The Guns of San Diego
Historic Resource Study
NPS Logo


1. Theodore Grivas, Military Governments in California, 1846-1850 (Glendale: Arthur H. Clark, 1963), pp. 55-58.

2. An earthwork existed on Presidio Hill prior to the Americans' arrival. Californians had constructed it during a time of internal unrest when San Diego anticipated an attack from Los Angeles. See Frazer, Forts of the West, pp. 31-32; Bancroft, California, 5:326-328; George Tays, "Fort Stockton," Registered Landmark No. 54, ed. by Vernon Aubrey Neasham, State of California, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Parks, Berkeley, 1937. A few traces of the earthwork remain. In 1940 a memorial to the Mormon Battalion was erected on the site. A Spanish cannon, "El Jupiter," manufactured in Manila in 1783 is mounted there.

3. Grivas, Military Governments, pp. 58-67; Bancroft, California, 5:336-356.

4. W. H. Emory, Lieutenant Emory Reports. Introduction by Ross Calvin (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, reprint 1951), p. 175.

5. John F. Yurtinus, "The Mormon Volunteers: The Recruitment and Service of a Unique Military Company," The Journal of San Diego History 25 (Summer 1979): 243-250; Bancroft, California, 5:473-487.

6. U.S. Congress, 31st Cong., 1st sess., House Executive Document 17, 1850, pp. 891-893.

7. Post Returns, San Diego Barracks, April 1849-December 1860, Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800-1916, Roll 1096, Microcopy 617, National Archives, hereinafter cited as NA, Washington, D. C. Although Mission of San Diego and San Diego Barracks maintained separate post returns, they were microfilmed together.

8. Ibid; and Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army... 1789 to 1903. Vol. 1. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903).

9. Post Return, January 1854, San Diego Barracks, Roll 1096, Microcopy 617, NA; Robert W. Frazier, "Military Posts in San Diego, 1852," The Journal of San Diego History 20 (Summer 1974): 49-50; George Wharton James, In and Out of the Old Missions of California (Boston: Little, Brown, 1910), p. 115; Robert W. Frazer, ed., Mansfield on the Condition of the Western Forts, 1853-54 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p. 106; n. 37. In 1853 Mansfield drew a sketch of the military structures at the mission including the officers' quarters and the enlisted barracks. The church itself is not shown. By 1930 the mission was practically in ruins. Reconstruction of the church began in 1931. Since then a long portico has been added. In 1975 the church was raised in rank to a minor basilica.

10. The San Diego Union, May 1, 1873.

11. George Ruhlen, "San Diego Barracks, " San Diego Historical Society Quarterly 1 (April 1955): 15; Map, "Plan of San Diego Barracks, California, 1879," Drawer 102, Sheet 14, Cartographic Archives Division, NA.

12. Ruhlen, "San Diego Barracks," San Diego Historical Society Quarterly 1:16; Frazer, ed., Mansfield, p. 105, n. 35 and p. 225.

13. The common name "San Diego Barracks" did not come into use until January 1876.

14. Post Returns, San Diego Barracks, July 1858 - August 1865, Rolls 1906-1097, Microcopy 617, NA.

15. It was fitting that Company D became the first unit to occupy Fort Rosecrans. It was the last company to garrison the Mission of San Diego, in 1858. See George Ruhlen, "Fort Rosecrans, California," San Diego Historical Society Quarterly 5 (October 1959): 63.

16. Ibid.

17. In 1901 a new Corps of Artillery, in which coast artillery and field artillery were partially separated, was organized. The former regimental system was abolished and the 126 companies of coast artillery were identified by number. Emanuel Raymond Lewis, Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970), p. 95.

18. In 1909, the War Department gave Block 39 to the Treasury Department in exchange for Lots E and F in Block 44 and all of Block 156. The Army did not use these and they were later sold. Post Returns, San Diego Barracks, January 1876-September 1903, Rolls 1098-1100, Microcopy 617, NA; George Ruhlen, "San Diego Barracks," San Diego Historical Society Quarterly 1 (April 1955): 15.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 19-Jan-2005