The Great Carry trade route was located in the lands of the Oneida Nation. The Oneida Nation was part of the Iroquois Confederacy which also included the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca Nations. The Tuscarora Nation was the sixth and last to join the Iroquois Confederacy. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, British officials recognized the importance of protecting the trade route and portage, so they built several small forts on either end of the Great Carry. In 1757, the French attacked the forts along the Great Carry and in German Flatts. Realizing that the small forts were inadequate, the British built one large fort, Fort Stanwix, to secure the area.
As colonists settled in New York, they encroached on the Confederacy's territory. To resolve the growing tensions, a Boundary Line Treaty was negotiated in 1768 at the site of old Fort Stanwix. In this treaty, delegates from the Iroquois Confederacy and the Delaware and Shawnee Nations ceded land to the British King to create a clear line beyond which the colonists could not settle.
1. Which of the six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy was located farthest to the east? Which was located farthest to the west?
2. What fort was built at the Great Carry, by whom, and why?
3. Why do you think the treaty line of 1768 was not drawn due north and south, but bends to the west of Oriskany and Fort Stanwix?
4. The boundary line of 1768 was highly controversial. If you were of the Mohawk, Oneida, Tuscarora, Shawnee, or Delaware Nations, how would you feel about the Boundary Line Treaty of 1768? If you had moved from Europe to America for the freedom to live anywhere you wanted, how would you feel about the Boundary Line Treaty of 1768?
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