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How to Use
the Readings

Inquiry Question

Historical Context


Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3



Table of

Determining the Facts

Document 1: Archeological Artifacts.

Ceramics Bells
Glass Copper stars
Knives Scissors
Nails Thimbles
Spikes Pins
Tacks Iron wire
Locking bar brackets PERSONAL
Pintles Beads
Latches Ornaments
Lime Crucifix
Lime mortar Earring
Oystershell mortar Coins
Fired clay daub Dice
FURNITURE Gaming discs
Drawer pulls Keys
Drawer pull brackets Bone finials
Tacks Book hinges
Rivets Woodworking gouge
Chest lock Auger bits
ARMS Auger bit crescent "keys"
Musketballs Barrels
Lead sprue Barrel bands
Bandolier bag Iron chain links
Bullet mold Shears (pruning)
Pike point Lead fishing weights
Crossbow parts Lead fishing weight curls
Crossbow bolt points Fishhooks
Goatsfoot lever parts Brass working by-products
Arquebus parts Brassworking anvil
Matchlock musket parts Rivited sheet brass
Sword Brass discs
Armor Iron discs
Armor buckles Mica discs
Armor hinges Stone arrowheads
Armor hooks and eyes Iron chisels
Artillery carriage ring Iron wedges
Cannonballs Bone awls
CLOTHING Iron cotter pins
Buckles Iron discs and rings
Ball Buttons Iron eye pins
Atauxia Boat anchor
Acero Iron stake
Aglets Unidentified iron objects
Hooks and Eyes Spanish period Indian pottery

Source: South, Stanley; Skowronek, Russell K.; and Johnson, Richard E., "Spanish Artifacts from Santa Elena" (1988). Anthropological Studies. Book 9. pg. 20.

Questions for Document 1

1) What do these objects have in common? Why do you think they survived the passing of time?

2) Based on the list of artifacts above, what do you think life was like for the settlers at Santa Elena? What did they eat? How did they dress? What was important to them? What did they do for fun? Explain how you came to your answers.

3) Where do you think these objects came from? List the different places you think these artifacts could have come from and give an example of an artifact for each place.

4) This list is organized into different categories by the archeologists working on the Santa Elena site. If you were working on this archeological site, how would you organize the artifacts? What is the benefit to organizing the artifacts your way?

5) This list includes a number of items found at the Santa Elena site. Based on the objects that were found, what objects can we guess the Spaniards had? For example, a chest lock implies that the Spaniards had chests. What else?


* Click for a .TIF file version of Document 1.


Comments or Questions

National Park Service arrowhead with link to NPS website.