parks," and he observed that the "new headquarters supply sufficient room for park administrative activities, eliminating crowded conditions which had been such a handicap for years." According to the superintendent park visitors were favorably impressed by the structure and the remark was commonly heard that "the Government is giving the taxpayers something substantial for tax money." [55]

Canfield continued to be pleased with the new Administration Building. In 1937 he observed:

The novelty of having adequate space to carry on park business had not yet disappeared at the end of the year, crowded conditions of previous years and rat-infested quarters in a decrepit log building still being too fresh in memory. Park visitors still continue to be impressed with the dignified architecture of the building and as in the first year are frequent in complimentary expressions. [56]

As the national economy slowly recovered from the Great Depression the Crater Lake staff increased. In 1937, five additional permanent employees were added to the park payroll. [57] In March 1938 Thomas C. Parker was transferred from his position as assistant superintendent-engineer in Zion National Park to assistant superintendent at Crater Lake. This position was created to enable the superintendent not only to administer the park but also oversee Oregon Caves and Lava Beds national monuments. [58]

On August 1, 1937, Leavitt became park superintendent, a position that he would hold for nearly fifteen years. Many of the administrative issues that had confronted Canfield continued to face Leavitt. In 1938, for instance, he commented on the winter headquarters issue by stating that the

park administrative offices were located in crowded quarters in the Federal Building in Medford from October 14 to June 12. A branch office was maintained in Klamath Falls during the winter months. Citizens of Klamath Falls continue to occasionally present the advantages of their city as winter headquarters for the park. [59]

At the end of fiscal year 1939, the first full year of his superintendency, Leavitt observed that despite the fact "the park organization was by necessity not a highly centralized one, administrative matters were handled most efficiently in the three National Park Service areas under the administration of the superintendent of Crater Lake National Park." From October 15 to June 15 the park administrative offices were located in crowded quarters in the federal building in Medford, 82 miles from the park, 82 miles from Oregon Caves National Monument, and 125 miles from Lava Beds National Monument. Frequent trips, according to Leavitt, were made from the headquarters to the park and two monuments, and daily contacts with the areas was made by short wave radio. During the period November 1 to May 1 a branch office with the park's chief ranger in charge was maintained in Klamath Falls. The chief ranger served "as the winter representative of the National Park Service and for the benefit of the traveling public" and was "conveniently located for trips to Crater Lake and Lava Beds." During the summer months official headquarters were at the park, a temporary acting custodian representing the superintendent at Oregon Caves. At Lava Beds the superintendent was represented throughout the year by an assistant chief ranger in the capacity of acting custodian. Among the priorities of Leavitt were the promotion of "good will of the various communities in the vicinities of the area" and use of the various department heads of the park "as consultants in administrative matters."

Leavitt initiated a publicity campaign during the winter months of 1938-39. Daily publicity was issued from the Medford and Klamath Falls offices to local chambers of commerce, newspapers, and travel bureaus relative to road, snow, and weather conditions in and near the three Park Service areas. This publicity effort was successful in improving relations with the park's surrounding communities and was a major thrust of Leavitt's administrative endeavors until World War II curtailed park operations. [60]

Leavitt was also instrumental in establishing better mail service to the park. With the cooperation of the U.S. Post Office Department a Star Route was established to the park beginning June 1, 1939. Thereafter, mail was received seven times per week both from Medford and Klamath Falls. On June 1 an acting postmaster (former postmaster R.W. Price having resigned) assumed duties in the new post office quarters in the Administration Building. [61]

By the late 1930s the park's winter headquarters offices in the Post Office Building in Medford were becoming increasingly inadequate. The office space used by the Park Service was provided through the courtesy of the U.S. District Court to which organization the office space was allocated. Problems with this arrangement, however, arose in 1937 as the result of more frequent and extended sessions of the court The difficulties were outlined in a letter sent by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Oscar L. Chapman to the Fourth Assistant Postmaster General on March 10, 1938:

Until recently it has been the custom for the Court to meet once each year, usually during the month of October. After adjournment of the Court the National Park Service unit was permitted to utilize the space until the following spring. Last year, however, there was a session of the Court in December and it was necessary for the National Park Service unit to vacate the space usually occupied and to move into two small rooms in the basement where there are neither telephone facilities nor proper light and ventilation. This year the number of Court sessions was increased and the sessions were postponed several times so that it has been necessary for the National Park Service unit to occupy the entirely unsatisfactory basement space during the major portion of the winter. It is understood that, in the future, the Court plans to hold sessions every month or two as circumstances may require. This is a change in policy on the part of the Federal Court which in the past held most of its sessions in Portland, Oregon. [62]

During the fall of 1940 the Post Office Building in Medford was remodeled and enlarged. Thus the park was provided with a suite of six rooms, a decided improvement over its former cramped office space. [63]

The entry of the United States in World War II following the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941 had a profound effect on park operations and administration. In October 1942 Leavitt described the situation at Crater Lake during the first months after Pearl Harbor:

Activities of the past year are marked by contrasts--definite, sharp contrasts--characterized, on the one hand, by operations at the peak of peace time, and, on the other hand, by operations in the confusion and bewilderment of the first few months of war. Unprecedented travel with accelerated activities resulting therefrom during the summer and fall of 1941 was followed by abrupt and sudden transition to the grimness of war at the echo of enemy bombers and exploding bombs over the quiet waters of Pearl Harbor.

Shadows of events to come were cast early in this year with the acute reduction of CCC enrollees and supervisory personnel, loss of employees through the Selective Service Act, and the difficulty encountered in finding qualified and willing replacements. In spite of it all and because of the facility with which the regular organization can expand or contract, depending upon the exigencies at the moment, the apparent difficulties were admirably met and overcome. The chameleonlike readiness with which the regular staff met and accomplished tasks ordinarily expected of others accounts in no small measure for the willingness and ability to carry on. [64]

Despite the optimism expressed by Leavitt wartime restrictions took an increasing toll on park operations. Crater Lake was closed during the winter months from 1942-45, and the war years witnessed a drastic curtailment of travel cutbacks in park appropriations, personnel, and visitor services, and difficulty in securing personnel for construction and maintenance work. All snow removal equipment was transferred to the U.S. Army, and the park found it increasingly difficult to secure parts, materials, supplies, gasoline, tires, and fuel oil required for normal operations. The chief ranger and park naturalist undertook the major responsibility for trail repairs and other maintenance work and furnished crews or individual employees to assist the park carpenter, plumber, road foreman, and engineer in their duties. The only unskilled labor the park was able to hire consisted of "a few young boys just old enough to qualify under the age regulations, and a few old men."

For the first time since 1935 virtually all park employees, except for a minimum number of administrative and protective personnel to secure government property, were moved out of the park when it closed for the winter on November 23, 1942. Many of the personnel were transferred temporarily to Olympic National Park and other western national parks. Equipment and machinery from the park garage were moved to Lava Beds for overhaul and repair by the park mechanic, who was transferred there for the winter. [65]

As the months passed the war had an increasing impact on park operations and administration. During the summer of 1943 Superintendent Leavitt commented on the situation:

Crater Lake was just beginning to realize the returns from seven years of year-around operation. The administrative, protection, construction and maintenance forces were built up to a point where an efficient organization for summer operation was assured, which served as a nucleus around which to build the seasonal summer force. With the closing of the park for the winter, the protective and maintenance divisions have been so greatly reduced in numbers that we are now facing the difficult task of protection of the park with a very limited force of trained and efficient personnel . As war conditions have brought this about, we face our problems cheerfully, determined to do the best we can with what we have. [66]

In May 1944 Acting Superintendent Richard J. Smith elaborated further on the effects of the war on park operations:

1. Instead of an all-year park as in prior years, snow removal operations have been discontinued and the park permitted to become blocked by snow during the winter season from approximately November 1 to June 15. Our snow removal equipment was loaned to the U.S. Army.

2. Park travel declined from 273,564 visitors during 1941 to 100,079 in 1942, and to 27,656 in 1943. Of the 27,656 visitors in 1943, 6,392 were members of the armed forces.

3. The park permanent staff has been reduced from 25 to 9 permanent employees, including the complete abolishment of the interpretative division for the war s duration, and administrative, protective, maintenance, repair and operation services curtailed to a minimum basis. The entire park organization is devoted primarily to protection of the park from fire during the summer months.

4. Surplus trucks, tools, equipment and supplies were transferred to war agencies.

5. For the duration of the war the park concessioner has suspended all public service operations in the park--transportation, lodging, meals, boat service, etc.

6. Special courtesy and consideration has been given to the men and women of the armed forces who find it possible to visit the park.

Men from the field of education made up the seasonal ranger force and high school boys constituted the fire protective organization. [67]

With the approach of the end of the war, NPS park, regional, and Washington Office administrators engaged in lengthy debate whether Crater Lake should be reopened as a summer or year-round operation. Political pressure, generated by various organizations, influential individuals, and nearby communities, was building for resumption of year-round operation of the park. In a memorandum to the Region Four Director on October 6, 1944, Superintendent Leavitt analyzed the options of the Park Service in responding to these pressures:

If the Service were in a position to resist this pressure on the ground that it was detrimental to the park and contrary to park policies--an argument which is applicable in resisting the pressure for grazing, for example--we might be able to maintain Crater Lake as a summer park only, but we have no such argument to justify such a policy, in view of the successful operation of the park on an all-year basis for more than seven years. . . .

About the only justification that we can make against all-year operation is:

1. The difficult living and working conditions in an area of such heavy snowfall. . . .

2. That the cost of administration, protection, operation, maintenance and repair during the winter months is an excessive expense when compared with the relatively small number of visitors that take advantage of the facilities the park has to offer during the winter season. . . . [68]

During the months following the end of the war it was determined to reopen the park on a year-round basis. To facilitate this decision it was announced in March 1946 that as soon as funds became available an all-year park headquarters area would be established near the south entrance of the park. Behind this decision was the belief that Crater Lake suffered more severely from the lack of a suitable park headquarters and utility area than from any other problem. The existing park headquarters in Munson Valley had been constructed more than a decade before for summer operation only and was not laid out for economical and efficient operation during the winter months, nor were any of the buildings constructed for year-round use. The proposed area was located on a southern exposure with flat terrain and had an average winter snow depth of only three to four feet. The issue of the new headquarters, however, would continue to be discussed and studied until 1964 when the Park Service resolved to establish year-round headquarters at Munson Valley. [69]

The opening of the travel season at Crater Lake in 1946 witnessed the resumption of year-round park operations. On June 15 the Crater Lake National Park Company resumed furnishing lodging, meals, and transportation services to the public after more than three years of non-operation. Maintenance and operation of the park on a year-round basis commenced on July 1, Congress having provided the necessary funds for its administration.

The resumption of park operations brought to the fore a variety of personnel problems as efforts were undertaken to rebuild the park staff. In June 1947 Superintendent Leavitt discussed the manifold personnel difficulties that he had encountered during the first year of postwar operation:

From a permanent staff of about twenty-five year-around employees before the war, Crater Lake dropped down to six, just prior to the beginning of the 1947 fiscal year. It was, therefore, necessary to reconstruct and rebuild the permanent and seasonal staff as rapidly as possible to plow snow from the roads and get the park in operating condition to take care of the great crowd of visitors that poured in upon us when the bars were lowered at the entrance stations at the beginning of the season. The park was seriously handicapped by the new legislation that restricted the service of employees to eight hours per day and forty hours per week, without providing extra money for the overtime that was required or for the extra employees required to properly administer and protect the park and give public service. It was not practicable in Crater Lake to close the park as one would an office and go home, for the park is open twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and service to the public and maintenance of utilities, protection, etc., must be carried on normally from ten to sixteen hours per day and, in emergencies, for twenty-four hours per day.

The park was handicapped by inability to get employees to work five days a week when nearby agencies were working six to seven days per week, and it was necessary to change the work week to six days instead of five, first in order to get our work done which was badly in arrears and, second, to hold the employees on the job. Naturally, this resulted in extra-heavy costs for overtime.

The upgrading of employees from an annual basis to an hourly basis was not well received by the employees affected, despite every effort to convince them that the move was advantageous to them in the long run.

The park suffered from loss of key personnel through transfer and resignations. It has not been possible to secure experienced, qualified persons for the positions that have been vacated at the rates of pay that are now in effect. The increase in rental of quarters have been very disconcerting to the employees, and they are resentful of the increases which are as effective as a reduction in pay, especially at a time when the cost of living is the highest in the history of the country, with only a limited increase in salary made to the employees on an annual basis. [70]

As Crater Lake resumed year-round operations the need arose for a school facility in the park to provide education for employees" children. The hack of such facilities in the park was having a serious impact on park personnel recruitment by 1949. In June of that year Superintendent Leavitt elaborated on the problem:

There are no public school facilities in Crater Lake National Park and none that are ordinarily satisfactory to park families except in the gateway cities of Klamath Falls and Medford. This makes it necessary for families with children of grade school age to rent a home for the mother and children in one of the gateway communities in order to permit children to attend school, while the husband has to do his own cooking and housekeeping in a house in the park for it has been found impracticable to operate a government mess during the winter time because of the excessive cost due to the limited number of boarders, etc. This makes it necessary for the employee to maintain two homes for at least nine months of the year or on a year-around basis due to the difficulty of obtaining rental quarters in gateway cities at the beginning of the school year.

These factors often prevent the park from securing the ablest and best qualified employees to fill our various jobs, particularly our key positions. . . . [71]

To correct this problem a private school was organized in the park under the direction of Leavitt's second wife Katherine for the 1949-50 school term. It was supported by payments made by parents and by private funds and donations. The school, which met in a room in the Administration Building, had five children in kindergarten and three in elementary grades during its first year. After the school was established the Oregon State Department of Education provided financial assistance to the school for two years. Beginning in 1952 funding was provided by the Federal Security Agency. [72]

During the early 1950s the park administrative organization continued to expand and be refined in the postwar years. An organization chart for the park prepared in June 1955, for instance, reflected the increasing complexity of park operations and administrative efforts to deal with that complexity. The park staff consisted of 32 full-time permanent positions. The office of the superintendent consisted of Superintendent Thomas J . Williams, Assistant Superintendent Gerald E. Mernin, and Secretary Mae Hammack. U.S. Commissioner Frank Van Dyke and School Teacher Zelma Pooh related directly to the superintendent. The park staff was organized into five divisions whose chiefs answered directly to the superintendent:

Protection Division--Chief Ranger,
      Carlock E. Johnson

Engineering Division--Park Engineer,
      William E. Loftis, Jr.

Landscape Division--Landscape Architect (similar responsibilities for Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lava Beds National Monument)

Administrative Division--Chief Clerk,
      Marvin L. Nelson

Interpretive Division--Chief Naturalist,
      Harry C. Parker

Two divisions were further divided into sections. The engineering division had five sections:

Communications and Power Section--Electrician,
      Alvord H. France

Roads and Trails Section--Mixed Gang Foreman,
      Richard O. Varnum

Garage and Shop Section--Mechanic,
      Benjamin Pooh

Water-Sewage Sanitation Section--Plumber,
      Harvey E. Clift

Carpentry-Painting Section--Seasonal Employees

The administrative division was also divided into five sections:

Fiscal Section--Fiscal Accountant,
      LeRoy E. Marcroft

Personnel Section--Personnel Clerk,
      Marion R. Anderson

Procurement and Property--Supply Clerk,
      Basil G. Curtis

Mess Operation--Contractor

Warehouse Section--Supply Clerk,
      George S. Woodley [73]

From time to time park administrative offices and procedures were reorganized. In 1957, for instance, the National Park Service initiated a new accounting system and financial reporting procedures in all of the field financial offices. As part of this realignment of Park Service financial management field offices were reduced from 28 to 24 offices and their functions transferred to the regional offices having jurisdiction over them. The four offices closed were those at Crater Lake, Carlsbad Caverns, Mammoth Cave, and the Southwestern National Monuments headquarters. [74]

During the next several years various changes were made in the park organizational structure to promote more efficient administration at Crater Lake. [75] A park organizational chart prepared in October 1962, for instance, indicated that the park staff consisted of the office of the superintendent and four divisions: ranger, maintenance and operation of physical facilities, interpretation, and administration. The ranger division was divided into the Annie Spring and Red Cone districts. The maintenance and operation division was divided into three sections: buildings and utilities, roads and trails, and garage and shop. The administration division consisted of five sections: personnel, school, mess operation, procurement and property, and warehouse. [76]

During the mid-1960s the National Park Service adopted administrative policies based on management-by-objective standards. In September 1964 park management at Crater Lake prepared management objectives to achieve and implement the overall NPS management objectives. The park objectives, which may be seen in Appendix E, were approved in December and served as the basis for park administrative policy and strategy for the next decade. [77]

The issue of establishing a year-round park headquarters again became a topic of considerable discussion during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Sites under consideration included Medford, the south entrance, and Fort Klamath. For years the superintendent's office had been maintained at Medford year-round with the superintendent and his secretary moving to park headquarters generally from mid-June to mid-October. By 1959 the dual headquarters arrangement had become "burdensome and inefficient." Duplication of effort occurred frequently and travel and communication costs were increasing constantly. These factors led NPS Associate Director Eivind Scoyen on March 17, 1959, to issue a field decision that the Medford and park headquarters offices be consolidated into year-round administrative headquarters at Munson Valley.

During the next several years various discussions were held and studies conducted to assess the cost feasibility of the projected move and determine its impact on park operations and facilities. On July 27, 1961, Superintendent Yeager submitted his analysis of the move, concluding that the office consolidation should take place. In his analysis Yeager addressed the issue of employee morale amid winter hiving conditions:

In general I find very little opposition to winter hiving conditions in the park. This is especially true of those families living in the new two-story multiple unit quarters where the living area is on the second floor. In most all cases where resentment of winter living exists, it is due to crowded substandard residences. Even so, employee and employee family morale is as high as it has been in other parks where I have lived. I do not believe the winter snow condition adversely affects morale any more here than the continued desert temperatures or continual overcast weather affects the morale in Lake Mead, Mount Rainier, or Glacier. It does depress a few individuals but not the group as a whole.

Yeager continued his analysis by listing five reasons why he supported the consolidation:

  1. Munson Valley was by far the best location from an operational standpoint since more than one-third of the permanent park staff would have to be kept there in any event.

  2. It was established policy to keep the park road to the rim open for winter visitors and winter visitation was increasing.

  3. Office consolidation would make park operations more efficient since the park administrative officer and personnel assistant kept their offices in Medford year-round, thus depriving the superintendent of their services and assistance during the season of highest park activity.

  4. Consolidation would result in reduced operations costs.

  5. The park organization was small and could best be operated from one point with essential protection facilities dispersed where necessary.

Before the move could be completed, however, Yeager stated that fourteen new living units would have to be constructed.

Yeager considered the location of a consolidated park headquarters at the south entrance. His studies, however, revealed that snow depth there normally reached five feet, which he found to be "too much to relieve snow removal costs and living conditions'' in comparison with Munson Valley. [78]

Park headquarters at Munson Valley became the year-round administrative headquarters for the park on September 8, 1964. The Medford office, which had served as the winter headquarters of the park, was closed and all personnel from that office were assigned to park headquarters. As part of this move the General Services Administration sold the government residence in Medford in April 1965. [79]

The transfer of year-round administration offices to the park resulted in the need for more and better equipped staff housing. In the park master plan prepared in February 1965 it was noted that existing staff housing consisted of a superintendent"s residence, seven duplexes, one four-plex, seven single-unit substandard houses, fifteen cabins, one three-unit apartment, and seven seasonal trailers. With the exception of one permanent and one seasonal quarters, all were located in the headquarters area. Four families hived outside the park in Fort Klamath, a town of 150 residents twenty miles from park headquarters which had limited housing, grocery, and automotive services.

To provide for adequate quarters and to eliminate employees from hiving in substandard housing, 21 additional housing units were required. These included a duplex at Annie Spring, a ranger residence and two fourplex units at the north entrance, and 17 units at the headquarters area. The 17 units included 5 three-bedroom units, 8 two-bedroom units, and four one-bedroom units. [80]

Few changes were made in the Crater Lake park organization during the 1960s. More detailed role and function statements, however, were developed for the park's divisions. For example, divisional responsibilities were developed to accompany a park organizational chart approved in April 1965. The divisional responsibilities read:

Office of the Superintendent
The superintendent of Crater Lake National Park directs all operations within the Park to accomplish the park's mission. He directs, controls and evaluates all activities performed by the park staff.

Administrative Division
The administrative division participates in the formulation and development of area plans, programs and operating policies and has responsibility for the administrative management functions for Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument. It is responsible for activities such as budget and finance, management analysis, inspection, personnel management and training, property management and general services and messhall operations.

Resources Management and Visitor Protection
The purpose and responsibilities of this division are to protect the park resources and facilities and the welfare of the visitors .

Because of the physical character of the Park and its extreme climatic conditions of heavy snowfall, the primary responsibility of this division relates to safety and service to the park visitor, and protection of the geological features, vegetation, and wildlife.

. . . Two ranger districts enable the division to carry out its assigned functions. Each district is assigned a permanent park ranger for the management of entrance stations and assigned duties within his district. . . .

The purpose of this division is to determine, assemble, and present the facts about the park and its resources so as to guide the protecting of park resources and to enrich visitor experience and knowledge.

Because the primary significance of the Park is Crater Lake and the story of its creation, the major responsibility and function of the division is the gathering and dissemination of geological information . . . .

Maintenance and Operation of Physical Facilities
The purpose of this division is to operate and maintain the physical plant in a manner contributing to the efficient functioning of the park staff, to the welfare of the visitors, and for the preservation of the park resources.

The entire maintenance operation at Crater Lake National Park is carried out from the headquarters area in Munson Valley. . . . [81]

As a means of streamlining park administration in the late 1960s the National Park Service established various group offices around the country to serve as "mini-regional" offices for isolated parks. The Klamath Falls Group Office was established on July 1, 1969, to consolidate oversight administration of Crater Lake and Lava Beds and Oregon Caves national monuments. The Klamath Falls Group was administered by a general superintendent (Donald M. Spalding--July 1, 1969-July 9, 1972; Ernest J. Borgman--September 30, 1972-February 29, 1980), and continued in existence until August 11, 1982. The superintendent of Crater Lake resided in the park and was responsible to the general superintendent for the management and operation of the park. Approximately one-third of the Crater Lake park staff was assigned to the new group office, thus heaving the park with a shortage of personnel. [82]

In line with management philosophy trends being enunciated by the Washington Office of the National Park Service, Crater Lake began to be administered on a management-by-objective basis in the early 1970s. Management objectives were approved for the park in June 19.70. The objectives for the general management of the park were:

General Management

a. Crater Lake National Park will be managed as a one district unit under the cluster management at Klamath Falls, along with Oregon Cave National Monument and Lava Beds National Monument.

b. Provide year-round access to the rim of the caldera for viewing of the lake by the visiting public.

c. Provide for the collection of appropriate park fees.

d. Relocate park administrative and residential facilities to a more suitable climatic location. Utilize present facilities for other management and visitor use purposes.

e. Coordinate the Service and Concessioner development programs to insure that the needs of the public and the interests of the Service are properly served.

f. Insure park staffing is commensurate to meet demands of the established program standards. [83]

By the 1970s the park organization had further developed along functional lines into a three divisional alignment. The three divisions were administration, interpretation and resource management, and maintenance. The division of administration consisted of the park superintendent and clerical staff. The division of interpretation and resource management was headed by a supervisory park ranger (chief ranger) under whom were supervisory park rangers in charge of protection and safety, resource management, and interpretation, respectively. The maintenance division was headed by a maintenance general foreman. All told, the park staff in 1974 consisted of 21 permanent full-time positions, 4 permanent less than full-time positions, and approximately 70 temporary employees during the summer season. [84]

Administration and management of the park came under intense scrutiny during the summer of 1975 after the park was closed for 21 days because its drinking water was contaminated with untreated sewage. During the spring a rock apparently became imbedded in the mouth of the six-inch sewer main below the lodge near the water catchment basin that fed Munson Springs, the water source for the Crater Lake water system. Sewage flowed into this line for the first time on May 21, when several employees moved into the lodge. After several days the line filled to the blocked area and began to overflow. The overflow went over into the catchment area and was not detected because of the snow coverage. By mid-June a number of persons in the park were ill with gastroenteritis, including park employees and their families, concessionaire employees, and Youth Conservation Corps personnel. No visitors reported illnesses until July 9 when a report was received in the park that, of a tour group of 18 people who had been in the park over the July 4 weekend, 17 were reported ill.

For several weeks park administrators took water samples and conducted inspections in cooperation with county, state, and federal health agencies. While the park water supply was suspect the cause of the outbreak of illness was not pinpointed until July 10 when raw sewage was found overflowing from a manhole below the lodge. On July 11 the Park Service, following the advice of the U.S. Public Health Service's Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, closed the park to all visitors until further notice. It was later determined that by that date 288 people working in the park and more than 1,000 visitors had become sick.

Plans were developed immediately to cleanse the water supply and restore potable water aimed at reopening the park as soon as possible. Using three portable water treatment plants from Fort Lewis, Washington, the water system was flushed, sterilized, and refilled with potable water, thus allowing the park to be reopened to the public on August l. A temporary water treatment plant was then purchased by the National Park Service to furnish a potable water supply until a new permanent water system utilizing water from Annie Spring could be installed that fall. [85]

The water contamination crisis resulted in well-publicized allegations in many of the nation's leading newspapers concerning the events that led to closure of the park. [86] Charges of a coverup by government officials led the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs to hold a hearing in the Medford City Hall on September 6. In a prepared statement at the commencement of the hearing Senator Mark O. Hatfield summarized the allegations which he wished to pursue in the subsequent testimony:

Serious allegations have been raised concerning the events which led to the decision to chose the Park. These allegations have cast a shadow over the performance of the various officials and enterprises which have important responsibilities to the public who seek to enjoy these monuments of nature which we have preserved for this and future generations. Public confidence in the integrity of this Government's custodianship of our national parks and monuments is at stake. I think that allegations have been raised that a coverup was engineered by the park, concessionaire and the National Park Service, that pressure was brought on officials in Washington and on officials in public health agencies to ignore the serious threat to the public, and that the concessioner' s employees who handled food at the park were made to work while sick, further endangering the public.

Those testifying at the hearing included Superintendent Sims, Klamath Falls Group General Superintendent Ernest J. Borgman, Ralph O. Peyton, president of Crater Lake Lodge, Inc., and a number of park and Klamath Falls Group personnel. [87]

Based on the evidence gathered at the hearing Senator Hatfield issued a report on the closure of the park in January 1976. He found no coverup but otherwise observed that "in general there seemed to be a lack of management and administration training and a clear comprehension of responsibilities and authority within the National Park Service." Accordingly, he recommended:

That the National Park Service formulate and implement management guidelines for its employees and that more extensive training be undertaken so that employees who take water samples, do so correctly; superintendents know the scope of their authorities and responsibilities and are willing to implement them; that officials with oversight responsibilities such as interpretation of test results know how to interpret those results and are willing to act on the interpretation.

Hatfield also found that the park was understaffed and thus made recommendations to correct that deficiency. He observed:

Of considerable concern was the hack of adequate staffing at the National Park. The entire episode might have been avoided had the park not been understaffed and a permanent employee with the specific responsibility been present rather than having water quality as an additional responsibility of an electrician or painter. The ultimate responsibility for this understaffing rests not with the National Park Service, but rather with the Office of Management and Budget and the Congress. The impact of the understaffing is that the professionalism and public responsibilities of the Park Service are being sacrificed. They are being sacrificed because the duties must be undertaken by seasonal or temporary personnel or be undertaken by permanent staff with other full time responsibilities, or not be undertaken at all.

At Crater Lake, for example, there are only 16 permanent employees out of the authorized level of 24. One of the absent staff is a plumber who would have had the full time responsibilities for checking the sewage and water systems and testing the water. Had Crater Lake been adequately staffed, this episode would not have occurred. . . .

Other recommendations by Hatfield related to oversight of concessionaire activities, the attitudes of the Youth Conservation Corps and the U.S. Public Health Service, and the relationships between the National Park Service and county, state, and national health service agencies. Because the park concessionaire stated "that he had a possessory interest in his facilities and required anyone who wished to inspect his facilities to obtain his permission," Hatfield urged that concessions policy be examined "with a view towards increasing supervision and control of concession activities." Since the Youth Conservation Corps delayed reporting that many of its personnel were sick (apparently YCC workers were the first to become ill but this was not reported for nearly two weeks) and the U.S. Public Health Service forestalled closure of the park for at least a week pending further studies, Hatfield recommended that in the future

the YCC and the Public Health Service be instructed that they are paid by the people to be servants of the people not for any self aggrandisement or to protect their collective public image.

In addition procedures should be established between the Park Service and the U.S. Public Health Service and appropriate state and county health departments to assure that those health agencies were alerted immediately to potential problems. [88]

During the mid-1970s the National Park Service began developing a "Statement for Management" for each unit of the National Park System. The statements, which were revised and updated periodically, were designed to provide an up-to-date inventory of the park's condition and an analysis of its problems. The statements provided a format to park administrators for evaluating conditions and identifying major issues and information voids.

The first "Statement for Management" for Crater Lake National Park was approved by Pacific Northwest Regional Office Acting Director Edward J. Kurtz on November 8, 1977. The statement provided for hand use management zones within the park. Of the 160,290 acres in the park 159,890 were zoned as natural. Within the natural zone were three subzones: wilderness (122,400); outstanding natural feature, i.e., water surface of Crater Lake (11,500); and natural [including hand on which the road system was located] (25,990). The only area in the historic zone was an area of approximately one acre on which the Crater Lake Lodge was located. The lodge had been nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, thus entitling it to protection under Executive Order 11593 and the National Historic Preservation Act of 1964. Five areas in the park were zoned for development:

1. Rim Village on the south rim of the caldera;

2. Munson Valley, located approximately three miles south and 600 feet below the Rim Village area;

3. Mazama Campground near the junction of the south and west entrance roads near Annie Spring;

4. Lost Creek Campground which is located in the southeastern part of the park; and

5. The maintenance area storage yard, approximately five acres, at the south end of the panhandle.

The "Statement for Management" also listed the primary management objectives of the park. These objectives were listed under the following categories:

Conservation of natural resources
Research programs
Management efficiency
Traffic circulation
Environmental awareness
Concessioner programs
Cultural resources [89]

The statements for management were periodically revised in light of changing conditions in the park. [90] The statement approved by Regional Director Daniel J. Tobin, Jr., on March 11, 1983, contained revisions for management zoning based on the recently expanded park boundaries and wilderness designations. Of the total acreage of the park (182,700), some 182,300 acres were zoned as natural. This zone had three subzones: wilderness (148,301); outstanding natural feature--water surface of Crater Lake (11,500); and natural (22,499). The historic zone continued to consist of approximately one acre on which the lodge was located. Six separate areas in the park were zoned for development:

1. Rim Village
2. Munson Valley
3. Mazama Campground
4. Lost Creek Campground
5. Maintenance area storage yard
6. Cleetwood Cove parking area and the boat docks. [91]

The most recent Statement for Management for Crater Lake was approved in August 1986. It contains a somewhat modified list of management objectives. The objectives stress research and cooperation with outside agencies and organizations as a means of increasing management efficiency, insuring continued protection of park resources, and enhancement of the visitors" experiences in the park. The eight objectives are:

1. To secure, through research or other means, adequate information to increase management efficiency and to ensure conservation of park resources.

2. To cooperate with outside agencies, organizations, and members of the public in (a) assuring, to the greatest extent possible, that nearby hands are developed and managed in ways that are compatible with preserving the park's air and water quality, geological resources, ecological communities, solitude, extreme quiet, and the scenery for which the park is famous; (b) minimizing the adverse effects of public use on the park's resources through the provision of recreational lodging, and other visitor service facilities in the park's vicinity; and (c) disseminating information about the park to the general public, with particular emphasis on the regional community.

3. To protect and enhance the natural and scenic values of the park by maintaining an adequate hand base to permit achievement of the park's purpose.

4. To protect park resources and the safety of park visitors through enforcement of applicable laws, rules and regulations in the park.

5. Provide for the visitor's enjoyment and appreciation of park resources through primary interpretive emphasis on the park's geomorphology, but provide also for an understanding of the park's geology, natural history, history and archeology.

6. Develop a fire management program for the park to facilitate the protection and maintenance of the natural environment.

7. Retain those facilities necessary for visitor use and park management at acceptable standards for health, safety and comfort; and maintain historic structures as near as practicable to their original exterior appearance consistent with the adaptive use of these buildings. Remove those structures where cost of rehabilitation exceeds historic value.

8. Provide the visiting public, through concession operated facilities, the highest quality of accommodations, food service and visitor needs consistent with reasonable pricing and comparability with local business.

The statement also lists nine critical issues facing park management, many of which have confronted NPS officials for more than a decade. These are:

1. Monitoring and protection of "Crater Lake" and caldera ecosystem.

2. Future development and location of new Crater Lake Lodge/other new developments.

Corollary issue - future of existing lodge.

3. Monitoring and development of management strategy concerning geothermal resources adjacent to park.

4. Monitoring and preservation of Class I - Air Quality.

Corollary issues - acid rain, smoke management and geothermal.

5. Future of permanent and seasonal housing, includes extent, cost, and location.

6. Continued pressure to permit inappropriate or adverse use of park hands, i.e., snowmobiles/Rim Run.

7. Evaluation and decision on percentage of time park roads are open.

8. NPS position on possible Klamath Tribal hunting rights, Crater Lake National Park.

9. Long-range decision on administrative Headquarters location for Crater Lake National Park. [92]

Several of the aforementioned issues deserve further comment, while others are covered in other chapters of this study. During the 1970s snowmobiling became an increasingly active winter pastime in Oregon, thus putting pressure on Crater Lake management to open the park to that winter sport. As a result of extensive study in 1975-76 special regulations were put into effect. Snowmobiles were restricted to the eight-mile unplowed north entrance road between the park boundary and the rim. Snowmobile organizations campaigned to have another park route designated for their use, focusing particular attention on the former east entrance road to Rim Drive. Park officials held firm, however, maintaining the established regulations in the interest of visitor safety, limiting cross-country skier-snowmobile contacts, and preserving traditional park values. By 1980 snowmobile parties using the designated route had quadrupled since 1976. At the same time the number of cross-country skiers had multiplied six times since the mid-1970s, thus making it imperative to minimize contacts between the two groups for safety purposes. [93]

In 1976 an annual Crater Lake Rim Run was commenced in the park. Within several years this event was attracting more than 500 participants, and the race was interferring with traditional park visitor activities. By the early 1980s steps were being taken to minimize such conflicts. [94]

On November 21, 1986, a new organizational chart for the park was prepared. The chart reflected various changes that had been effected in the park administrative structure during the previous several years to streamline park operations and provide for a more cost-efficient approach to management. Under the park manager or superintendent were four divisions--resource management and visitor protection, administration, maintenance, and interpretation. In addition an architect, supervising construction projects in the park, is supervised from the Denver Service Center, with local direction from the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park. The staff of Oregon Caves National Monument answer directly to the superintendent. [95]


(In effect May 1, 1917.)


The following rules and regulations for the government of the Crater Lake National Park are hereby established and made public, pursuant to authority conferred by the acts of Congress approved May 22, 1902 (32 Stat., 202), August 21, 1916 (39 Stat., 521), and August 25, 1916 (39 Stat., 535):

1. Preservation of natural curiosities. — The destruction, injury, or defacement in any way of the public property or the trees, vegetation, rocks, minerals, animal and bird or other life, or other natural conditions and curiosities in the park is prohibited.

2. Camping. — No camp will be made along roads except at designated localities. Blankets, clothing, hammocks, or any other article liable to frighten teams must not be hung near the road.

Many successive parties camp on the same sites during the season, and campgrounds must be thoroughly cleaned before they are abandoned. Tin cans, bottles, cast-off clothing, and all other debris must be placed in garbage cans or pits provided for the purpose. When camps are made in unfrequented localities where pits or garbage cans may not be provided, all refuse must be burned or hidden where it not be offensive to the eye.

Campers may use dead or fallen timber only for fuel.

3. Fires. — Fires constitute one of the greatest perils to the park; they must not be kindled near trees, dead wood, moss, dry leaves, forest mold, or other vegetable refuse, but in some open space on rocks or earth. Should camp be made in a locality where no such open space exists nor is provided, dead wood, moss, dry leaves, etc., must be scraped away to the rock or earth over an area considerably larger than required for the fire.

When fires are no longer necessary, they must be completely extinguished and all embers and bed smothered with earth or water so that there remains no possibility of reignition.

Especial care must be taken that no lighted match, cigar, or cigarette is dropped in any grass, twigs, leaves, or tree mold.

4. Hunting. — The park is a sanctuary for wild life of every sort, and no one should frighten, hunt or kill, wound or capture any bird or wild animals in the park, except dangerous animals when it is necessary to prevent them from destroying life or inflicting injury.

The outfits, including guns, traps, teams, horses, or means of transportation used by persons engaged in hunting, killing, trapping, ensnaring, or capturing such birds or wild animals, or in possession of game killed on the park lands under other circumstances than prescribed above, must be taken up by the supervisor and held subject to the order of the Secretary of the Interior, except in cases where it is shown by satisfactory evidence that the outfit is not the property of the person or persons violating this regulation and the actual owner was not a party to such violation. Firearms will be permitted in the park only on written permission of the supervisor. Visitors entering or traveling through the park to places beyond should, at entrance, report and surrender all fire arms, traps, nets, seines, or explosives in their possession to the first park officer, and, in proper cases, may obtain his written leave to carry them through the park sealed.

5. Fishing. — Fishing is permitted with hook and line only, and never for profit or merchandise. Fishing in particular water may be suspended; or the number of fish that may be taken by one person in any one day, from the various streams or lakes, may be regulated by the supervisor. All fish hooked less than 8 inches long shall be carefully handled with moist hands and returned at once to the water, if not seriously injured. Fish retained should be killed. Five fish shall constitute the limit for a day's catch from the lake, and 20 from other waters of the park.

6. Private operations. — No person will be permitted to reside permanently, engage in any business, operate a moving-picture camera, or erect buildings upon the Government lands in the park without permission in writing from the Director of the National Park Service. Application for such permission may be addressed to the supervisor of the park or to the National Park Service Washington, D. C.

7. Patented lands. — Owners of patented lands within the park limits are entitled to the full use and enjoyment thereof; the boundaries of such lands, however, must be determined and marked and defined, so that they may be readily distinguished from the park lands. While no limitations or conditions are imposed upon the use of such private lands so long as such use does not interfere with or injure the park, private owners must provide against trespass by their stock or cattle or otherwise, upon the park lands, and all trespasses committed will be punished to the full extent of the law. Stock may be taken over the park lands to patented private lands with the written permission and under the supervision of the supervisor, but such permission and supervision are not required when access to such private lands is had wholly over roads or lands not owned or controlled by the United States.

8. Grazing. — Allowing the running at large, herding, or grazing of cattle or stock of any kind on the Government lands in the park, as well as the driving of such stock or cattle over same, must be avoided, except where authority therefor has been granted by the supervisor. Cattle or stock found improperly on the park lands may be impounded and held until claimed by the owner and the trespass adjusted.

9. Saloons and bars. — No drinking saloon or barroom will be permitted upon Government lands in the park.

10. Advertisements. — Private notices or advertisements shall not be posted or displayed on Government lands within the park, except such as may be necessary for the convenience and guidance of the public and then only by permission from the supervisor.

11. Travel on trails. — Pedestrians on trails, when animals are passing them, must remain quiet until animals have passed.

Persons traveling on the trails of the park, either on foot or saddle animals, must not make short cuts, but must confine themselves to the main trail.

12. Horse-drawn vehicles. — Saddle horses, pack trains, and horse-drawn vehicles have right of way over motor-propelled vehicles at all times.

13. Concessioners. — All persons, firms, or corporations holding concessions in the park must keep the grounds used by them properly policed and maintain the premises in a sanitary condition to the satisfaction of the supervisor. No lessee or licensee shall retain in his employment a person whose presence in the park may be deemed by the supervisor subversive of good order and management of the park.

14. Employees of concessioners. — Transportation, camp, and hotel concessioners will require each of their employees to wear a metal badge with a number thereon, the name and the number corresponding therewith being registered in the supervisor's office. These badges must be worn in plain sight on the hat or cap. Concessioners must also report the fact of discharge of employees; if for cause, such cause must be stated.

15. Dead animals. — All domestic animals that may die on the Government lands in the park at any tourist camp, or along any of the public thoroughfares, must be immediately removed to a point not nearer than one-fourth mile from such camp or thoroughfare, and there be buried at least 2 feet beneath the ground by the owner or person having charge of such animal.

16. Miscellaneous — Travel. — (a) Freight, baggage, and heavy camping outfits on sidehill grades throughout the park must take the outer side of the road while being passed by passenger vehicles in either direction.

(b) Wagons used in hauling heavy freight over the park roads must have tires not less than 4 inches in width.

(c) All vehicles must be equipped with lights for night travel. At least one light must be carried by horse-drawn vehicles, and it must be carried on the left front side of the vehicles in a position such as to be visible from both front and rear.

17. Miscellaneous — General. — (a) Campers and others must not wash clothing or cooking utensils in or in any other way pollute the waters of the rivers and creeks of the park, or bathe in any of the streams near the regularly traveled thoroughfares in the park without suitable bathing clothes.

(b) Stock must not be tied so as to permit their entering any of the streams of the park. All animals should be kept a sufficient distance from camping grounds not to litter the ground and make unfit for use the area which may be used later as tent sites.

(c) Campers and all others, save those holding licenses from the Secretary of the Interior, are prohibited from hiring their horses, trappings, or vehicles to tourists or visitors in the park. No pack trains will be allowed in the park unless in charge of a duly registered guide.

(d) All complaints by tourists and others as to service, etc., rendered in the park should be made to the supervisor, in writing, before the complainant leaves the park. Oral complaints will be beard daily during office hours.

18. Dogs and cats. — Cats are not permitted in the park, and dogs only to those persons passing through the park to the territory beyond, in which instances they must be kept tied while crossing the park. This rule does not apply to trained dogs used by Government employees in extermination of predatory wild animals.

19. Fines and penalties. — The supervisor is hereby authorized and directed to remove from the park all trespassers and all persons who render themselves obnoxious by disorderly conduct or bad behavior and to enforce these rules and regulations and the provisions of the acts of Congress in the premises, violation of which is punishable by summary ejection from the park or by a fine of not to exceed $500 or imprisonment not to exceed six months or by any combination of these penalties. Persons ejected from the park will not be permitted to return without permission in writing from the Secretary of the Interior or the supervisor of the park.


Horses, cattle, or other domestic live stock running at large or being herded or grazed in the Crater Lake National Park without authority from the Secretary of the Interior, will be taken up and impounded by the supervisor, who will at once give notice thereof to the owner, if known. If the owner is not known, notice of such impounding, giving a description of the animal or animals, with the brands thereon, will be posted in six public places inside the park and in two public places outside the park. Any owner of an animal thus impounded may, at any time before the sale thereof, reclaim the same upon proving ownership and paying the cost of notice and all expenses incident to the taking up and detention of such animal including the cost of feeding and caring for the same. If any animal thus impounded shall not be reclaimed within 30 days from notice to the owner or from the date of posting notices, it shall be sold at public auction at such time and place as may be fixed by the supervisor after 10 days' notice, to be given by posting notices in six public places in the park and two public places outside the park, and by mailing to the owner, if known, a copy thereof.

All money received from the sale of such animals and remaining after the payment of all expenses incident to the taking up, impounding, and selling thereof shall be carefully retained by the supervisor in a separate fund for a period of six months, during which time the net proceeds from the sale of any animal may be claimed by and paid to the owner upon the presentation of satisfactory proof of ownership, and if not so claimed within six months from the date of sale such proceeds shall be turned into the Crater Lake National Park fund.

The supervisor shall keep a record in which shall be set down a description of all animals impounded, giving the brands found on them, the date and locality of the taking up, the date of all notices and manner in which they were given, the date of sale the name and address of the purchaser, the amount for which each animal was sold and the cost incurred in connection therewith, and the disposition of the proceeds.

The supervisor will, in each instance, make every reasonable effort to ascertain the owner of animals impounded and to give actual notice thereof to such owner.


The following rules and regulations governing the location of mining claims in Crater Lake National Park are hereby established and made public pursuant to authority conferred by the acts of Congress, approved May 22, 1902 (32 Stat., 202), August 21, 1916 (39 Stat., 521), and August 25, 1916 (39 Stat., 535).

The organic act establishing the park provides that under such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe the reservation shall be open "to the location of mining claims and the working of the same." It was not the purpose of this provision to extend the mining laws to the park without limitation, but only to authorize the location and working of mining claims thereon, under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior, and in such manner as not to interfere with or prejudicially affect the general purpose for which the reservation was established. It is therefore prescribed —

(a) That persons desiring to locate mining claims within the park shall enroll their names and addresses with the supervisor of the reservation, and shall file with such supervisor a description, in writing, of the land desired to be located. They shall also file with the supervisor evidence that they are severally qualified to make locations under the mining laws, and before entering upon the park for such purpose they must obtain from the Secretary of the Interior through the supervisor a written permit to do so. Such permit will be issued only upon condition that the applicant or applicants therefor, while upon the reservation, will not destroy or damage any game, fish, timber, or natural objects therein, and will strictly observe and comply with the requirements of the law and these regulations.

(b) Lands in the park upon which valuable deposits of mineral shall have been or may be found may be located under the mining laws by any person or persons duly qualified and holding a permit, such as is described in the preceding paragraph, and such person or persons, his or their successor or successors in interest, may work the claim or claims so located; but in carrying on the work he or they shall in all respects observe and comply with the provisions of the statute creating the park and with these regulations: Provided, That such person or persons may, as the proper working of such mining claim or claims shall require, be permitted to use, for mining purposes, such timber or stone found upon the land located as in the judgment of the supervisor may be so used without injury or damage to the reservation "as a public park or pleasure ground": And provided further, That within 30 days after the location of any mining claim the park, and before development work thereon shall be commenced, a copy of the notice of location shall be filed with the supervisor, together with proof satisfactorily showing that discovery of a valuable mineral deposit has been made within the limits of the location, and if it be a placer location, that every 10-acre tract embraced therein has been found to contain valuable deposits of mineral.

(c) The statute does not authorize the purchase of or the acquisition of the legal title to lands located as mining claims within the park. The rights of the locator or locators, therefore, will be at all times subject to forfeiture upon breach of any of the conditions mentioned in the permit herein provided for, or upon refusal or failure to comply with any of the provisions of the statute or of these regulations.

(d) Upon breach of any such conditions, or upon refusal or failure to comply in all respects with the provisions of the statute and of these regulations, or where locators of mining claims do not appear to be acting in good faith, or who after location do not work their claims in such manner as to show good faith in the assertion thereof, the supervisor will revoke their permits, forthwith remove them from the park, and report the facts to the Secretary of the Interior.


Pursuant to authority conferred by the act of Congress of May 22, 1902 (32 Stat., 202), and the act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat., 535), the following regulations governing the admission of automobiles and motorcycles into the Crater Lake National Park are hereby established and made public:

1. Entrances. — Automobiles and motorcycles may enter and leave the park by the western or Castle Creek entrance, the eastern or Sand Creek entrance, and the southern or Anna Creek entrance.

2. Automobiles. — The park is open to automobiles operated for pleasure, but not to those carrying passengers who are paying, either directly or indirectly, for the use of machines (excepting, however, automobiles used by concessioners under permit from the department). Careful driving is demanded of all persons using the roads. The Government is in no way responsible for any kind of accident.

3. Hours. — Automobiles or motorcycles will not be permitted to enter or leave the park before 6.30 a. m. or after 8 p. m., except in case of emergency.

4. Motorcycles. — Motorcycles are admitted to the park under the same conditions as automobiles and are subject to the same regulations, as far as they are applicable.

5. Permits. — Permits must be secured at the ranger station, where the automobile enters the park and will entitle the holder to go over any or all of the roads in the park. This permit must be the conveniently kept so that it can be exhibited to park rangers on demand. Each permit must be exhibited to the checking rangers for verification on exit from the park. Permits will show (a) name of station where permit is issued, (b) name of owner or driver, (c) State and license number of automobile.

6. Fees. — The fee for an automobile or motorcycle permit is $2.50 and is payable in cash only. The permit is good for the entire season, expiring on December 31 of the year of issue.

7. Distance apart; gears and brakes. — Automobiles while in motion must not be less than 50 yards apart, except for purpose of passing, which is permissible only on comparatively level or slight grades. All automobiles, except while shifting gears, must retain their gears constantly enmeshed. Persons desiring to enter the park in an automobile will be required to satisfy the ranger issuing the automobile permit that all parts of machine, particularly the brakes and tires, are in first-class working order and capable of making the trip, and that there is sufficient gasoline in the tank to reach the next place where it may be obtained. The automobile must carry at least one extra tire.

8. Speeds. — Speed is limited to 10 miles per hour, except on good roads with straight stretches, and when no team is nearer than 200 yards the speed may be increased to 20 miles per hour.

9. Horns. — The horn will be sounded on approaching curves or stretches of road concealed for any considerable distance by slopes, overhanging trees, or other obstacles, and before meeting or passing other machines, riding or driving animals, or pedestrians.

10. Lights. — All automobiles must be equipped with head and tail lights, the headlights to be of sufficient brilliancy to insure safety in driving at night and all lights must be kept lighted after dark when automobile is on the roads. Headlights must be dimmed when passing other automobiles or horse-drawn vehicles.

11. Muffler cut-outs. — Muffler cut-outs must be closed while approaching or passing riding horses, horse-drawn vehicles, hotels, camps, or checking stations.

12. Teams. — When teams, saddle horses, or pack trains approach, automobiles will take the outer edge of the roadway, regardless of the direction in which they may be going, taking care that sufficient room is left on the inside for the passage of vehicles and animals. Teams have the right of way, and automobiles will be backed or otherwise handled as may be necessary so as to enable teams to pass with safety. In no case must automobiles pass animals on the road at a speed greater than 8 miles an hour.

13. Accidents. — When, due to breakdowns or accidents of any other nature, automobiles are unable to keep going, they must be immediately parked off the road, or, where this is impossible, on the outer edge of the road.

14. Stop-overs. — Automobiles stopping over at points inside the park must be parked off the road, or, where this is impossible, on the outer edge of the road.

15. Reduced engine power, gasoline, etc. — Due to the high altitude of the park roads, ranging between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, the power of all automobiles is much reduced, so that about 40 per cent more gasoline will be required than for the same distance at lower altitudes. Likewise, one gear lower will generally have to be used on grades than would have to be used in other places. A further effect that must be watched is the heating of the engine on long grades, which may become serious unless care is used. Gasoline can be purchased at regular supply stations as per posted notices.

16. Fines and penalties. — Violation of any of the foregoing regulations for government of the park shall be punishable by revocation of automobile permit, by immediate ejectment from the park, or by a fine of not to exceed $500, or by any combination of the three, and be cause for refusal to issue new automobile permit to the owner without prior sanction in writing from the Secretary of the Interior.

Regulations Governing Crater Lake National Park [In Effect May 1, 1917], pp. 1-7.

National Park Service Policy Statement, 1918

Washington, May 13, 1918.

Dear Mr. Mather: The National Park Service has been established as a bureau of this department just one year. During this period our efforts have been chiefly directed toward the building of an effective organization while engaged in the performance of duties relating to the administration, protection, and improvement of the national parks and monuments, as required by law. This constructive work is now completed. The new Service is fully organized; its personnel has been carefully chosen; it has been conveniently and comfortably situated in the new Interior Department Building; and it has been splendidly equipped for the quick and effective transaction of its business.

For the information of the public an outline of the administrative policy to which the new Service will adhere may now be announced. This policy is based on three broad principles: "First, that the national parks must be maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations as well as those of our own time; second, that they are set apart for the use, observation, health, and pleasure of the people; and third, that the national interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in the parks."

Every activity of the Service is subordinate to the duties imposed upon it to faithfully preserve the parks for posterity in essentially their natural state. The commercial use of these reservations, except as specially authorized by law, or such as may be incidental to the accommodation and entertainment of visitors, will not be permitted under any circumstances.

In all of the national parks except Yellowstone you may permit the grazing of cattle in isolated regions not frequented by visitors, and where no injury to the natural features of the parks may result from such use. The grazing of sheep; however, must not be permitted in any national park.

In leasing lands for the operations of hotels, camps, transportation facilities, or other public service under strict Government control, concessioners should be confined to tracts no larger than absolutely necessary for the purposes of their business enterprises.

You should not permit the leasing of park lands for summer homes. It is conceivable, and even exceedingly probable, that within a few years under a policy of permitting the establishment of summer homes in national parks, these reservations might become so generally settled as to exclude the public from convenient access to their streams, lakes, and other natural features, and thus destroy the very basis upon which this national playground system is being constructed.

You should not permit the cutting of trees except where timber is needed in the construction of buildings or other improvements within the park and can be removed without injury to the forests or disfigurement of the landscape, where the thinning of forests or cutting of vistas will improve the scenic features of the parks, or where their destruction is necessary to eliminate insect infestations or diseases common to forests and shrubs.

In the construction of roads, trails, buildings, and other improvements, particular attention must be devoted always to the harmonizing of these improvements with the landscape. This is a most important item in our program of development and requires the employment of training engineers who either possess a knowledge of landscape architecture or have a proper appreciation of the esthetic value of park lands. All improvements will be carried out in accordance with a preconceived plan developed with special reference to the preservation of the landscape, and comprehensive plans for future development of the national parks on an adequate scale will be prepared as funds are available for this purpose.

Wherever the Federal Government has exclusive jurisdiction over national parks it is clear that more effective measures for the protection of the parks can be taken. The Federal Government has exclusive jurisdiction over the national parks in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, and Oregon, and also in the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska. We should urge the cession of exclusive jurisdiction over the parks in the other States, and particularly in California and Colorado.

There are many private holdings in the national parks, and many of these seriously hamper the administration of these reservations. All of them should be eliminated as far as it is practicable to accomplish this purpose in the course of time, either through congressional appropriation or by acceptance of donations of these lands. Isolated tracts in important scenic areas should be given first consideration, or course, in the purchase of private property.

Every opportunity should be afforded the public, wherever possible, to enjoy the national parks in the manner that best satisfies the individual taste. Automobiles and motorcycles will be permitted in all of the national parks; in fact, the parks will be kept accessible by any means practicable.

All outdoor sports which may be maintained consistently with the observation of the safeguards thrown around the national parks by law will be heartily indorsed and aided wherever possible. Mountain climbing, horseback riding, walking, motoring, swimming, boating, and fishing will ever be the favorite sports. Winter sports will be developed in the parks that are accessible throughout the year. Hunting will not be permitted in any national park.

The educational, as well as the recreational, use of the national parks should be encouraged in every practicable way. University and high-school classes in science will find special facilities for their vacation-period studies. Museums containing specimens of wild flowers, shrubs, and trees, and mounted animals, birds, and fish native to the parks and other exhibits of this character will be established as authorized.

Low-priced camps operated by concessioners should be maintained, as well as comfortable and even luxurious hotels wherever the volume of travel warrants the establishment of these classes of accommodations. In each reservation, as funds are available, a system of free camp sites will be cleared, and these grounds will be equipped with adequate water and sanitation facilities.

As concessions in the national parks represent in most instances a large investment, and as the obligation to render service satisfactory to the department at carefully regulated rates is imposed, these enterprises must be given a large measure of protection, and generally speaking, competitive business should not be authorized where a concession is meeting our requirements, which, of course, will as nearly as possible coincide with the needs of the traveling public.

All concessions should yield revenue to the Federal Government, but the development of the revenues of the parks should not impose a burden upon the visitor.

Automobile fees in the parks should be reduced as the volume of motor travel increases.

For assistance in the solution of administrative problems in the parks relating both to their protection and use the scientific bureaus of the Government offer facilities of the highest worth and authority. In the protection of the public health, for instance, the destruction of insect pests in the forests, the care of wild animals, and the propagation and distribution of fish, you should utilize their hearty cooperation to the utmost.

You should utilize to the fullest extent the opportunity afforded by the Railroad Administration in appointing a committee of western railroads to inform the traveling public how to comfortably reach the national parks; you should diligently extend and use the splendid cooperation developed during the last three years among chambers of commerce, tourist bureaus, and automobile highway associations for the purpose of spreading information about our national parks and facilitating their use and enjoyment; you should keep informed of park movements and park progress, municipal, county, and State, both at home and abroad, for the purpose of adapting whenever practicable, the world's best thought to the needs of the national parks. You should encourage all movements looking to outdoor living. In particular, you should maintain close working relationship with the Dominion parks branch of the Canadian department of the interior and assist in the solution of park problems of an international character.

The department is often required for reports on pending legislation proposing the establishment of new national parks or the addition of lands to existing parks. Complete data on such park projects should be obtained by the National Park Service and submitted to the department in tentative form of report to Congress.

In studying new park projects you should seek to find "scenery of supreme and distinctive quality or some natural feature so extraordinary or unique as to be of national interest and importance." You should seek "distinguished examples of typical forms of world architecture," such, for instance, as the Grand Canyon, as exemplifying the highest accomplishment of stream erosion, and the high, rugged portion of Mount Desert Island as exemplifying the oldest rock forms in America and the luxuriance of deciduous forests.

The national park system as now constituted should not be lowered in standard, dignity, and prestige by the inclusion of areas which express in less than the highest terms the particular class or kind of exhibit which they represent.

It is not necessary that a national park should have a large area. The element of size is of no importance as long as the park is susceptible of effective administration and control.

You should study existing national parks with the idea of improving them by the addition of adjacent areas which will complete their scenic purposes or facilitate administration. The addition of the Teton Mountains to the Yellowstone's greatest need, which is an uplift of glacier-bearing peaks; and the addition to the Sequoia National Park of the Sierra summits and slopes to the north and east, as contemplated by pending legislation, will create a reservation unique in the world, because of its combination of gigantic trees, extraordinary canyons, and mountain masses.

In considering projects involving the establishment of new national parks or the extension of existing park areas by delimination of national forests, you should observe what effect such delimination would have on the administration of adjacent forest lands, and wherever practicable, you should engage in an investigation of such park projects jointly with officers of the Forest Service, in order that questions of national park and national forest policy as they affect the lands involved may be thoroughly understood.

Cordially, yours,

Director, National Park Service.

Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service, 1918, pp. 273-76.


(Approved December 21, 1923)


The following rules and regulations for the government of Crater Lake National Park are hereby established and made public pursuant to authority conferred by the acts of Congress approved May 22, 1902 (32 Stat. 202), August 21, 1916 (39 Stat. 521), and the act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535), as amended June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. 732), and March 7, 1928 (45 Stat. 200-235), and shall supersede all previous rules and regulations for this park heretofore promulgated, which are hereby rescinded.

1. Preservation of natural features and curiosities. — The destruction, injury, defacement, or disturbance in any way of the public buildings, signs, equipment, or other property, or of the trees, flowers, vegetation, rocks, minerals, animal, or bird, or other life, or other natural conditions and curiosities in the park is prohibited: Provided, That flowers may be gathered in small quantities when, in the judgment of the superintendent, their removal will not impair the beauty of the park. Before any flowers are picked, permit must be secured from officer.

2. Camping. — In order to preserve the natural scenery of the park and to provide pure water and facilities for keeping the park clean, permanent camp sites have been set apart for visitors touring the park, and no camping is permitted outside of the specially designated sites. These camps have been used during the past seasons; they will be used daily this year and for many years to come. The following regulations, therefore, will be strictly enforced for the protection of the health and comfort of visitors who come in the park.

(a) Keep the camp grounds clean. Combustible rubbish shall be burned on camp fires and all other garbage and refuse of all kinds, shall be placed in garbage cans or pits provided for the purpose. At new or unfrequented camps, garbage shall be burned or buried.

(b) There is plenty of pure water; be sure you get it. There are thousands of visitors every year to each camp site and the water in the streams and creeks adjacent is not safe to drink. The water supply provided is pure and wholesome and must be used If, however, the water supply is not piped to grounds, consult rangers for sources to use. Contamination of watersheds of water supplies or of any water used for drinking purposes is prohibited.

(c) Campers and others shall not wash clothing or cooking utensils or pollute in any other manner the waters of the park. Bathing in any of the streams near the regularly traveled thoroughfares in the park is not permitted without suitable bathing clothes.

(d) The wearing of bathing suits, scanty or objectionable clothing, without proper covering, is prohibited in automobiles, or around camps, villages, or hotels.

(e) All animals shall be kept a sufficient distance from camp sites and circulation areas in order not to litter the ground.

(f) Campers may use only dead or fallen timber for fuel.

(g) Any article likely to freighten horses shall not be hung near a road or trail.

3. Fires. — Fires constitute one of the greatest perils to the park. They shall not be kindled near trees, dead wood, moss, dry leaves, forest mold, or other vegetable refuse, but in some open space on rocks or earth. Should camp be made in a locality where no such open space exists or is provided, the dead wood, moss, dry leaves, etc., shall be scraped away to the rock or earth over an area considerably larger than that required for the fire.

All persons making trips away from established camps are required to obtain fire permits from the nearest ranger before building camp fires.

Fires shall be lighted only when necessary, and when no longer needed shall be completely extinguished, and all embers and beds smothered with earth or water, so that there remains no possibility of reignition.

Permission to burn on any clean-up operation within the park must be first secured from the superintendent's office, and in such cases as is deemed advisable, such burning will be under the Government supervision. All costs of suppression and damage caused by reason of loss of control of such burning operations shall be paid by the person or persons to whom such permit has been granted.

No lighted cigarette, cigar, match, or other burning material shall be thrown from any vehicle or saddle animal or dropped into any leaves, grass, twigs, or tree mold.

Smoking or the building of fires on any lands within the park maybe prohibited by the superintendent when, in his judgment, the hazard makes such action necessary.

The use of fireworks, or firecrackers in the park is prohibited, except with the written permission of the superintendent.

4. Hunting. — The park is a sanctuary for wild life of every sort, and all hunting or the killing, wounding, frightening, or capturing at any time of any wild bird or animal, except dangerous animals when it is necessary to prevent them from destroying human lives or inflicting personal injury, is prohibited within the limits of the park.

The outfits, including guns, traps, teams, horses, or means of transportation of every nature or description used by any person or persons engaged in hunting, killing, ensnaring, or capturing birds or wild animals within the limits of the park shall be forfeited to the United States and may be seized by the officers of the park and held pending the prosecution of any person or persons arrested under the charge of violating this regulation, and upon conviction, such forfeiture shall be adjudicated as a penalty in addition to other punishment. Such forfeited property shall is disposed of and accounted for by and under the authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Possession within said park of the dead bodies or any part thereof of any wild bird or animal shall be prima facie evidence that the person or persons having the same are guilty of violating this regulation.

During the hunting season, arrangements may be made at entrance stations to identify and transport through the park, carcasses of birds or animals killed outside of the park.

Firearms are prohibited within the park except upon written permission of the superintendent. Visitors entering or traveling through the park to places beyond, shall, at entrance, report and surrender all firearms, traps, seines, nets, or explosives in their possession to the first park officer and in proper cases may obtain his written permission to carry them through the park sealed. The Government assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage to any firearms, traps, nets, or other property so surrendered to any park officer, nor are park officers authorized to accept the responsibility of custody of any property for the convenience of visitors.

NOTE. — The foregoing regulation is in effect a declaration of the law on this subject contained in sections 4 and 5 of the act of Congress approved August 21, 1916 (39 Stat. 521), accepting cession by the State of Oregon of exclusive jurisdiction of the lands embraced in the Crater Lake National Park, and for other purposes.

This act by its terms applies to all lands within said park whether in public or private ownership.

5. Fishing. — Fishing with nets, seines, traps, or by the use of drugs or explosives, or in any other way than with hook and line, or for merchandise or profit is prohibited. Fishing in particular waters may be suspended, or the number of fish that may be taken by one person in any one day from the various streams or lakes may be regulated by the superintendent. All fish hooked less than 5 inches long shall be carefully handled with moist hands and returned at once to the water, not seriously injured. Five fish shall constitute the limit for a day's catch from the lake and 20 from the other waters of the park. The possession of more than two days' catch by any person at any one time shall be construed as a violation, of this regulation.

6. Private operations. — No person, firm, or corporation shall reside permanently, engage in any business, or erect buildings in the park without permission in writing from the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, D. C. Applications for such permission may be addressed to the director through the superintendent of the park.

7. Campers. — Still and motion picture cameras may be freely used in the park for general scenic purposes. For the filming of motion pictures or sound pictures requiring the use of artificial or special settings, or special equipment or involving the a performance of a professional cast, permission must first be obtained from the superintendent of the park.

8. Gambling. — Gambling in any form or the operation of gambling devices, whether for merchandise or otherwise, is prohibited.

9. Advertisements. — Private notices or advertisements shall not be posted or displayed in the park, excepting such as the park superintendent deems necessary for the convenience and guidance of the public.

10. Mining claims. — The location of mining claims is prohibited on Government lands in the park.

11. Private lands. — Owners of private lands within the park limits are entitled to the full use and enjoyment thereof; the boundaries of such lands, however, shall be determined and marked and defined, so that they may be readily distinguished from the park lands. While no limitations or conditions are imposed upon the use of private lands so long as such use does not interfere with or injure the park, private owners shall provide against trespass by their livestock upon the park lands, and all trespasses committed will be punished to the full extent of the law. Stock may be taken over the park lands to private lands with the written permission and under the supervision of the superintendent, but such permission and supervision are not required when access to such private lands is had wholly over roads or lands not owned or controlled by the United States.

12. Grazing. — The running at large, herding, or grazing of livestock of any kind on the Government lands in the park, as well as the driving of livestock over same, is prohibited except where authority therefor has been granted by the superintendent. Livestock found improperly on the park lands may be impounded and held until claimed by the owner and the trespass adjusted.

13. Authorized operators. — All persons, firms, or corporations holding franchises in the park shall keep the grounds used by them properly policed and shall maintain the premises in a sanitary condition to the satisfaction of the superintendent. No operator shall retain in his employment a person whose presence in the park may be deemed by the superintendent subversive of good order and management of the park.

All operators shall require each of their employees to wear a metal badge, with a number thereon, or other mark of identification, the name and number corresponding therewith, or the identification mark, being registered in the superintendent's office. These badges must be worn in plain sight.

14. Dogs and cats. — Dogs and cats are prohibited on the Government lands in the park except that upon written permission of the superintendent, secured upon entrance, they may be transported over through roads by persons passing through the park provided they are kept under leash, crated or otherwise under restrictive control of the owner at all times while in the park: Provided, however, That employees and others may be authorized by the superintendent to keep dogs in the park administrative area, or areas, on a condition that they are kept within the confines of these areas, and subject to such further conditions in the interest of good park administration as may be determined by the superintendent.

15. Dead animals. — All domestic or grazed animals that may die on Government lands in the park, at any tourist camp, or along any of the public thoroughfares shall be buried immediately by the owner or person having charge of such animals at least 2 feet beneath the ground, and in no case less than one-fourth mile from any camp or thoroughfare.

16. Travel on roads and trails. — Pedestrians on trails, when saddle or pack animals are passing, shall remain quiet until the animals have passed.

Persons traveling on the trails of the park either on foot or on saddle animals shall not make short cuts but shall confine themselves to the main trails.

Any and all roads and trails in the park may be closed to public use by order of the superintendent when, in his judgment, conditions make travel thereon hazardous or dangerous, or when such action is necessary to protect the park.

17. Travel — General. — (a) Saddle horses, pack trains, and horse-drawn vehicles have right of way over motor-propelled vehicles at all times.

(b) Load and weight limitations shall be those prescribed from time to time by the superintendent of the park and shall all be complied with by the operators of all vehicles using the park roads. Schedules showing weight limitations for different roads in the park may be seen at the office of the superintendent and at ranger stations at the park entrances.

(c) All vehicles shall be equipped with lights for night travel. At least one light must be carried on the left front side of all horse-drawn vehicles in a position such as to be visible from both front and rear.

18. Miscellaneous. — No pack-train or saddle-horse party shall be allowed in the park unless in charge of a guide or competent leader. Such guides or leaders may be required to pass an examination prescribed by and in a manner satisfactory to the superintendent. At the discretion of the superintendent, guides may be permitted to carry unsealed firearms.

19. Fines and penalties. — Persons who render themselves obnoxious by disorderly conduct or bad behavior shall be subjected to the punishment hereinafter prescribed for violation of the foregoing regulations, and/or they may be summarily removed from the park by the superintendent.

Any person who violates any of the foregoing regulations shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be subject to a fine of not more than $500, or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, and be adjudged to pay all costs of the proceedings.

NOTES. — All complaints by visitors and others as to service, etc., rendered in the park should be made to the superintendent in writing before the complainant leaves the park. Oral complaints will be heard daily during office hours.

Persons finding lost articles should deposit them at the Government headquarters or at the nearest ranger station; leaving their own names and addresses, so that if not claimed by the owners within 60 days articles may be turned over to those who found them.

The Government is in no way responsible for any kind of accident.


1. Automobiles. — The park is open to automobiles operated for pleasure, but not to those carrying passengers who are paying, either directly or indirectly, for the use of machines (excepting, however automobiles used by transportation lines operating under Government franchise), and any person operating an automobile in contravention of the provisions of this regulation shall be deemed guilty of its violation.

2. Motor trucks and busses. — Motor trucks and busses are admitted to the park under the same conditions as automobiles, except the superintendent will establish limits of size and tonnage capacity which may vary according to the different roads and bridges.

Commercial truck trailers engaged in hauling freight will be required to secure permission from the superintendent before using the park roads.

3. Motor cycles. — Motor cycles are admitted to the park under the same conditions as automobiles and are subject to the same regulations, so far as they are applicable.

4. Permits. — No motor vehicle may be operated in the park with out a Crater Lake National Park permit.

The owner or driver of each motor-driven vehicle entering the park shall secure this permit at the entering ranger station.

This permit authorizes the operation of the vehicle therein described over the public roads in the park throughout the current calendar year. The permit is issued to the vehicle described therein and not to the owner or driver. This permit should be carried in the car and exhibited to park rangers on request.

5. Fees. — The fee or automobile or motor cycle permits is $1.

6. Roads — Hours. — The use of automobiles will be permitted at all hours on any of the roads in the park. Automobiles and motor cycles may enter and leave the park by the western or Castle Creek entrance, the eastern or Sand Creek entrance, the southern or Annie Creek entrance, and the northern or Diamond Lake entrance.

7. Speed. — Automobiles and other vehicles shall be so operated so as to be under the safe control of the driver at all times. The speed shall be kept within such limits as may be necessary to avoid accidents. At no time shall speed exceed 40 miles per hour. All cautionary signs must be observed. Ambulances and Government cars on emergency trips are the only exceptions to this rule. The speed of all motor trucks over 1-1/2 tons capacity is limited not to exceed 25 miles per hour on all park roads.

8. Teams. — When teams, saddle horses or pack trains approach, automobiles shall be so manipulated so as to allow safe passage for the other party. In no case shall automobiles pass animals on the road at a speed greater than 10 miles per hour.

9. Right of way, etc. — Any vehicle traveling slowly upon any of the park roads, when overtaken by a faster-moving motor vehicle, and upon suitable signal from such overtaking vehicle, shall move to the right to allow safe passage.

When automobiles going in opposite directions meet on a grade, the ascending machine has the right of way, and the descending machine shall be backed or otherwise handled as may be necessary to enable the ascending machine to pass in safety.

10. Muffler cut-outs. — Muffler cut-outs shall be closed at all times within the park boundaries.

11. Accidents; stop-overs. — If cars stop because of accident or for any reason, they shall be immediately parked in such a way as not to interfere with travel on the road.

The driver of any motor-driven vehicle who meets with an accident shall report same at the nearest ranger station or to the superintendent of the park.

12. Lights. — All automobiles shall be equipped with head and tail lights, the headlights to be of sufficient brilliancy to insure safety in a driving at night, and all lights shall be kept lighted after sunset when automobile is on the roads. Headlights must either be equipped with antiglare devices deflecting powerful beams to a height of not over 36 inches above the road or else must be dimmed whenever meeting other automobiles, motor cycles, driving or riding animals and pedestrians.

13. Intoxication. — No person who is under the influence of intoxicating liquor and no person who is addicted to the use of narcotic drugs shall operate or drive a motor-driven vehicle of any kind on the park roads.

14. Horns. — The horn shall be sounded before passing other automobiles, motor cycles, riding or driving animals, or pedestrians.

15. Fines and penalties. — Any person who violates any of the foregoing regulations shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be subject to a fine of not more than $500, or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, and be adjudged to pay all costs of the proceedings, and/or may be punished by revocation of the automobile permit and by immediate ejectment from the park. Such violation shall be cause for refusal to issue a new automobile permit to the offender without prior sanction in writing from the Director of the National Park Service or the superintendent of the park.

Rules and Regulations, December 21, 1932, RG 79, Central Files, 1933-49, File No. 208, Part 1, Crater Lake, Rules and Regulations, General.



THE PARK REGULATIONS are designed for the protection of the natural features and for the comfort and convenience of visitors. The following synopsis is for the guidance of visitors.

FIRES.—Light carefully and only in designated campgrounds. Extinguish completely before leaving camp, even for temporary absence. Do not guess your fire is out—know it.

CAMPS.—Use designated campgrounds. Keep the campgrounds clean. Combustible rubbish shall be burned on camp fires, and other refuse of all kinds shall be placed in garbage cans or pits provided for the purpose. Firewood is provided free of charge. Camping is restricted to 30 days.

TRASH—Do not throw paper, lunch refuse, film cartons, chewing gum paper, or other trash over the rim on walks, trails, roads, or elsewhere. Carry until you can burn in camp or place in receptacle.

TREES, FLOWERS, AND ANIMALS.—The destruction, injury, or disturbance in any way of the trees, flowers, birds, or animals is prohibited.

NOISES.—Be quiet in camp after others have gone to bed. Many people come here for rest.

AUTOMOBILES.—Careful driving is required at all times. Your car must be equipped with good brakes, horn, and lights. Passing on curves is prohibited. Obey traffic rules. A gasoline station is maintained on the main highway at park headquarters. The fee for auto mobile permit is $1.

DOGS.—Dogs are prohibited in the park overnight and are not permitted in the rim concentration area. When not in an automobile, dogs must be on a leash at all times.

WARNING ABOUT BEARS.—Do not feed, tease, or molest the bears. Bears will enter or break into automobiles if food that they can smell is left inside. They will also rob your camp of unprotected food supplies.

FISHING.—A limit of 12 fish per person per day has been set for lake angling. A catch of 20 fish is permitted in park streams. No fishing license is necessary.

PARK STAFF.—The staff is here to help and advise you. When in doubt ask a man in uniform. Men in uniform at the Information Bureau, park headquarters, and the several stations will be glad to help you plan your activity while in Crater Lake and to explain the regulations.

Complete rules and regulations are available at park headquarters.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, 1940, in Circulars of General Information, The National Parks, 1940, Library, Rocky Mountain Regional Office.

Area Objectives, Crater Lake National Park: 1964


To provide for the highest quality of use and enjoyment of the National Park System by increased millions of visitors in years to come.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To insure that all services, those supplied by the concessioner as well as those supplied by the National Park Service, will meet a standard that will provide a quality experience which the visitor expects in a National area.

2. To encourage the visitor to use, enjoy and understand all of the Park resources.

3. To maintain the high traditions of the visitor service and visitor protection programs as exemplified by well trained uniformed personnel.

4. To provide through coordinated planning with the Crater Lake Lodge, Inc. better public facilities properly located and properly maintained so the visitor will enjoy his visit.

5. To make the maximum use of Sinnott Memorial and the Community Building in off hours and off seasons for interpretive and conservation programs as can be provided; and insure that these programs are of high quality.

6. To encourage the use of the Park for qualified research purposes.

7. To insure that the primary pattern of use will enable the visitor to enjoy freely the natural beauty of Crater Lake and to appreciate the natural features.

8. To promote the use of the park back country.

9. To develop those facilities necessary for maximum enjoyment of the Park which are in consonance with the resource management objectives of the Service.


To conserve and manage for their highest purpose the natural, historical and recreational resources of the National Park System.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To protect the lake and surrounding walls as paramount examples of a caldera lake.

2. To protect the lake as nearly as possible in its pristine condition, free from human disturbance and intrusion which could detract from its appearance and beauty as originally viewed by man.

3. To establish an architectural theme, and adopt design standards for construction which are in harmony with the Park atmosphere.

4. To provide for the conservation of important historical and archaeological resources which are present.

5. To establish explicit resource management guidelines for the Park which are in harmony with the concepts of the Secretary's advisory board on wildlife management and the report of the National Academy of Sciences.

6. To assure dependability, efficiency, and long life for all facilities.

7. To develop and adapt management concepts which will withstand modern pressures and influence upon park resources and will meet the requirements of the Service's long range program.


To develop the National Park System through inclusion of additional areas of scenic, scientific, historical and recreational value to the nation.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To revise the boundaries, where needed, in order to improve management and protection of its natural resources.

2. To encourage the expansion of National Historic Landmarks in Oregon, and to encourage visitors to visit and enjoy them.

3. To inform the visitor of the need for expansion of the National Park System.

4. To encourage the visitor to become familiar with the contents of the "Road to The Future".


To participate actively with organizations of this and other nations in conserving, improving and renewing the total environment.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To cooperate with the U.S. Forest Service in planning, developing and organizing adjacent recreational areas.

2. To cooperate with State and local agencies in protecting historical and natural areas of significance.

3. To exchange ideas with local, state and federal agencies through the use of "Park Practice", "Grist" and other publications and techniques which are available.

4. To encourage meetings of local, state, and federal agencies to further national conservation goals.


To communicate the cultural, inspirational and recreational significance of the American Heritage as represented in the National Park System.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To give the highest priority to informational publications published by the Crater Lake Natural History Association and to encourage this association to publish guide booklets, historical brochures, maps and pictures as necessary for better interpretation.

2. To interpret for the visitor as the main interpretive theme the story of the eruption of Mt. Mazama and the formation of the great caldera which makes Crater Lake one of the most beautiful and deepest lakes in the northern hemisphere. The secondary themes to interpret are the history, the wildlife, plant life and the outstanding scenery.

3. To provide high quality interpretation that will meet the needs of all visitors, family groups, professional groups, individuals, the young and the old.

4. To constantly train the interpretive staff so that services they provide will be improved and updated.

5. To participate in off site talks for schools, service clubs and other organizations.

6. To release through newspapers, radio and television current information on Park activities to the neighboring communities.

7. To improve the design and quality of wayside exhibits and assist the visitor to use and understand these exhibits so that they will have an understanding of the area, and their heritage.


To increase the effectiveness of the National Park Service as a "people serving" organization dedicated to park conservation, historical preservation and outdoor recreation.

THE PARK - Crater Lake National Park

1. To promote an active training program for all employees, permanent, seasonal and concessioner, to add to their effectiveness and ability to serve the visitor.

2. To function under a published delegation of authority as a park management group "D" organization.

3. To apply the "Plan for the Man" and other management training techniques for better manpower use and development.

4. To provide a safety program for the protection of the visitor and the park staff.

5. Improve the wage board employees' development program through the use of outside-the-service training courses.

Master Plan of Crater Lake National Park, September 1964, Chapter 2, Area Objectives, pp. 2-10, National Park Service History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

Crater Lake National Park Organizational Chart

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