The Guns of San Diego
Historic Resource Study
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1. Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America, the Southern Voyages, A.D. 1492-1616 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), pp. 621-623.

2. For hundreds of years historians concluded Cabrillo was Portuguese. Many still do. This belief is based on the earliest (1601) published account of his expedition. The royal historian Antonio de Herrera wrote that the viceroy "named as their captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, Portuguese, a person very skilled in seamanship." In recent years some historians have concluded that Cabrillo was Spanish. The most thoroughly researched book reaching this conclusion is Harry Kelsey, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1986), pp. 3-21. In Portuguese his name is currently spelled Joao Rodrígues Cabrilho.

3. Morison, European Discovery, p. 628.

4. Kelsey, Cabrillo, p. 107, states that a third vessel sailed in the voyage, the small launch San Miguel.

5. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916), pp. 5-39. Kelsey, Cabrillo, p. 143, writes that in addition to the feast day (actually September 29), the bay was named for the San Miguel.

6. Henry R. Wagner, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. Discoverer of the Coast of California (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1941), pp. 10, 16, and 30-32; Bolton, Spanish Exploration, pp. 5-39; Morison, European Discovery, pp. 628-631; Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, 7 vols. (San Francisco. The History Company, 1884-1890), 1:69-77; McKeever, pp. 11-17. Kelsey, Cabrillo, p. 156-158.

7. Morrison, European Discovery, pp. 493-495; Bolton, Spanish Exploration, p. 43; McKeever, San Diego, p. 21. Until 1804 Upper and Lower (Alta and Baja) California were considered one province. That year they were divided; the official names being Nueva and Antigua California. Bancroft, California, 2:20.

8. Erwin G. Gudde, California Place Names, The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969), p. 282.

9. Bolton, Spanish Explorations, pp. 80-81.

10. Bancroft, California, 1:98-104; Gudde, California Place Names, p. 181. "Loma" means a low, long elevation or hill; McKeever, San Diego, p. 23.

11. McKeever, San Diego, pp. 24-27 and 32-33; George Tays, "Mission San Diego de Alcalá," Registered Landmark No. 242, California Historical Landmarks Series, ed. by Vernon Aubrey Neasham, Berkeley 1937. In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln caused the church and twenty-two acres of land to be returned to the Catholic Church. In recent times the church has been reconstructed and serves an active parish today.

12. Bancroft, California, 1:204.

13. Bancroft, California, 1:199, p. 3, and p. 204; Francis J. Weber, "California's Caminito Real," California Historical Quarterly, 54:67; George Walcott Ames, Jr., "San Diego Presidio Site, " Registered Landmark No. 59, California Historical Landmarks Series, ed. by Vernon Aubrey Neasham, Berkeley 1936. Spain established four major presidios in Alta California: San Diego, Monterey, San Francisco, and Santa Barbara.

14. Bancroft, California, 1:649-651.

15. Bancroft, California, 1:512-514, 534-535, and 645-651.

16. Bancroft, California, 3:162-163; "Duhaut-Cilly's Account of California in the Years 1827-28," translated by Charles Franklin Carter, California Historical Society Quarterly 8 (September 1929): 218.

17. Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Two Years Before the Mast, A Personal Narrative of Life at Sea (Cleveland: World Publishing, 1946), p. 134.

18. Bancroft, California, 2:10-14; This encounter later became known as "The Battle of San Diego Bay."

19. Bancroft, California, 3:132-133.

20. "Duhaut—Cilly's Account of California, " California Historical Society Quarterly 8 (September 1929): 217-218.

21. Douglas Flower and Linda Roth, Cultural Resource Inventory, Archaeology/History/Architecture, Navy and Coast Guard Lands, Point Loma, San Diego, California (San Diego, 1982), pp. 147-157; James Robert Morriarty, The Cabrillo National Monument, A Physical and Cultural Overview (National Park Service, 1977), p. 168; Cabrillo Historical Seminar (1982), pp. 3-72; Bancroft, California, 1:649 and 2:10-13; Robert W. Frazer, Forts of the West. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), pp. 23-24; Captain Edgar Jadwin, CE, "Map showing the proposed Seawall at Fort Rosecrans, July 1902," Western Regional Office, National Park Service, San Francisco, California.

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Last Updated: 19-Jan-2005