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Inquiry Question

Historical Context





Table of

Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains--
Supplementary Resources

By looking at Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains, students will learn about the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians before and after European contact. Those interested in learning more will find that the Internet offers a variety of interesting materials.

Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site
Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park System. The park's Web pages offer extensive information about the site. Students can learn the history of Knife River, take a tour of an earthlodge, learn about American Indian village life and culture, and view photos from the park's collection.

Historic Places of America’s Diverse Culture
The National Register of Historic Places online itinerary Places Reflecting America’s Diverse Cultures highlights the historic places and stories of America’s diverse cultural heritage.  This itinerary seeks to share the contributions various peoples have made in creating American culture and history.

Library of Congress
The Library of Congress's "American Memory" collection is an excellent source for documents and images. Students can search "A Century of Lawmaking: Indian Land Cessions in the United States" and read about the land cessions in the Dakotas. They can also search "History of the American West, 1860-1920", a collection of more than 30,000 photos providing documentation of more than 40 American Indian tribes living west of the Mississippi River. Another useful on-line exhibit is the Northern Great Plains from 1880-1920 that provides a historical overview with the geography and climate of the region; an in-depth history of the Native American tribes indigenous to the area; as well as summaries of the exploration movement, the fur trade, and early settlement in the region.

Making of America
Making of America is a digital library maintained by the University of Michigan and Cornell University of primary source material from 19th­century America.

North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission
The North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission's Web pages provide a historical timeline of the creation of laws affecting Native Americans from the mid 1800s until the present and a map of North Dakota that outlines the territory of the Three Affiliated Tribes and other Native American tribes in North Dakota. The site also offers the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission's mission statement, calendar of events, and news stories relating to Native Americans in North Dakota.

Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation's Three Affiliated Tribes
The Tribes' website is an excellent resource for the Fort Berthold Reservation and tribal history. Included is information on the joining of the three tribes as well as an outline of the similarities and differences between the three groups prior to, and after, the settlement of their native territory by white peoples.

North Dakota History
The North Dakota History Web pages offer an an excellent resource for Native American history in North Dakota before and after the settlement of the area by white Americans. Taken from the North Dakota Centennial Blue Book 1889-1989, this site explains the adaptation of distinct Native American groups from the time the first white explorers arrived. The groups included the Dakota or Lakota nation, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara.

Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe
The Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe's Web pages provide a brief background of the Cheyenne and the Lakota Tribes. Students can use this site to learn about the Cheyenne and Lakota cultures and compare them to the Hidatsa and Mandan cultures.

The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma
The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma's Web pages offer links to Web pages for other American Indian tribes that may help students find information on tribes in their area.


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