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Selected Constitutional Decisions

Other Sites

Existing National Historic Landmarks


First Bank of the United States

Pittsylvania County Courthouse

Second Bank of the United States

Sumner Elementary School

Supreme Court Building

The U.S. Constitution
National Park Service Arrowhead


The following is a list of existing National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) and units of the National Park System (NPSy) that already reflect one or more areas of constitutional history. Some of these sites, such as the homes of the justices of the Supreme Court, or the homes of the signers of the Constitution, are clear. Other sites, such as those associated with the Northwest Ordinance, the Whiskey Rebellion, the doctrine of implied powers, the doctrine of nullification, slavery and reconstruction, civil rights, populism, progressivism and the women's rights movement, to name a few, properly belong on this list. All of these sites relate to the Constitution or the Supreme Court of the United States in one or more ways. Some of them were designated for their associations with either the Supreme Court or the Constitution. Some were designated for other reasons. Since the Constitution was adopted almost two hundred years of history have passed. The large number of sites included in this list is evidence of the direct link between the Constitution and its subsequent development, and the history of the United States. This material is in chronological order, when possible. Unless otherwise indicated by the designation of NPSy, all these sites are National Historic Landmarks (NHLs).


(1) Roger Williams National Memorial Providence, Rhode Island NPSy

Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island. He was important in the evolution of Puritan covenant theology in its role as the precursor of American constitutionalism with special emphasis on the development of religious liberty and the separation of church and state. The concept of religious freedom pioneered by Roger Williams was later embodied in the First Amendment. No structure associated with Roger Williams survives.

(2) Hanover County Courthouse
Hanover, Virginia

In 1763 Patrick Henry argued a case here, The Parson's Cause, involving a clash between royal and local authority concerning the status of the Anglican Church in Virginia. The case proved to be an early portent of the American Revolution and later influenced the drafting of the First Amendment.

(3) Potomac Canal Historic District
Great Falls Park
Fairfax, Virginia

Discussions between Virginia and Maryland concerning the issue of Federal authority over matters pertaining to interstate commerce and internal improvements led to the convening of the Annapolis Convention and eventually the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

(4) Maryland Statehouse
Annapolis, Maryland

Site of the Annapolis Convention of 1786 that called for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.


By resolving the conflicting land claims of the states the Confederation Congress pointed the way toward a compromise of the various interests between the large and small states represented at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

(5) Beginning Point of the U.S. Public Land Survey
Ohio-Pennsylvania Border
E. Liverpool, Columbiana County

A rectangular land survey system, established under the Ordinance of 1785, provided for administration of land in the Old Northwest Territories.

(6) General Rufus Putnam House
Rutland, Worcester County
18th Century

Putnam was a Revolutionary War officer who helped organize the first settlement in the Northwest Territory, at Marietta, Ohio; he also served as United States Surveyor-General.


(7) Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
The Franklin Institute
20th and Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
NPSy (Affiliated)

In the Rotunda of the Franklin Institute the colossal seated statue of Franklin, by James Earle Fraser, honors the inventor, statesman, and signer of the Constitution. No structure associated with Benjamin Franklin survives.

(8) Stonum
New Castle, New Castle County
18th Century

Home of George Read.

(9) Broom (Jacob) House
Montchanin, New Castle County
18th Century

Home of Jacob Broom.

(10) Lombardy Hall
Wilmington, Delaware

Home of Gunning Bedford, Jr.; also delegate from Delaware to the Continental Congress and the Annapolis Convention (1786).

(11) Summerseat
Morrisville, Bucks County

Home of George Clymer.

(12) Mount Vernon
Fairfax County, Virginia
18th Century

Home of George Washington.

(13) George Washington Birthplace National Monument
Washington's Birthplace, Virginia

Birthsite of George Washington.

(14) George Washington Memorial Parkway
Virginia and Maryland

This landscaped riverfront parkway links many of the landmarks in the life of George Washington. It connects Mount Vernon and Great Falls with Chain Bridge on the Maryland side. The parkway includes natural, historical, and recreational areas.

(15) Montpelier
Orange County, Virginia

Home of James Madison.

(16) Blount Mansion
Knoxville, Knox County

Home of William Blount, signed for North Carolina.

(17) Rutledge (John) House
Charleston, Charleston County
South Carolina
1763; 1853 (addition)

Home of John Rutledge; also Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (1789-91).

(18) King Manor
Queens Borough, New York City
New York

Home of Rufus King.

(19) Boxwood Hall (Boudinot Manor)
Elizabeth, Union County
New Jersey

Home of Jonathan Dayton.

(20) Liberty Hall
Union, Union County
New Jersey

Home of William Livingston.

(21) Snee Farm
Charleston County
South Carolina

Home of Charles Pinckney.

(22) Langdon (Governor John) Mansion
Portsmouth, Rockingham County
New Hampshire

Home of John Langdon.

(23) Ladd-Gilman House
Exeter, Rockingham County
New Hampshire

Home of Nicholas Gilman.

(24) Hamilton Grange National Memorial
New York, New York

Home of Alexander Hamilton. (Not on its original site.)

(did not sign)

(25) Dickinson (John) House
Kent County, Delaware
1740; 1804-1806 repaired and enlarged

Home of John Dickinson.

(26) Gunston Hall
Fairfax County, Virginia

Home of George Mason.

(27) Elmwood
Lowell (James Russell) House
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Home of Elbridge Gerry from 1787 to 1813.


(28) Monroe (James) Law Office
Fredericksburg, Virginia

James Monroe used this office from 1786-1789 during the period of time he worked against the ratification of the Constitution.

(29) Oak Hill
Loundon County, Virginia

Home of James Monroe.

(30) Scotchtown
Hanover County, Virginia

Home of Patrick Henry, an outspoken opponent of the Constitution.

(31) Red Hill Patrick Henry National Memorial
Brookneal, Virginia
NPSy (Affiliated)

Patrick Henry lived here during the last five years of his life.

(32) Monticello
Albemarle County, Virginia

Home of Thomas Jefferson. Although Jefferson was Minister to France from 1785-89, he played a critically important role in setting up the new government and giving meaning to the general phrases of the Constitution that define the operation of the government today.

(33) Thomas Jefferson Memorial
Washington, DC

This circular, colonnaded structure in the classic style introduced in this country by Jefferson memorializes the author of the Declaration of Independence and President from 1801 to 1809. The interior walls bear inscriptions from his writings.


(34) Independence National Historical Park
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Independence Hall was the site of the Constitutional Convention of 1787.


(35) Exchange and Provost
Charleston, Charleston County
South Carolina

Site of the South Carolina Convention that ratified the Constitution in 1788.

(36) Old State House (Old Colony House)
Washington Square
Newport, Rhode Island

Site of the ratification of the Constitution by Rhode Island in 1790.

(37) Old State House
Boston, Massachusetts
Unit of Boston National Historical Park, NPSy

Site of the ratification of the Constitution by Massachusetts in 1788.

(38) Paca (William) House
Annapolis, Anne Arundel County

William Paca was a member of the Maryland State Convention that ratified the Constitution.

(39) Bartlett (Josiah) House
Kingston, Rockingham County
New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett took part in the state convention that ratified the Constitution.


Demonstrated the power of the new Federal Government and was an early indication of the success of the Constitution in creating a strong central government.

(40) Bradford (David) House
Washington, Washington County

David Bradford was a prominent leader of the Whiskey Rebellion (1794).

(41) Espy (David) House
Bedford, Bedford County

Used by George Washington during the Whiskey Rebellion (1794).

(42) Woodville (John Neville House)
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

John Neville was the revenue inspector who collected the Whiskey Tax (1794).

(43) Cape Henry Lighthouse
Virginia Beach, Virginia

One of the first lighthouses to be erected by the newly organized Federal Government. It was the first material proof of the advantages of a strong national authority.

(44) Washington Navy Yard
Washington, DC

As the U.S. Navy's first government-owned yard and home port, the Washington Navy yard was the center for early 19th-century naval operations during a critical period of expanding nationalism.


(45) Independence National Historical Park
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The Supreme Court met in Old City Hall from 1789 to 1800.

(46) United States Capitol
Washington, DC

Site of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1800-1935.


(47) Jay (John) Homestead
Katonah, Westchester County
New York

John Jay served as Chief Justice from 1789-95. He was also co-author of the Federalist Papers and the chief American negotiator of Jay's Treaty with England in 1794.

(48) Rutledge (John) House
Charleston, Charleston County
South Carolina
1763; 1853 (addition)

John Rutledge served as Chief Justice in 1795 but was not confirmed by the Senate. He also served as Associate Justice from 1789-91. Rutledge was also a signer of the Constitution.

(49) Marshall (John) House
Richmond city, Virginia

Served from 1801-35.

(50) Chase (Salmon P.) Birthplace and Boyhood Home
Cornish, Sullivan County
New Hampshire

Served from 1864-73. Presided over the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson in 1868.

(51) White (Edward Douglass) House
Lafourche Parish

Chief Justice of the United States, 1910-21. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 1894-1910.

(52) William Howard Taft National Historic Site
Cincinnati, Ohio

Served from 1921-30. President of the United States from 1909-13.

(53) Hughes (Charles Evans) House
Washington, DC

Served from 1930-41.


(54) Story (Joseph) House
Salem, Essex County
19th Century

Served from 1811-45. Supported national supremacy over states' rights.

(55) Davis (David) House
Bloomington, McLean County

Served from 1862-77. Wrote the majority opinion in Ex parte Milligan (1866), restricting the right of military courts to try civilians.

(56) Lamar (Lucius Q. C.) House
Oxford, Lafayette County

Served from 1888-93.

(57) Holmes (Oliver Wendell) House
Beverly, Essex County
20th Century

Summer home of Oliver Wendell Holmes who served from 1902-32. Known as the "Great Dissenter" for his many consequential minority opinions.

(58) Brandeis (Louis) House
Chatham, Barnstable County
20th Century

Served from 1916-39.


The claim that Congress, in addition to expressly enumerated powers, also possesses resultant and implied powers derived from the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution.

(59) First Bank of the United States
Third Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Established as part of Alexander Hamilton's program laying a sound foundation for national finances. Promoted the first great debate in Congress over strict vs. expansive interpretation of the new Constitution. Part of Independence National Historical Park.

(60) Jackson Square (Place D'Armes)
New Orleans, Orleans Parish
18th and 20th centuries

Site in 1803 where the American Flag was first raised over the Louisiana Territory. Acquisition of Louisiana Territory indicated acceptance of the doctrine of implied powers by Jefferson and the Republican Party.

(61) S Bridge, National Road
4 miles east of Old Washington on U.S. 40
Guernsey County, Ohio
No date

In 1803, Congress authorized the building of a road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, West Virginia, as a government-financed internal improvement Jefferson approved this measure, even though, lacking the constitutional amendment he had urged Congress to adopt, it required a stretching of federal power to do so.

Construction of the National Road, as it was called, began in 1811 and was completed in 1818. In subsequent years the road was extended westward to Vandalia, Illinois. The S Bridge is a tangible reminder of the National Road and a reflection of the doctrine.

(62) Casselman's Bridge, National Road
East of Grantsville on U.S. 40
Garrett County, Maryland

This bridge was part of the earliest Federal highway project, the National Road, begun by Thomas Jefferson.

(63) Searights Tollhouse, National Road
West of Uniontown near U.S. 40
Fayette County, Pennsylvania

Six tollhouses were erected by Pennsylvania on its portion of the National Road. This hexagonal brick structure is one of the two extant.


(64) Octagon House (The Octagon)
Washington, DC

A Federal-style townhouse designed by the architect of the

U.S. Capitol. It was occupied temporarily in 1814-15 by President Madison after the burning of the White House. The Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, was signed here.

(65) Plaza Ferdinand VII
Pensacola, Florida

Site of the formal transfer of Florida from Spain to the United States. Andrew Jackson, as newly appointed Governor, officially proclaimed the establishment of the Florida Territory.

(66) Ashburton House (St. John's Church Parish House)
Washington, DC
c. 1836

Scene of Webster-Ashburton Treaty negotiations of 1842 resolving the dispute with Great Britain over the Canadian border.

(67) Seward (William H.) House
Auburn, New York

Seward served as Governor (1839-43) and U.S. Senator from New York (1848-61), emerging as leading antislavery figure in the Whig and later Republican parties. As Secretary of State (1861-69), he negotiated the purchase of Alaska from the Russians (1867). This house was his permanent residence from 1824 until his death in 1872.

(68) State, War, and Navy (Old Executive Office) Building
Washington, DC

Constructed for the State, War, and Navy departments in the Second Empire version of the French Renaissance style.

(69) Root (Elihu) House
Clinton, New York
1817, with later additions

Secretary of War (1899-1903) under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, and Secretary of State (1905-09) under Theodore Roosevelt, Root bought this Federal-style house in 1893.

(70) Sagamore Hill
Oyster Bay, New York

The estate of Theodore Roosevelt from 1885 until his death in 1919. Used as the "Sumner White House" from 1901-08. Site of the meeting of Russian and Japanese diplomats prior to the conference that resulted in the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese War.

(71) Memorial Continental Hall
Washington, DC

Site of the 1921 international naval disarmament conference. The structure is the national headquarters of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

(72) Kellogg (Frank B.) House
St. Paul, Minnesota
Late 19th Century

As Secretary of State (1925-29), Kellogg negotiated the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928), for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize, and shifted foreign policy away from interventionism.

(73) Borah (William E.) Apartment—Windsor Lodge
Washington, DC

Residence (1913-29) of the leading Republican Progressive Senator from Idaho. He was a most powerful force in foreign affairs during the 1920s, leader of the "irreconcilables" who defeated President Wilson's League of Nations and of the isolationists in the 1930s.


Political parties were not foreseen during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Parties insured a voice for opposition groups and helped to facilitate the smooth operation of government by placing men of shared political beliefs in the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government, as well as in state governments.

(74) Adams National Historic Site
Quincy, Massachusetts

The home of John Adams and John Quincy Adams and U.S. Minister to Great Britain Charles Francis Adams. John Adams was the second President of the United States, one of the founders of the Federalist party, and was noted for his appointment of John Marshall as Chief Justice of the United States in 1801 just before he left office.

(75) Hamilton Hall
Salem, Essex County

Constructed by Federalist Party in 1805 to house their social activities.

(76) Little White Schoolhouse
Ripon, Fond du Lac County
19th Century

Site associated with the founding of the Republican Party.


Marshall gave a definition to the word "treason" as used in the Constitution.

(76) Wickham-Valentine House
Richmond city, Virginia

Home of John Wickham, constitutional lawyer, who represented Aaron Burr at his treason trial in 1807.


This event re-opened the debate over the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States and the Supreme Court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland. President Jackson's veto of the bank bill anticipated later presidential vetoes and the growth of the system of checks and balances inherent today in the relationship between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

(77) Andalusia (Nicholas Biddle Estate)
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
1794; 1834

Nicholas Biddle was the head of the Second Bank and Jackson's opponent in the Bank War.

(78) Second Bank of the United States
Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Part of Independence National Historical Park.

(79) Ashland (Henry Clay Home)
2 miles southeast of Lexington
Fayette County
1806; 1857

Residence of the distinguished pre-Civil War political leader, statesman, and perennial presidential candidate. Clay served as a U.S. Senator, Speaker of the House, and Secretary of State. Henry Clay was Jackson's principal opponent in the struggle to recharter the Second Bank of the United States.


(80) Tyler (John) House
(Sherwood Forest) 4 miles east of Charles City Court House on Virginia 5
Charles City County, Virginia
1780; 1842

John Tyler, the first Vice-President to succeed to the presidency without election, firmly established the principle a Vice-President who succeeds to the highest office is the President with all the constitutional authority of the office.


The doctrine of nullification involved an argument concerning the nature of the union as defined by the writers of the Constitution and addressed the question-"Was the United States a compact of sovereign states, each retaining ultimate authority, or was the United States one nation formed by the people through the writing of the Constitution?"

(81) Old Statehouse
Hartford, Hartford County

Site of the Hartford Convention (1814) which voiced strong states' rights opinions in opposition to the War of 1812 and the policies of the Democratic-Republican Party.

(82) The Hermitage
Davidson County
1818-19; 1834 (modified)

Home of Andrew Jackson. As President, Jackson faced the first real test of the doctrine of nullification when Congress passed a tariff bill that conceded little to Southern demands for lower duties. Faced with opposition from South Carolina, Jackson made the strongest possible case for both the supremacy of the Federal government under the Constitution and the perpetuity of the Union.

(83) Fort Hill (John C. Calhoun House)
Clemson, Pickens County
South Carolina

Home of John C . Calhoun, supporter of the doctrine of nullification. Calhoun was Jackson's principal opponent in the nullification crises of 1832.

(84) Webster (Daniel) Family Home (The Elms)
S. Main Street
W. Franklin, Merrimack County
New Hampshire

Used by Webster as a home, vacation retreat, and experimental farm. Webster represented Dartmouth College before the Supreme Court in the case Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheaton 518 (1819). Gravesites of his parents,

four brothers and sisters are located here. Webster supported President Jackson in the nullification crises of 1832 and debated the related issues with Robert Y. Hayne, a Calhoun protege, in the Senate in 1833.

(85) Webster (Daniel) Law Office
Marshfield, Plymouth County
No date

Webster used this one-room clapboard building as his natural history library and law office. It stood on his Green Harbor Estate, his home away from Washington from 1832 to 1852.

(86) Ross (John) House
Rossville, Dade County

Associated with the case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). The state of the Georgia defied the opinion of John Marshall and proceeded to remove the Cherokee with no objection from President Jackson, who ignored the opinion.

(87) New Echota
Gordon, Calhoun County

Same as above.

(88) Chieftains (Major Ridge House)
Rome, Georgia
c. 1792; c. 1837

Ridge was the speaker for the Cherokee National Council.


Does the Constitution give the government the right to legislate on the status of slavery in the territories?

(89) Franklin and Armfield Office
1315 Duke Street
Alexandria city, Virginia
Early 19th century

The office, from 1828 to 1836, of one of the South's largest slave-trading firms.

(90) Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
St. Louis, Missouri

The Courthouse here was the site of lower court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) in which the Supreme Court ruled the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional.

(91) Cooper Union
New York, New York

Site of the speech by Abraham Lincoln in 1860 on the slavery question.

(92) Nell (William C.) Residence
3 Smith Court
Boston, Massachusetts
Dates unknown

Home of William C. Nell from the 1830s to the end of the Civil War. He was a leading black abolitionist and spokesman for his race.

(93) Howe (Samuel Gridley and Julia Ward) House
13 Chestnut Street
Boston, Massachusetts
c. 1804-05

While the Howes live here (1863-1866), they were key figures in Boston abolitionist circles, and pursued other reform and humanitarian interests.

(94) Lundy (Benjamin) House
Mt. Pleasant, Ohio
c. 1815

Lundy established his influential anti slavery newspaper in this brick rowhouse in 1820.

(95) Garrison (William Lloyd) House
125 Highland Street
Boston, Massachusetts

Garrison, a dedicated abolitionist, advocated an immediate end to slavery in his writings and lectures. He lived here from 1864 to 1879.

(96) Lecompton Constitution Hall
Elmore Street between Woodson and 3rd Streets
Lecompton, Kansas
No date

Meeting place of the 2nd Territorial legislature (1857). The proslavery Lecomption Constitution was drawn up here.

(97) Marais Des Cygnes Massacre Site
5 miles northeast of Trading Post
Linn County, Kansas

Site of mob violence involving pro- and anti-slavery factions in the pre-Civil War struggle for control of the Kansas Territory.

(98) Cary (Mary Ann Shadd) House
1421 W Street, NW
Washington, DC
No date

Home of the black teacher and journalist, who lectured widely in the cause of abolition and who after the Civil War became one of the first black female lawyers.

(99) Helper (Hinton Rowan) House
vicinity of Mocksville
Davie County, North Carolina
No date.

Helper, author of The Impending Crisis (1857), a controversial anti-slavery tract, lived here for the first 20 years of his life and returned in later years.

(100) Old Main, Knox College
Galesburg, Illinois

Best-preserved of the sites of the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858).


Secession was the culmination of the theory of nullification and proslavery constitutionalism. It was the ultimate threat to the Union and the Constitution itself. Advocates of secession argued that the several states retained complete sovereignty, and that the Union was a mere league, from which member states might withdraw at their pleasure; the Constitution was a compact between the states and not, as Lincoln was to argue, between the people of the United States; that sovereignty was indivisible and could neither be divided nor delegated; therefore, the Federal government had no sovereignty. The Constitution, they held, was a mere treaty, and the Union a sovereign league. From this, it followed that secession was a self-evident right, since it could hardly be denied that a sovereign state could withdraw from a league any time it chose to do so.

(101) Hibernian Hall
105 Meeting Street
South Carolina

The Democratic Convention of 1860 was held in Charleston. The Democratic Party splintered, and Republican victory was assured. Hibernian Hall, the only extant building associated with the convention, was Stephen Douglas' headquarters


(102) Yancey (William Lowndes) Law Office
Montgomery, Montgomery County
19th Century
De-designated in 1985 due to loss of integrity

Yancey led Alabama's secession Movement and was one of the South's leading "firebrand" radicals.

(103) Rhett (Robert Barnwell) House
6 Thomas Street
Charleston, South Carolina
c. 1832

Rhett, an eloquent speaker and owner of the Charleston Mercury newspaper, was an effective advocate of secession in 1860.

(104) First Baptist Church
Columbia, South Carolina

The South Carolina Secession Convention met here in 1860 and adopted a unanimous resolution favoring secession.

(105) Marlbourne (Edmund Ruff in Plantation)
11 miles Northeast of Richmond on U.S. 360
Hanover County

Ruffin, an ardent pro-secessionist, fired one of the first shots against Fort Sumter from Morris Island in Charleston, S.C., in 1861. After the collapse of the Confederacy, he took his own life at Marlbourne.

(106) First Confederate Capitol (Alabama State Capitol)
Montgomery, Montgomery County

Site of Alabama's secession convention and the adoption of the Confederate Constitution.

(107) Lincoln Home National Historic Site
Springfield, Illinois

Abraham Lincoln left this house to accept the Presidency on the eve of the Civil War. The only home Lincoln owned.


What was the constitutional status of the southern states in 1865? How were blacks to be protected and integrated into American society? Reconstruction was significant for the passage of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution which made the Federal government responsible for the protection of civil rights for American citizens.

(108) Andrew Johnson National Historic Site
Greenville, Tennessee

Home of President Andrew Johnson who was impeached by the House for his Reconstruction policies. Also important for the Constitutional issue in defining the role of the executive and legislative branches of government under the Constitution.

(109) Sumner (Charles) House
20 Hancock Street
Boston, Massachusetts
No date

Sumner was an outspoken opponent of slavery who represented Massachusetts in the U.S. Senate from 1851 until his death in 1874. After the Civil War, he was one of the leading figures in the radical wing of the Republican Party and played an influential role in foreign affairs.

(110) Wallace (General Lew) Study
Pike Street and Wallace Avenue
Crawfordsville, Indiana

During Reconstruction Wallace was an influential Radical Republican.

(111) Trumbull (Lyman) House
1105 Henry Street
Alton, Illinois

An arch-opponent of the Radical Republicans, Trumbull sponsored much Reconstruction legislation, including the Confiscation Acts, Freedmen's Bureau Bill of 1866, and the Civil Rights Act of 1866.

(112) Howard (General Oliver Otis) House
607 Howard Place

Howard University
Washington, DC
19th century

Residence of the Union General and head of the Freedman's Bureau, the only one of the four original university buildings standing.

(113) Bruce (Blanche K.) House
909 M Street NW
Washington, DC

Representing Mississippi, Bruce was the first black American to serve a full term in the United States Senate 1875-1881).

(114) Rainey (Joseph H.) House
909 Prince Street
Georgetown, South Carolina
c. 1760

Joseph H. Rainey was the first black American to serve in the House of Representatives (1870-79). His election to Congress marked the beginning of active black participation in the Federal legislative process as a result of the Civil Rights Acts and the Fifteenth Amendment.

(115) Langston (John Mercer) House
207 E. College Street
Oberlin, Ohio

John Langston was the first black American elected to public office when he was elected township clerk in 1855. He later served in the Freedmen's Bureau and was the first dean of the Howard University Law School, U.S. Representative from Virginia (1890-91), and Minister to Haiti.

(116) South Carolina State House
Columbia, South Carolina
1851, 1907

In one of the final episodes of Reconstruction, it was the scene of disputes about the 1876 state elections which split the government of South Carolina.

(117) Grady (Henry W.) House
Athens, Georgia

Home (1863-72) of a major proponent of national reconciliation during the post-Civil War era, who delivered his famous "New South" speech in 1866 in New York City.


The 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution guaranteed the rights of citizenship, equal protection under law, and the franchise to all Americans. The division of responsibility between state and federal roles in the process was open to interpretation. Procedures to secure these rights needed to be put into place.

(118) Smalls (Robert) House
Beaufort, South Carolina

Smalls, a former slave who served in the State Legislature and in Congress (1875-79, 1882-83, 1884-87), lived here both as a slave and free man. He fought for black civil rights while in office.

(119) Douglass (Frederick) Home
Washington, DC

From 1877 to 1895, this was the home of the nation's leading black spokesman.

(120) Montgomery (Isaiah T.) House
Mound Bayou, Bolivar County

Home of Isaiah Thornton Montgomery, who in 1887 founded the town of Mound Bayou as a community where black Americans could obtain social, political, and economic rights in a state then domi nated by white supremacists.

(121) Harper (Francis Ellen Watkins) House
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Date unknown

Home (1870-1911) of a black writer and social activist who participated in the 19th century abolitionist, black rights, women's suffrage, and temperance movements.

(122) Wells-Barnett (Ida B.) House
3624 S. Martin Luther King, Jr., Drive
Chicago, Illinois
c. 1889-90

An 1890s civil rights advocate and crusader for the rights of black women, Ida Wells-Barnett carried on her crusades in the pages of her newspaper, the Memphis Free Speech.

(123) Dubois (W.E.B.) Boyhood Homesite
Route 23
Great Barrington, Massachusetts

Site of the boyhood home of the promi nent sociologist and writer, who was a major figure in the black civil rights movement during the first half of the 20th century.

(124) Trotter (William Monroe) House
Dorcester, Massachusetts
c. 1890s

Home of the noted black journalist, who was a militant civil rights activist during the first decades of the 20th century.

(125) Fortune (T. Thomas) House
Red Bank, New Jersey
Date unknown

From 1901 to 1915 the home of the crusading black journalist who articulated the cause of black rights in his newspapers at the turn of the 20th century.

(126) Boley Historic District
Boley, Oklahoma

Largest of the towns established in Oklahoma to provide black Americans with the opportunity for self-government in an era of white supremacy and segregation. Associated with the cases of Guinn and Beal v. United States, (1915), which ruled Oklahoma's literacy test for blacks unconstitutional and Lane v. Wilson (1939), which required that all persons previously denied the franchise by a 1916 statute be registered.

(127) Sweet Auburn Historic District
Atlanta, Georgia
Early 20th Century

The center of black economic, social, and cultural activities in Atlanta from the 1890s to the 1930s. The Sweet Auburn District reflects an important element in the life of the Afro American community in the segregated South after Plessy v. Ferguson (1895).

(128) Terrell (Mary Church) House
326 T Street, NW
Washington, DC

Residence of the civil rights leader who achieved national prominence as the first president of the National Association of Colored Women.

(129) Bethune (Mary McLeod) House
campus of Bethune-Cookman College
Daytona Beach, Florida
c. 1920

Two-story house belonging to the civil rights leader, administrator, educator, advisor to presidents, and consultant to the United Nations, on the campus of the school she founded in 1904.

(130) Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site
Washington, DC
NPSy (Affiliated)

This is the headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women established by Mary McLeod Bethune in 1935. It also commemorates her leadership in the black women's rights movement from 1943 to 1949.

(131) Little Rock Central High School
Little Rock, Pulaski County

Site of the first major confrontation over the implementation of the Supreme Court's decision, Brown v. Board of Education (1954), outlawing racial segregation in public schools.

(132) Martin Luther King Jr., National Historic Site
Atlanta, Georgia

Site of birthplace, grave, and church of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

(133) Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
Montgomery, Montgomery County

Associated with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pastor of the church (1954-1959), who led the boycott of segregated city buses.

(134) Manzanar War Relocation Center
Vicinity of Lone Pine
Inyo County, California

Represents the ten relocation centers to which, during World War II, people of Japanese descent were removed from areas in west coast states without being accused of any crimes. They received no hearings and no trials.


Populism was associated with the topic of the Supreme Court and entrepreneurial liberty. How was the Court to respond to the social and political pressures emerging from the new economic order following the Civil War? The Supreme Court gave substantive economic interpretation to the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment which differed sharply from its original equal (civil) rights purpose.

(135) Kelley (Oliver H.) Homestead
Sherburne County

Kelley was the founder of the National Grange Movement which sought political solutions to farm problems. The Grange movement resulted in many state regulations limiting the power of business.

Many of these laws, in what are known as the Granger Cases, were eventually tested for their constitutionality.

(136) Weaver (James B.) House
Bloomfield, Davis County

Home of Populist candidate for President and anti-monopolist. Proponent of the graduated income tax and a principal sponsor for free coinage of silver.

(137) Watson (Thomas E.) House
Thompson, McDuffie County

Watson was a principal founder of the Populist Party.

(138) Bryan (William Jennings) House
Lincoln, Lancaster County

Bryan united the Populist cause with the Democratic Party in his attempt to win election to the Presidency in 1896.


These sites represent the first attempts by the Federal Government, exercising the constitutional power to regulate commerce between the states and with foreign nations, to meet the demands of 19th century reformers and address the social needs brought on by the industrial revolution. They represent the shifting of emphasis from laissez-faire individualism to the reform of the economic system in the interest of the general public welfare.

(139) Sherman Birthplace
Lancaster, Fairfield County

John Sherman was a Senator from Ohio who wrote the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890. This was the first attempt by the Federal government to regulate industry. The site is associated with Standard Oil v. United States (1911), and with United States v. U.S. Steel (1920). The court used the "rule of" in the belief that bigness itself was not necessarily a violation of the Sherman Act.

(140) Morgan (J. Pierpont) Library
33 East 36th Street
New York, New York

Morgan, an important financier, organized U.S. Steel and was influential in the railroad industry. Morgan was associated with the case Northern Securities Company et al. v. United States, (1904).

(141) Clayton (Henry D.) House
Barbour County, Alabama

Member of the House of Representatives who wrote the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914). Some significant cases generated as a result of this legislation include: Duplex Printing Press Co. v. Deering (1921), American Steel Foundries v. Tri-City Central Trades Council (1921), and Bedford Cut Stone Company v. Journeymen Stone Cutters Association (1927).

(142) Hepburn (William P.) House
Clarinda, Page County

Member of the House of Representatives who wrote the Hepburn Act (1906), which empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroads effectively. Significant cases associated with this legislation include: ICC v. Illinois Central Railroad Company (1910), Minnesota Rate Cases (1913) and Shreveport Rate Cases (1914). These cases recognized the legal authority given to the ICC by the Hepburn Act and its authority to pre-empt state regulations.


Is the preservation of national historic sites and buildings a legitimate purpose of the government of the United States under the Constitution?

(143) Gettysburg National Military Park
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Site of the great Civil War Battle of July 1-3, 1863. Subject of Supreme Court test case United States v. Gettysburg Electric Ry. Co. (1896), that justified legislative basis for historic preservation by the Federal government.


The election of 1896 indicated a shift in voter alignment away from the Democrats' doctrinaire, ideological style of politics, to the Republicans' strategy of pragmatic, pluralistic accommodation. This shift, along with the emerging concept of judicial review exercised by the Supreme Court in the 1890s, had a profound impact on the Constitution in the 20th century. The first result of this was the broad based reform movement known as Progressivism which led to the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments to the Constitution.

(144) White (William Allen) House
Emporia, Lyon County

White wrote The Old Order Changeth in 1910 which expressed the dominant view of the progressive movement.

(145) Wayside, The (Henry Demarest Lloyd Home)
Winnetka, Illinois

A critic of America's industrial monopoly during the 1880s, Lloyd wrote for the Chicago Tribune and was the author of Wealth against Commonwealth (1894).

(146) Johnson (Hiram W.) House
Washington, DC

Leading voice in the progressive movement. As Governor of California, he sponsored Progressive legislation and as Senator he supported the formation of the Progressive Party in 1912.

(147) Wilson (Woodrow) House
Washington, DC

It was during Woodrow Wilson's administration that the progressive social platform was incorporated into the Constitution with the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments to the Constitution.

(148) Norris (George W.) House
McCook, Red Willow County

Norris was a Progressive Republican who served in both the House and Senate.

(149) La Follette (Robert M.) House
Maple Bluff, Dane County

As Progressive Governor and Senator, La Follette was active in government reform movements and was the Progressive Party candidate for President in 1924.

FIRST AMENDMENT — Freedom of Speech

(150) Federal Hall National Memorial
New York, New York

Site of the formal adoption of the Bill of Rights and the site of the John Peter Zenger Trial, involving freedom of the press.

(151) Debs (Eugene V.) House
Terre Haute, Indiana

Home of Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party candidate for President in five elections. It is associated with Debs v. United States (1919), in which the Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Debs for the violation of the wartime Espionage Act.


(152) Willard (Frances) House
Evanston, Illinois

Willard made the temperance movement a national force. She became president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1879. Her house is now the head quarters of that organization.

(153) Dow (Neal) House
714 Congress Street
Portland, Maine

A leading 19th-century proponent of prohibition, Dow was a candidate for the Presidency in 1880 on the Prohibition Party ticket.

(154) Nation (Carry A.) House
211 W. Fowler Avenue
Medicine Lodge, Barber County

Residence (1889-1902) of the temperance leader who became the foremost symbol of a reinvigorated prohibition movement at the turn of the century.

(155) Volstead (Andrew J.) House
Granite Falls, Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota

Drafted the Volstead Act (1919) to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

NINETEENTH AMENDMENT — Women's Right to Vote

(156) Stanton (Elizabeth Cady) House
Rochester, Monroe County
New York

Stanton, a leader in the women's rights movement, lived here at the time of the Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls in 1848, which she helped organize.

(157) Anthony (Susan B.) House
Rochester, Monroe County
New York

Residence of early leader of the women's rights movement who delivered the call for female suffrage at the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848.

(158) Women's Rights National Historical Park
Seneca Falls, New York

Susan B. Anthony was a leader in the women's rights movement in the 19th century.

(159) Stanton (Elizabeth Cady) House
32 Washington Street
Seneca Falls, New York
(Included in Women's Rights National Historical Park)

Site of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 that began the women's struggle for equal rights, including the right to vote. Also includes the homes and offices of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other notable early women's rights activists.

(160) Kimberly Mansion
1625 Main Street
Glastonbury, Hartford County
early 18th Century

Home of pioneer feminist leaders Abby and Julia Smith for virtually their entire lives. In the 1870s, they refused to pay a real estate tax on the grounds that they were not enfranchised.

(161) Liberty Farm (Foster House)
116 Mower Street
Worcester, Massachusetts

Abigail Kelly and her husband, Stephen Symonds Foster, were active in the anti slavery and women's suffrage movements. In the 1870s they witheld taxes on Liberty Farm to protest Abigail Kelly's inability to vote.

(162) Henry Street Settlement and Neighborhood Playhouse
263-267 Henry Street
(466 Grand Street)
New York, New York

Lillian Wald, suffragist and pacifist, lived and worked here for 40 years.

(163) Harper (Frances Ellen Watkins) House
1066 Bainbridge Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Date unknown

Home (1870-1911) of a black writer and social activist who participated in the 19th-century abolitionist, black rights, women's suffrage, and temperance movements.

(164) Rankin Ranch
Avalanche Gulch, Broadwater County, Montana

Jeanette Rankin was the first woman elected to the House of Representatives and an important supporter of the women's rights movement.

(165) Sewall-Belmont House National Historic Site
Washington, DC
1820; 1929

Headquarters of the National Women's Party from 1929, and closely associated with party founder Alice Paul, a leader in the fight for women's suffrage.


Last Modified: Wed, Aug 30 2000 7:00:00 am PDT

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