Please note that this text-only version, provided
for ease of printing and reading, includes approximately 50 pages
and may take up to 15 minutes to print. By clicking on one of
these links, you may go directly to a particular text-only section:
Essay on Early History
Essay on Economic Development
Essay on Bay Area Architecture
Essay on Preservation
List of Sites
Begin the Tour
The National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places,
in cooperation with the City of Santa Clara, the California Office
of Historic Preservation, and the National Conference of State
Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO), proudly invite you to
explore Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley.
Located south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz
Mountains and the Diablo or Mount Hamilton Range, the history
of Santa Clara County is rich with stories of Spanish and Mexican
settlement, the romance of the Gold-Rush era, the pastoral beauty
of abundant orchards, of post-war suburbanization, the race to
the moon, and the invention of the silicon chip. To help commemorate
the City of Santa Clara's Sesquicentennial, this itinerary highlights
28 places listed in the National Register of Historic Places that
illustrate how this fertile valley blossomed from a series of
small agricultural towns linked by the Southern Pacific railroad
into the center of the technology revolution that brought immense
growth and prosperity in the 20th century.
The itinerary features a wide variety of historic buildings,
from adobe pueblos to the Art Deco De Anza Hotel,
from the eclectic Victorian architecture of the 160-room Winchester
House to the International style home of President
Herbert Hoover. The early Spanish-Mexican colonial history
of Santa Clara County is represented by the 1837 Jose
Maria Alviso Adobe, while the first mining operation in California,
New Almaden, reflects the draw of the Gold
Rush. The historic districts of San Jose and
Los Gatos reflect the growth of the late 19th
and 20th centuries. The prosperity of the agricultural industry
was fostered by the arrival of the railroad, and the county still
has several historic train stations such as the Santa
Clara Depot, the oldest operating railroad depot in California.
The California wine industry had an early start in Santa Clara
County, fostered by European immigrants, at places such as the
Picchetti Brothers Winery and Paul
Masson's Mountain Winery, where every summer thousands of
music lovers gather for the Music in the Vineyards Concerts. Technological
innovations in the valley began with the military at Moffett
Field, but were fostered by advanced research taking place
at Stanford University and new private industries locating here.
The innovative development of electronic devices such as the radio
and amplifier, followed by the new material of silicon, the microchip,
and the home computer led to the term "Silicon Valley."
Recently Sun Microsystems renovated the former Agnew
Insane Asylum, the first modern mental hospital in California,
to create a campus-like setting for its operations.
Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley
offers several ways to discover the historic properties that played
important roles in the valley's past. Each highlighted property
features a brief description of the place's significance; color
and, where available, historic photographs; and public accessibility
information. At the bottom of each page the visitor will find
a navigation bar containing links to four essays that explain
more about Early History, Economic
Development, Bay Area Architecture
and Preservation. These essays provide
historic background, or "contexts," for many of the places included
in the itinerary. The itinerary can be viewed online, or printed
out if you plan to visit Santa Clara County in person.
Created through a partnership between the National Park Service's
National Register of Historic Places, the City of Santa Clara,
the California Office of Historic Preservation, and NCSHPO, Santa
Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley is the
latest example of a new and exciting cooperative project. As part
of the Department of the Interior's strategy to revitalize communities
by promoting public awareness of history and encouraging tourists
to visit historic places throughout the nation, the National Register
of Historic Places is cooperating with communities, regions and
heritage areas throughout the United States to create online travel
itineraries. Using places listed in the National Register of Historic
Places, the itineraries help potential visitors plan their next
trip by highlighting the amazing diversity of the country's historic
places and supplying accessibility information for each featured
site. In the Learn More section, the
itineraries link to regional and local web sites that provide
visitors with further information regarding cultural events, special
activities, lodging and dining possibilities, as well as histories
of the region. Visitors may be intersted in Historic Hotels of America, a program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, located near Santa Clara County, including the Hotel Saint Clare, one of the places featured in this itinerary.
Santa Clara County is the 14th of more than 30 partners working
directly with the National Register of Historic Places to create
travel itineraries. Additional itineraries will debut online in
the future. The National Register of Historic Places and the City
of Santa Clara hope you enjoy this virtual travel itinerary of
the county's historic places. If you have comments or questions
please just click on the provided e-mail address, "comments or
questions" located at the bottom of each page.
Welcome. We invite you to explore our City, and the surrounding
metropolitan area which is rich in history. After your virtual
tour, we would be delighted if you find time one day to visit
us in person as well. On your trip there are many wonderful places
to stay, delicious food to eat, and great places to shop.
Just minutes from the San Jose International Airport, Santa
Clara is less than an hour south of San Francisco and just over
an hour north of Monterey. Santa Clara is California's Silicon
Valley Central, the heart of the Valley. The perfect setting for
conventions, meetings, and vacations, Santa Clara is home to a
state-of-the art Convention Center, 100-acre theme park, high-tech
museum, historic mission, shopping, golf and tennis clubs, and
Fertile soil, level land, abundant water, a temperate climate
and a central location within the San Francisco Bay region have
combined to form a pleasant and productive living environment
in the City of Santa Clara throughout its long history.
The first written record of the area is from 1769 when the scouts
of Juan Gasparde Portola's Spanish expedition reported grassy
plains spotted with oak trees and numerous Indian villages. On
January 12, 1777, Padre de la Pena offered the first Mass of the
Mission Santa Clara under a shelter of tree branches. The Mission
prospered and was rebuilt in 1779, 1784, 1819, 1825 and finally
in 1926 where it stands today, on the campus of Santa Clara University.
The Spaniards found the valley floor ideal for vast herds of cattle
and sheep which were raised primarily for hides and tallow. During
the early 19th century, the agricultural emphasis shifted from
cattle to grain production.
Following California's entry into the Union in 1850, Santa Clara
began to lay the foundation for its transition from a rural town
to a city. In 1851, the Jesuits founded Santa Clara University
with a faculty of two and 15 students. Soon after, in 1852, Santa
Clara was incorporated as a charter city under the provisions
of the State Constitution. The City officially platted a street
system in 1866 to accommodate anticipated growth. This layout
still exists in the Old Quad district.
Around 1870, Santa Clara began to take on regional and even
national significance. The two developments most responsible for
this were (1) the prosperity and academic achievements of the
University and, (2) the transition to an orchard economy. By 1940,
Santa Clara supported a population of 6,700 and was known as the
prune capital of the world.
During World War II, industry began to locate in the City and
develop for the first time an economy not subject to seasonable
employment. It was the start of a tremendous immigration of population
and industry to Santa Clara. The full effect of the massive urbanization
generated by the growth of the Bay region and local employment
opportunities was felt in the decade of the 1950s. Led by industry,
all other sectors of the economy expanded rapidly, initiating
a growth cycle that has yet to culminate. Between 1950 and 1960,
the City's population increased by 403 percent.
One of the things in which we take particular pride is our City's
commitment to its historic heritage. We invite you to enjoy the
virtual tour and to take time to visit our web site at www.ci.santa-clara.ca.us
Patricia M. Mahan, Mayor
Santa Clara, California
The physical geography of Santa Clara County, situated between
the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west and the Diablo Mountain Range
to the east, was formed quite recently in geological history.
Santa Clara Valley was created by the sudden growth of the Santa
Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Mountain Range, during the later
Cenozoic era. This was a period of intense mountain building in
California when the folding and thrusting of the earth's crust,
combined with active volcanism, gave shape to the present state
of California. Hence, Santa Clara Valley is a structural valley,
created by mountain building, as opposed to an erosional valley,
or one which has undergone the wearing away of the earth's surface
by natural agents. The underlying geology of the Santa Cruz Mountains
was also formed by the sediment of the ancient seas, where marine
shale points to Miocene origin. Today one can still find evidence
of this in the Santa Cruz Mountains, where shark's teeth and the
remains of maritime life are still found as high as Scott's Valley,
a city nestled in the mountains.
The Santa Cruz Mountains and Diablo Mountain Range created a
sheltered valley. Located south of the San Francisco Bay, Santa
Clara Valley offered shelter from the cold, damp climate of the
San Francisco region and coastal areas west of the Santa Cruz
Mountains, and was no doubt inviting to the first human inhabitants.
Historically, the Tamien-speaking Ohlone Indians were the first documented inhabitants
of the Santa Clara Valley region, although the oak lined hills
and valley undoubtedly had known earlier Indian inhabitants and
migrations, now lost to history and prehistory. Archeological
discoveries place Ohlone Indian settlements in the region as early
as 8000 BC.
Sometime around 4000 years ago, according to anthropologists,
the ancestral Ohlone, along with the culturally interrelated people
of the greater Sacramento/ San Joaquim Delta regions, developed
a system of social ranking and institutional religions. Within
the greater San Francisco Bay region, people of social prominence
were interred in what has become known as the "shellmounds." The
Smithsonian-based anthropological linguist J.P. Harrington, working in the Ohlone region from
1921-1939 with the last fluent elderly speakers of the Ohlone
languages, preserved what is now known about the earliest known
inhabitants of Santa Clara Valley. From his interviews with Angela Colos and Jose Guzman, Muwkema elders of the Federally Recognized Verona Band of Alameda County, he learned that "the Clareños [Santa Clara Valley Ohlones] were much intermarried with the Chocheños [East Bay speaking Ohlones]. Aside from the Ohlone, who are also considered Costanoan speaking tribal groups, the Bay Miwok and Yokut peoples dwelt to the east in parts of modern Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties. The northern San Francisco Bay was home to both the Coast Miwok and Patwin speaking tribal groups, and other tribes who lived in the surrounding regions. Descendants of Santa Clara's original Ohlone inhabitants are still in the region today and are enrolled members of the present-day Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay.
The European presence in the region began with the English explorer
and privateer Sir Francis Drake, who landed on July 17,1579, in
the San Francisco Bay Area and claimed the region for England.
After Drake's departure it took nearly two centuries before any
European power settled the region. The arrival of the Spanish
to "Llano de los Robles"-Plain of the Oaks-started when Russian
exploration into California alarmed the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico
City. The Russians had settled Alaska and were exploring the West
Coast for trading posts within striking distance of the rich Spanish
mines. They were a presence at Fort Ross in Northern California
from 1812-1841. José de Gálvez, the visitor-general of New Spain
(Mexico), wanted to increase New Spain's territory for the Spanish
crown. He sent the Spanish forward into Alta California (present
day California). Encountering the native Ohlone people, the Spanish
gave them the name of Costeños, or People of the Coast. José Francisco
Ortega gave Santa Clara the name "Llano de los Robles" in 1769
as he scouted the region on the behalf of Captain Gaspar de Portola.
On April 2, 1776, near the Carquinez Straits (North-East Bay),
Father Font documented the following account of an early encounter
between the Spanish and the Ohlone:
We set out from the little arroyo at seven o'clock in the
morning, and passed through a village to which we were invited
by some ten Indians, who came to the camp very early in the morning
singing. We were welcomed by the Indians of the village, whom
I estimated at some four hundred persons, with singular demonstrations
of joy,singing, and dancing.
Father Junípero Serra also came into present-day California,
establishing a chain of Franciscan missions. It was in 1777 that
Father Serra gave Santa Clara Valley its lasting name when he
consecrated the Mission Santa Clara de Asis. The 8th of the 21
established missions, Mission Santa Clara de Asis claimed land
from San Francisquito Creek in present day Palo Alto to Llagas
Creek at Gilroy.
San Jose was California's first town. On November 29, 1777,
on orders from the Spanish viceroy of Mexico, nine soldiers, five
pobladores (settlers) with their families, and one cowboy
were detailed to found the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, named
in honor of St. Joseph. The already existing Spanish Catholic
missions were not pleased with this, but could do nothing to stop
it. By 1825, Mission Santa Clara de Asis, standing where the University
of Santa Clara stands today, offered rest for the travelers from
Monterey and San Francisco. Phyllis Filiberti Butler, in The
Valley of Santa Clara Historic Buildings, 1792-1920, states
"The pardon of 1825 showed 1,450 devout souls at Santa Clara,
most of whom were Indian neophytes." Although Mexico broke with
the Spanish crown in 1821, it was not until May 10, 1825, that
San Jose acknowledged Mexican rule. The Mexican government soon
began selling off church lands in a process known as "secularization."
Although originally intended to return church lands to the native
population, this practice soon entailed a selling of church lands
to the highest bidders. By 1839 only 300 Indians remained at the
Mission Santa Clara de Asis. The time of the Mexican dons, comprised
of the rural land owning gentlemen, was short lived in California,
however. American immigrants began arriving in California, followed
by the Mexican-American War.
On May 13, 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. Captain
Thomas Fallon, leading 19 men, entered San Jose on July 14, 1846,
and raised the United States flag over the town hall. San Jose
consisted of a small town of Spanish Californians, Mexicans, Peruvians,
Chileans, and Indians. After the completion of the Mexican-American
war, in 1848, California, along with most of the western states,
was added to the United States, first as a territory, but later
as a state on September 9, 1850. In addition to the change of
government, the discovery of gold in 1848 in a gravel bed of the
American River altered Santa Clara's political landscape. Suddenly
swarms of immigrants arrived in California, looking to strike
quick fortunes. The Gold Rush changed San Jose, which became a
supply city for the numerous miners arriving in California. Many
residents, alarmed by the arrival of so many Americans into the
valley, fled to Mission Santa Clara. The Catholic bishop of California
took an interest in the location, and by 1851 the Jesuits had
set up the first college in the new State--Santa Clara University,
on the rebuilt site of the old mission.
San Jose became the first Capital of the State of California
and the first California Legislature convened there on December
15, 1849. A referendum was sent to the people, to determine where
to permanently locate the Capital. Vallejo, San Jose and Monterey
vied for the honor, and Vallejo initially won. After several more
moves the capital was permanently established in Sacramento. The
name Santa Clara was given to the county by the new state legislature
in 1850. Other towns began to spring up in Santa Clara County
after the gold rush. In 1852 Santa Clara became a town with duly
elected trustees. The city of Mountain View is reported to have
received its name when Jacob Shumway, a storekeeper, looked across
the valley eastward and poetically named the place where he was
standing "Mountain View." In September of 1855 a small town, originally
named McCarthysville, but later named Saratoga, came into existence
12 miles west of San Jose at the base of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
Saratoga became famous for its wine and spa, while Cupertino,
which possessed a post office by 1882 and named after the original
Spanish name for Steven's Creek, Arroyo de San Josè Cupertino,
was famous for horse breeding. Los Gatos was formed from land
originally owned by the British vice-consul to Mexican California,
James Alexander Forbes. When Forbes went bankrupt, many pioneer
lumbermen came down to the banks of Los Gatos creek and established
the nucleus of the town. Gilroy, in the southern part of the county,
was named after British settler John Gilroy, who wed Maria Clara,
granddaughter of the man who claimed San Francisco for Spain in
1769. In 1849 Martin Murphy, Jr. controlled six of Santa Clara's
largest ranchos. After Murphy's death real estate developer W.E.
Crossman purchased 200 acres of orchard land, which eventually
became Sunnyvale in 1901. Palo Alto's original townsite was laid
out in 1888 from land owned by Rafael Soto. It was here in the
1890s that California Senator Leland Stanford established the
Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto. The railroads
soon followed the establishment of Palo Alto and the university.
Paul Shoup, a Southern Pacific executive, spotted a good site
for a township and organized the Altos Land Company. By 1908,
the railroad began service and Los Altos filled up with buyers.
Santa Clara County was linked to the world by the railroads,
and despite a rapid population growth since 1850, the county retained
her natural beauty. Agricultural success in the Santa Clara Valley
was fostered by access to distant markets that the railroad made
possible. This, combined with the discovery that artesian well
water underlay the whole valley, created the conditions for the
sudden wealth to be found in the agricultural business. Santa
Clara County was soon producing carrots, almonds, tomatoes, prunes,
apricots, plums, walnuts, cherries, and pears for the world market.
With the establishment of seed farms in the last half of the 1870s,
a new aspect of the agricultural business began. The
Charles Copeland Morse Residence is an example of the wealth
to be found in the seed business. Santa Clara Valley was also
experimenting with other sources of income. Oil wells once dotted
the valley, and from 1866 until the discovery of other sources
in 1880, the county produced nearly all of California's oil. Lumber
also played a part in the county's economy; the town of Santa
Clara saw the Pacific Manufacturing Company producing such items
as Cyclone windmills and coffins. This company eventually became
the largest manufacturer of wood products on the West Coast. Several
wineries, such as the Picchetti Brothers Winery
and the Paul Masson Mountain Winery were operating,
and the area southwest of Cupertino was a winemaking region for
years. Santa Clara County, with its farms, orchards and ranches
remained largely rural and agricultural until after World War
II. John Muir, the renown conservationist, testified to the rural
beauty of the county, writing in 1868: "It was bloom time of the
year . . .The landscapes of the Santa Clara Valley were fairly
drenched with sunshine, all the air was quivering with the songs
of meadowlarks, and the hills were so covered with flowers that
they seemed to be painted."
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which struck at 5:16 AM on
the morning of April 18, shook San Francisco to its foundations,
destroying its business district and taking over 700 lives. Nearby
Santa Clara County also received reverberations from the quake,
which was felt as far away as Los Angeles, Oregon, and Nevada.
It is also said locally that the Landrum House
was one of the few buildings in Santa Clara whose chimney did
not crumble in the earthquake of 1906. The Paul Masson's Mountain
Winery was rebuilt after the earthquake, using sandstone blocks
from the Saratoga Wine Company's building on Big Basin Way, also
destroyed in the great quake. While Santa Clara County recovered
from the quake, the later changes that the new century ushered
in would have a much more dramatic effect on the valley and the
Much of the information for this essay was
found in Phyllis Filiberti Butler's, The Valley of Santa
Clara Historic Buildings, 1792-1920 (with architectural
supplement by the Junior League of San Jose). San Jose: Presidio
Press, 1975. Also helpful was the Federal Writers' Project
book, California: A Guide to the Golden State. New
York: Hastings House, 1939. For an overall view of Spanish/Mexican
history in the west, Howard R. Lamar's (editor) The New Encyclopedia
of the American West. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998
was helpful. On local Santa Clara history, the book draft of Lorie
Garcia's manuscript for The City of Santa Clara Sequicentennial
Book was helpful.
Information on the Ohlone Indians was found at The Muwekma
Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area in a history essay
by Rosemary Cambra (Tribal Chair), Monica V. Arellano (Tribal
Vice Chairwoman), Hank Alvarez (Tribal Councilman), Gloria E.
Arellano (Tribal Councilwoman), Carolyn M. Sullivan (Tribal Councilwoman),
Karl Thompson (Tribal Councilman), Concha Rodriguez (Tribal Councilwoman),
and Alan Leventhal (Tribal Ethnohistorian). This was found at
Prior to World War II the economy of Santa Clara County was tied
to agriculture. By 1939 San Jose, with a population of 57, 651,
was the largest canning and dried-fruit packing center in the
world, with 18 canneries, 13 dried-fruit packing houses, and 12
fresh-fruit and vegetable shipping firms. San Jose also served
as a distribution point for the prune and apricot industry. Already,
however, new technologies were developing--San Jose was one of
the first California cities to create industries for making all
the mechanical equipment for specialized farming. California:
A Guide to the Golden State, written by the Federal Writers'
Project, gives a descriptive version of the Santa Clara Valley
in 1939, stating "US 101 cuts through the fruit trees that sweep
in row on row across Santa Clara Valley. . . Now in the spring,
from the foothills of its mountain walls-the Mount Hamilton Range
on the east and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the west-it looks
more like an expanse of snowdrifts because of the orchards white
with blossoms." Today, those orchards are gone. What happened?
As early as the 1890's, when California Senator Leland Stanford
established the Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto,
the changes were beginning which would create Silicon Valley.
Palo Alto became, in the early twentieth century, a testing ground
for radio equipment, and later the locale for development of continuous-wave
transmission powered by arc generators, largely the work of Cyril
Elwell. Elwell employed a radio research team that included Lee
de Forest, who had invented a three-element vacuum tube in New
York. In 1912 this team discovered that the tube could be rigged
as an amplifier, which was a major breakthrough for long distance
telephone and radio use. Later radar, television and computer
systems would benefit from this discovery. By 1912 San Jose was
receiving the first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts. Palo
Alto was a technical beacon. It was here that the Federal Telegraph
Company, created by Elwell, created ocean-spanning networks, which
supplied US Naval communications during World War I.
Already in the 1930s the US military saw the strategic advantages
of Santa Clara Valley. Admiral William A. Moffett, appointed by
President Harding on July 25, 1924, as the first Chief of the
Naval Bureau of Aeronautics, believed a naval aviation presence
on the West Coast necessary for the nation's security. In the
1920s Moffett was fascinated with the lighter than air technology
of the dirigibles (self-propelled airships whose buoyancy is provided
by gasbags containing helium or hydrogen). Northern California
politicians, realizing the opportunities to be created, seized
the initiative from San Diego, and money was found to purchase
the 1,750 acres of what would become US Naval Air Station Moffett
Field, also known as the United States Naval Air
Station Sunnyvale, California Historic District. Two Naval
Air Stations were commissioned in the early 1930's to port the
two US naval airships (dirigibles). Hangar #1, built in 1932 and
designed to house the USS Macon, remains one of the two
largest structures in the United States without internal support.
The military presence in the Bay Area in Northern California increased
during World War II. On August 9, 1945, the same day the press
recorded the second atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, the
San Jose Mercury Herald ran a front-page article under the
headline Building Code Aims Listed which stated: "At least
60 percent of the county's wartime influx of people is expected
to remain after hostilities cease, giving the county an estimated
The growth of post World War II suburban development in the valley
caused the disappearance of the orchards. Sunnyvale, which in
1939 was described as "a quiet ranchers' trade center," with a
population of 3,094, grew to a suburb with a population of over
107, 229 by 1990, a population rise of 10% in one decade (1980-1990).
Santa Clara County was, by 2000, home to 1,682,585 and still growing.
The city of Santa Clara, (1939 population 6,303), Mountain View,
(1939 population 3,308) and other Santa Clara cities also grew
to many times their 1939 population size. However, vestiges of
the old orchards remained, throughout the county, and as late
as 1970 San Jose was still classified as partly rural by the US
census, although the city had a population of 443,950. By 1990
San Jose's population reached 782, 248 people, according to the
US census, and was the 11th most populated city in the nation,
surpassing San Francisco in population.
Santa Clara County's growing suburbs can be tied to nationwide
trends. The advent of the automobile and larger freeways and highways
helped in the creation of suburbs. By the 1920s a cultural reaction
against Victorian architecture and the creation of the affordable
bungalow also helped this trend, as the middle class could afford
homes outside the cities. Already in the 1920s, suburban areas
were growing at a faster rate than central cities and after World
War II, the suburban population exploded nationwide. During the
1940s, core cities grew by an average of 14 percent while the
suburbs grew by 36 percent. Returning World War II veterans, getting
married and settling down produced a baby boom unprecedented in
American history. Already by 1960 more metropolitan residents
lived in the suburbs than in the central city, and by 1990 the
majority of all Americans lived in suburban areas. With the shift
from an agricultural county to a large suburban one, Santa Clara
County was following national trends. Its next move, with the
creation of Silicon Valley, would lead national trends in creating
the computer revolution, which would sweep the nation and the
There are numerous reasons why Silicon Valley came into being.
The early collaboration between Stanford professors and nearby
industry aided the process. The increasing military presence,
which began just before World War II, also contributed to this
hi-tech corridor. Certainly America's defense spending during
the Cold War Era, when research and development strove to keep
abreast of the Soviet Union, helped. After the Soviet's launched
the first man-made satellite, Sputnik in 1957, President Eisenhower
created the Advance Research Projects Agency, which was part of
the Department of Defense, in 1958. After launching the first
successful US Satellite, the Advance Research Projects Agency
turned its attention to the potential of computers. Aerospace
companies were also at work in Santa Clara County, as America
prepared to take the lead from Russia in manned space exploration.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had a
presence at Moffett Field, in the U. S. Naval Air Station Historic
District, Sunnyvale, California. It was here that studies were
conducted in the 1960s to determine how firm the soil was on the
moon for a landing. The impact history studies verified the shock
history of the lunar rocks that had been hit by meteorites, which
create very high pressures in the rocks, and made a more thorough
geological history of the moon possible. The
Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, found at the Ames Research Center
at Moffett Field, formed the foundation of the American effort
to land a man on the moon. Constructed between 1950 and 1955,
this complex actually contains three wind tunnels. It was used
extensively to design and test new generations of aircraft, both
commercial and military, as well as NASA space vehicles, including
the space shuttle.
In response to Stanford University's financial problems around
the mid-century, Professor Fred Terman of Stanford University's
Department of Electrical Engineering leased parts of the university
to high tech companies for 99 years, a move that is generally
considered the start of the computer revolution in Santa Clara
County. Professor Terman, concerned with the lack of economic
opportunities for Stanford Engineering graduates in the area,
was successful in bringing large businesses to invest in the area.
Another Stanford professor, William Hansen, who taught physics,
developed insights that were used by the Varian Brothers in the
klystron tube and later in linear accelerators, which was useful
in smashing atoms and treating cancer. Stanford University- educated
microwave engineers helped with US technical breakthroughs in
World War II as well as exploiting television and long-term communications.
Locally in Palo Alto, as is recorded in The Making of Silicon
Valley, Hewlett-Packard, named after Bill Hewlett and Dave
Packard, graduate electronic engineers from Stanford's class of
1934, became the dominant electronics company, "developing measuring
equipment, scientific instruments, a programmable calculator,
and ultimately computers, printers and other peripherals."
In 1947, William Shockley, leading a Bell Labs team, invented
the transistor. Shockley returned home to his native Palo Alto
and created Shockley Transistor. Differences arose within the
company over the choice between the use of two semiconducting
materials--silicon and germanium. Shockley preferred germanium,
but his eight engineers believed silicon to be the superior semiconducting
material. They left Shockley in 1957, forming Fairchild Semiconductor
in Mountain View. Fairchild was the first company to manufacture
exclusively in silicon, and to mass manufacture a micro-sized
device able to integrate large numbers of electrical "on-off"
switching functions, which were stored in simple memory cells,
all etched onto a silicon chip.
Journalist Don C. Hoefler first coined the term "Silicon Valley"
to describe the region in a series of articles he wrote for Electronic
News, a weekly industrial tabloid, in 1971. Also in 1971,
Intel created the first microprocessor, the 4004-chip. The next
step in the Silicon valley revolution occurred in March 1975,
when the Homebrew Computer Club in Menlo Park was created by students
with an interest in technology and a desire to experiment with
building home computers. Steve Wozniak, a founding member, built
a home computer from a cheap microprocessor, and showed it to
his fellow club members, who included his friend Steve Jobs. Together,
in Steve Job's garage in Cupertino, Wozniak and Jobs formed Apple
Computer. By 1976 the first Personal Computer - Apple I, was offered
from Apple Computer.
Even after the recent dot.com crash, "about 4,000 IT-related
companies located along Highway 101 from San Francisco to San
Jose generate approximately $200 billion in IT-related revenue
annually" reported Gregory R. Gromov, in The Roads and Crossroads
of Internet History. Recently Sun Microsystems, an industry
giant, renovated Agnews Insane Asylum, originally
a series of buildings constructed in 1888 for the advanced and
humane treatment of the mentally ill. Sun Microsystems invested
$10 million in the restoration of key historic buildings on the
property where it built its corporate headquarters and office/research
and development space for more than 3,000 employees.
Silicon Valley's numerous inventions, scientific discoveries,
adaptations, and developments placed Santa Clara County in the
forefront of the information age. Ward Winslow's The Making
of Silicon Valley records Santa Clara's contributions to civilization,
including "Long Distance high-voltage transmission, the amplifying
vacuum tube, the first commercial radio broadcast, long distance
continuous-wave radio transmissions, mobile radio systems development,
the klystron tube and microwave radar, electronic measuring devices,
nuclear induction applications, the X-ray microscope, traveling-wave
tube development, silicon crystal-growing, programmable handheld
calculators, videotape and VCRs, development of the junction transistor,
linear accelerators for particle physics research and cancer treatment."
Other technical advances also occurred in the field of biotechnology,
a new industry, springing from discoveries of gene-splicing and
gene-cloning at the Bay Area Universities. The local four-year
colleges and two-year community colleges met the demands for supplying
high technology companies with engineers. San Jose University
leads the field in supplying these industries with more engineer
graduates then all other colleges combined. Overall, Santa Clara
County's scientific/commercial renaissance has, with justification,
been compared to the earlier European renaissance. The creation
of lasers, nuclear magnetic resonance, random access computer
storage; disk drives, integrated circuits, personal computers,
open-heart surgery, ink jet printing, gene-splicing and other
wonders in such a short span of time has placed Santa Clara County
firmly in history as a unique location whose creative energies
have changed the world.
Much of the information for this article comes
from editor Ward Winslow's draft of The Making of Silicon Valley.
Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, 1995. Information
for the 1945 growth of the county came from Hal
Martin's article, "Building Code Aims Listed," in the
front page of the San Jose Mercury Herald, 9 August 1945.
Excellent online sources included Gregory R. Gromov's, History
of Internet and WWW: The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History
found at http://www.netvalley.com/intval.html. Another
excellent source was Alexander Loudon's The History of Silicon
Valley found at http://www.websofinnovation.com/svhistory.html.
Material for the history of suburban growth in the United States
comes from the draft manuscript of Linda McClelland and David.
L. Ames, Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Historic
Residential Suburbs found at http://www.nps.gov/history/pub/nr/ameweb2.doc
While idyllic images of California architecture usually involve
Mediterranean red tiled roofs and white stucco walls or a rustic,
sprawling ranch, true California architecture is more complex.
Early Spanish and Mexican occupation of the area that is now California
had a significant impact on the built environment that has evolved
in the State over the past two centuries, but it was not the only
influence. Eastern architects also migrated with the gold-seeking
49ers. These architects and east-coast immigrants brought with
them contemporary Victorian tastes. Over time, other factors have
influenced the architecture of the San Francisco Bay area, which
today contains a fascinating variety of commercial, institutional,
and domestic buildings.
Unlike other states, there are no architectural remains in California
of construction that might have taken place prior to European
colonization. The traditional architectural practices of both
the Spanish, and later Mexican, immigrants were easily adopted
in Alta California because of the moderate climate and abundance
of the familiar adobe material. Adobe refers not only to the mud
building material, but also the structure that was created with
it. Adobe was the prevalent material used in the Bay Area through
the gold-rush period, and there were no wooden-frame buildings
in San Francisco until the 1830s. The building program of the
Spanish colonialists began in 1769, with the establishment of
the first mission (San Diego de Acalá) of what was to become
a chain of 21 missions along the California coast. Construction
of the missions was undertaken by the padres (monks) of
each mission. The Santa Clara mission, the eighth mission established,
was the work of a padre who had built extensively in Mexico for
Father Junípero Serra, the influential Franciscan missionary
who established nine early missions in California. Most missions
were adobe with tile roofs with wide eaves to protect the walls
from rain. Not long after the transfer of California to Mexican
control in 1822, the Mission system was secularized and many of
the missions were abandoned, plundered for building materials,
and deteriorated quickly.
While the Franciscan missionaries were building their religious
structures, secular construction was also taking place in the
campaign for California settlement, specifically in the form of
presidios, pueblos, and ranchos. The missionaries were accompanied
by soldiers who established four presidios, or forts, from
1769 to 1782 in San Diego, Monterey, San Francisco, and Santa
Barbara. Like the missions, the presidios were U-shaped fortified
areas with an internal plaza. After the San Francisco presidio
was established, the first of three pueblos, or towns,
was also founded. The San Jose pueblo was established in 1777,
followed by Los Angeles (1781), and Villa de Branciforte (1797).
Pueblos were intended to increase the food supply and supplement
the defenses offered by the presidios. The pueblos were also planned
around a central plaza, included a chapel and other municipal
buildings, covered walkways, adobe homes, and pastures. With time,
the soldier-settlers became more interested in establishing their
own ranchos outside of the presidios and pueblos. Secular
society thrived around the pueblos and ranchos. These early Spanish
settlers adopted the unofficial title of "Don" to distinguish
themselves from those settlers arriving after Mexican independence.
During this period the ranchos of the Dons were single-story,
flat-roofed adobes, often without floors, chimneys, doors, or
windows. Most flat-roofs of the ranchos, pueblos and presidios
were asphalt or thatched.
In the 1830s a new style of architecture evolved in California
that was a unification of these early Spanish-Mexican building
practices and the New England architectural traditions that were
familiar to the increasing number of American immigrants. The
first of these buildings was constructed by Thomas Larkin in the
trading port of Monterey, after which numerous Monterey Colonial
houses were modeled throughout the State. Larkin introduced strong
redwood timber framing that could support a second story, but
adopted the adobe walls, and attached a two-story veranda to protect
them. The Larkin House also introduced the eastern floor plan
of two rooms on either side of a central hall. Today, the Jose
Maria Alviso Adobe is the only remaining example of
this prevalent style in the Santa Clara Valley and San Francisco
With the massive immigration to California that occurred during
the mid-19th-century gold rush, some adopted the use of the abundant
adobe building material before the establishment of lumbermills.
Gold country was often a myriad of makeshift tents and some prefabricated
woodframe shacks. But as soon as milled lumber and skilled carpenters
were available, architectural styles popular throughout much of
America during the last half of the 19th century were appearing
in California as well. Among the gold-seekers were trained architects
who established practices in California after gold-fever had subsided.
They designed many sophisticated buildings in San Francisco, established
a professional journal in the 1870s, called The California
Architect and Building News, and a professional society by
1881. In contrast to these professionally-trained architects,
a larger group of self-trained designers and carpenter-builders
were also contributing to California's built environment, and
designed the majority of Northern California homes. They depended
heavily on popular design handbooks, and initially continued the
Classical and Gothic Revival styles they were familiar with from
the east and mid-west. From the 1860s through the 1870s, the vertical
forms and asymmetrical floor plans of the Italianate style were
popular. The Landrum House in Santa Clara is
a hybrid example of these popular Gothic Revival and Italianate
motifs. For the last three decades of the 19th century, Californians
embraced the variety of decorative details found in the Victorian
period, particularly Queen Anne ornamentation, such as that seen
at the Charles Copeland Morse House, as this
style easily made use of the abundance of native redwood. Examples
can also be seen of Stick, Eastlake, Richardsonian Romanesque,
Shingle, and the Renaissance Revival styles.
Mission Revival, popular all over the country after its introduction
in 1893 at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, was particularly
attractive to Californians looking for a simpler regional architecture.
Romantic ideals of the Spanish-Mexican colonial period were prevalent,
if not unfounded, and most every California town erected a red-tile,
white stucco Mission Revival building often with neo-Moorish towers
and round arches. Instead of adhering to early-19th century colonial
California examples, the style was based more on Mediterranean
traditions, as exemplified in the elaborate Villa
Montalvo or the Hayes Mansion. These architectural
motifs experienced renewed popularity throughout California, and
the entire country, from the late 1910s through the 1930s as the
Spanish Colonial Revival.
It was in Northern California that a new building material, reinforced
concrete, was developed by Ernest Ransome, who constructed the
first reinforced concrete building in America, the Arctic Oil
Works, in San Francisco in 1884. Two decades later, the 1906 earthquake
centered under San Francisco had a devastating effect on the entire
Bay Area. Reinforced concrete became widely used thereafter to
construct earthquake-safe buildings. San Jose's first "skyscraper,"
the Bank of America Building, was built in 1926 and is one of
the first earthquake-proof buildings in the area. After the quake,
damaged Victorian and Romanesque commercial buildings were generally
replaced by popular 20th-century style buildings, such as Edwardian
and Neo-Classical. The streetscape of Santa Clara Boulevard between
Third and Fourth Streets in the San Jose Downtown
Historic District is representative of this immediate post-earthquake
A new architectural ideal was also being embraced by many Californians
in early 20th century--one which valued hand crafts over the machine-made,
stained rather than painted wood, and the principle that "nothing
is beautiful that is also not functional." One realization of
these ideals was the Craftsman bungalow, a house form that was
typically one to two stories with gently pitched broad gables,
one large gable covering the main portion of the house and often
a second, lower gable, covering a porch. Equally important was
the interior arrangement of space, which eliminated hallways to
create open floor plans and incorporated stained woodwork throughout.
Californians were particularly receptive to craftsman ideas of
integrating the house with its natural surroundings, possible,
in part, because of the mild California climate and abundance
of natural materials. The bungalow has been referred to as California's
first architectural export, variations of which were adapted by
communities around the country. Examples such as the Charles
Wagner River Rock Bungalow can still be seen throughout the
Bay Area today.
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, many professional
architects were making their imprint on Northern California. Bernard
Maybeck was one of several well-educated eastern architects to
arrive in San Francisco in the 1890s. Maybeck joined the firm
of A. Page Brown, San Francisco's leading pre-earthquake architect.
By 1894 he had established a private practice in Berkeley, and
began teaching at the University of California in Berkeley. Maybeck
drew upon a wide variety of stylistic and regional inspirations,
characterized by the use of shingles and stained wood. Maybeck's
clients were cultural leaders and professors, and his Sunbonnet
House in the Professorville Historic District
in Palo Alto is typical of his work. He was the center of the
Craftsman movement in the Bay Area and an important mentor to
a number of young architects, such as Julia Morgan, one of the
nation's first prominent female architects. A native Californian,
Morgan attended the University of California and the Ecolé des
Beaux-Arts, after which she returned to the West Coast and soon
established her own practice in San Francisco at age 32 in 1904.
During her 46-year career, Morgan designed nearly 800 buildings,
including homes, schools, churches, women's clubs and other small
institutional buildings throughout California and the West, but
primarily in the San Francisco Bay area. Her buildings incorporated
practicality, convenience and elegant simplicity. Along with Maybeck,
Morgan helped formulate a style specific to the Bay Area which
blended the building with the landscape, used wood for both interior
and exterior finishes, incorporated numerous windows, courtyards,
porches and large spaces that conveyed an open, natural, informal
Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the most enigmatic and influential
architects of the 20th century, was also practicing in Northern
California. Wright experimented with an innovative hexagonal design
in his Hanna Honeycomb House. Patterned after
the honeycomb of a bee, the house incorporates a series of six-sided
figures in its plan, terraces, and built-in furnishings. However,
his Prairie style house, touted as the first indigenous American
architecture and the basis of much modern design, had far wider
reaching influence in California. Wright's typical prairie house
was long and horizontal in form with low-pitched hip roofs and
wide projecting eaves, a central portion of the house rising slightly
higher than the flanking wings, with banks of windows and wide-open
floor plans and large central hearth.
These American ideas of openness and the close relationship
between interior and exterior spaces paved the way for a great
deal of experimentation in architecture. By the mid-20th-century
post-World War II building boom, Wright's ideas were meshed with
those behind the bungalow and Modern movement into the emerging
suburban ranch house. Throughout the Santa Clara Valley, acres
of farmland were replaced by suburban developments, many of them
dominated by the ranch house, often seen as a reflection of the
informal nature of Western culture. These single-story, horizontal
houses with low pitched gable roofs, rambling floorplans, and
attached garages were like much of California's architecture--an
evolution and combination of earlier styles. And like the bungalow,
the Western Ranch house permeated suburban development around
the country as the influence of California's architectural frontier
spread beyond the boundaries of the golden state.
Every community has its own history, and has weathered the tides
of change. Santa Clara is no different. The transformation of
Santa Clara from an agricultural town to a modern metropolitan
city began in the 1950s and continued through the rest of the
20th century. As farms disappeared, one by one, residential subdivisions
moved into the spaces that orchards occupied.
Santa Clara has experienced growing pains similar to many other
cities. With urban sprawl, businesses and residents migrated to
the fringes of the city. Santa Clara's downtown area experienced
a significant decline during the last half of the 20th century.
Growth and redevelopment have also resulted in many of Santa Clara's
historic places falling prey to the bulldozer.
The late 1960s saw one of the City's more controversial decisions,
to demolish its original downtown in hopes of creating a new economic
center. Using Federal Urban Renewal funds, eight blocks along
Franklin Street were acquired and torn down. Several of the former
downtown business owners who survived relocated to the new two-block
Franklin Square and the six blocks were offered to new development.
Not much happened and it took until 1987 to develop the last parcel.
There are few persons today that don't believe that the old downtown
could have been restored to a charming commercial center.but there
is a new heightened awareness of the importance of preserving
historic buildings. In 1976, a city-wide historic resources survey
was completed by staff and volunteers. In 1985, the Historical
and Landmarks Commission was appointed to act in an advisory capacity
to City Council in all matters pertaining to historical landmarks,
museums, community functions, special task groups, and to advise
local residents and businesses on preservation related matters.
The Commission is also responsible for the marking and preservation
of historical landmarks/places and other functions as may be required.
The draft Historic Conservation District Ordinance, currently
under review, is Santa Clara's most recent preservation initiative.
In enacting this Article, the City recognizes the substantial
aesthetic, environmental and economic importance of its historic
and cultural resources. The purpose of this Article is to establish
policies, regulations and standards to protect historic and cultural
resources and to ensure that development in the Historic Conservation
District is compatible and enhances the quality and character
of Santa Clara. With the conscious efforts of the City Council,
Historical and Landmarks Commission, and the many other groups
and individuals, Santa Clara hopes to save its visible reminders
of our past for future generations.
A National Historic Landmark, the Hanna-Honeycomb House was Frank
Lloyd Wright's (1867-1959) first work in the San Francisco region.
Begun in 1937 and expanded over 25 years, this is the first and
best example of Wright's innovative hexagonal design. Patterned
after the honeycomb of a bee, the house incorporates six-sided
figures with 120-degree angles in its plan, in its numerous tiled
terraces, and even in built-in furnishings. Wright, born in Richland
Center, Wisconsin, was an internationally known architect who
combined the reformist ideals of 19th-century America with aspects
of modernism. Wright created an organic architecture, and became
arguably the best-known architect of the United States. In American
National Bibliography Frederick Ivor-Campbell wrote "(the)
Honeycomb House showed how Wright's system of Polygonal modules
could provide the openness that he associated with freedom of
movement while gracefully integrating the house with its sloping
topography. The hexagonal modules of the floor plan gave the appearance
of a honeycomb; hence the name of the house."
The Hanna-Honeycomb house was designed for Paul R. Hanna and
his wife Jean, both well-known educators and for many years associated
with Stanford University and the Hoover Institute. The project
was begun while they were a young married couple and the house
was expanded and adapted over time, with Wright's assistance,
as their professional and personal needs changed. The house is
one-story high with a central clerestory (an outside wall of a
room or building that rises above an adjoining roof and contains
windows) and is constructed of native redwood board and batten,
San Jose brick, cement and plate glass. The house clings to and
completes the hillside on which it was built as the floor and
courtyard levels conform to the slope of this one and one-half
acre site. The entire site includes the main house, a guesthouse,
hobby shop, storage building, double garage, carport, breezeway,
and garden house with pools and water cascade. After living in
the house for 38 years, the Hannas gave the property to Stanford
University in 1974. It was severely damaged by the Loma Prieta
earthquake in 1989, and a major 10-year restoration was recently
The Hanna-Honeycomb House is located at 737 Frenchman's Road,
in Palo Alto. It is now owned by Stanford University, and
is used for university functions such as seminars and receptions.
Guided tours are offered by appointment only on the 1st Sunday
and the 2nd and 4th Thursdays of each month--there is a fee for
admission. Call 650-725-8352 or visit Stanford's
website for further information.
Lou Henry and
Herbert Hoover House
The Lou Henry and Herbert Hoover House, a National Historic Landmark,
is a large, rambling International style house, resembling "blocks
piled up." It was designed by Lou Henry Hoover, wife of Herbert
Hoover, 31st President of the United States. Herbert Hoover's
contribution was to order that the home be fireproof, and the
walls were constructed of hollow tiles. Built from 1919 to 1920,
the house was the couple's first and only permanent residence,
and it was here that Hoover awaited the Presidential election
returns in 1928, when he won against Alfred E. Smith, and 1932,
when he lost the election to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. After
Lou's death in 1944, her husband deeded the house to Stanford
University to serve as a home for university professors.
Herbert Hoover, born in West Branch, Iowa in 1874, was a member
of the first class of Leland Stanford, Jr. University. Opened
in 1891 by former California Governor Leland Stanford and his
wife in memory of their son, the University was located in Palo
Alto, California, 30 miles south of San Francisco. Studying geology,
Hoover met fellow student Lou Henry in a geology lab. Lou Henry,
also born in Iowa in 1874, had moved to Monterey, California,
with her family in 1884. She entered Stanford University in 1894.
After graduation, Herbert Hoover worked for a while in the California
gold mines and then in Western Australia, returning in 1899 to
marry the recently graduated Lou Henry. For the rest of their
lives the Hoovers would retain a strong affinity for their alma
mater, maintaining residences on the campus despite travels and
residences abroad in China, Ceylon, Burma, Siberia, Australia,
Egypt, Japan, England, most of Europe, and finally Washington,
D.C. Hoover played a highly publicized and praised role in relief
efforts for some 33 million displaced and starving civilian victims
of the First World War in Europe and was appointed Director General
of Post War Relief and Rehabilitation in 1919 by President Woodrow
Prior to the end of World War I the Hoovers had commissioned architect
Louis Mulgardt to design their Stanford Home; however Mulgardt
publicized his appointment prior to the end of the war. Angering
the Hoovers, who felt that it was an inopportune time in the waning
months of a terrible conflict to announce the construction of
a large home, Mulgardt was dismissed. After several consultations
the Hoovers convinced Arthur B. Clark, a Stanford art professor
who practiced freelance architecture during the summer, to be
their architect. Clark agreed on the condition that Mrs. Hoover
design the house and that Clark, aided by architectural draftsman
Charles Davus and Clark's architect son, Birge, would serve in
an advisory capacity. Mrs. Hoover sketched ideas, watching construction,
but when anyone told her that any of her architectural ideas weren't
done, she responded, "Well, it's time someone did." The problem
of size (Mrs. Hoover not wanting the house to appear too large
or ostentatious) was solved by the hillside site with the house
disappearing into the slope of San Juan Hill and hence appearing
much smaller. The irregularly shaped house was built on a reinforced
concrete slab foundation and rises two stories in the front and
three stories in the rear. Resembling early International style
homes, it was the opinion of the architects that Mrs. Hoover's
designs were modeled after North African Algerian homes she had
Completed in June 1920, the Hoovers lived there only a short
time before Herbert was appointed Secretary of Commerce by President
Warren G. Harding in 1921, a role he continued under President
Calvin Coolidge. During Hoover's presidency (1929-32), the Hoover
family only made brief visits to their Stanford home. They returned
to this house after 1932, while maintaining a New York apartment
as a second residence.
The Lou Henry and Herbert Hoover House is located at 623
Muranda Road, Stanford University, Palo Alto. It now serves as
a residence for Stanford University professors, and is not open
to the public.
Palo Alto Southern
Pacific Railroad Depot
The Southern Pacific Depot on Cahill Street in San
Jose is a multilevel combination passenger and freight railroad
depot constructed in the Italian Renaissance Revival style. Built
in 1935, it consists of a three-story central section flanked
by two-story wings. The building, a compilation of rectangular
sections, is 390 feet long and varies in width from 40 feet to
78 feet. The central section, which contains the passenger waiting
room, measures 40 by 80 feet and is 33 feet in height. The high
center pavilion housing the waiting room is constructed of steel
columns and trusses. The side wings are framed with wood. The
exterior walls are clad with tapestry brick or varied colors and
arranged in an English bond pattern. The depot is located in an
industrial area dominated by warehouses and related commercial
businesses. Several vernacular sheds, a water tower, butterfly
passenger sheds and the nearby Alameda underpass are all contributing
buildings and structures within the railroad station.
The construction of this Southern Pacific Depot
in 1935 was the culmination of a 30-year effort to relocate 4.5
miles of the South Pacific Coast line of the Southern Pacific
Railroad away from the heavy traffic of the downtown area around
the Market Street Depot to the west side of the city, an industrial
neighborhood area in the 19th century and the former location
of rail facilities belonging to other railroads. The Southern
Pacific depot on Cahill Street was designed by Southern Pacific
architect, John H. Christie, who had worked on the Southern Pacific
remodeling of the Fresno, California, depot in 1915 and later,
in 1939, worked on the Los Angeles Union Passenger Station. This
depot is one of only four Italian Renaissance Revival style depots
in California, and the largest surviving depot of the San Francisco-San
Jose line. The only other large depot built in California during
the 1930s was the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal. The Southern
Pacific Depot in San Jose retains a high level of integrity.
The Southern Pacific Depot is located at 65 Cahill St., San
Jose, and is open during normal business hours.
Ramona Street between University Avenue and Hamilton Avenue is
a highly distinctive business block in downtown Palo Alto. It
showcases the Spanish and Early California styles with gentle
archways, wrought iron work, tile roofs of varying heights and
courtyards. The development of Ramona Street was an early successful
attempt to expand laterally the central commercial district. Pedro
de Lemos, a craftsman, graphic artist and curator of the Stanford
Museum had been concerned with the larger scale and somewhat linear
development along University Avenue. He believed that an informal
architecture full of whimsy and integrated with nature was indeed
compatible with commercial businesses. The first to go up, in
1925, was the Gotham Shop at 520 Ramona, built by Pedro de Lemos.
De Lemos had bought the property to preserve a very old oak tree
(finally removed in the 1980s). He designed the building around
the venerable oak and created shops with rustic benches, ceramic
tiles and stucco walls. In 1938, de Lemos built another Spanish
Colonial Revival commercial office building across the street
at 533 - 539 Ramona, with a recessed arched entrance, an interior
patio, wrought iron and more tiles.
Noted local architects Birge Clark, William Weeks and others
added to the Spanish flavor of what de Lemos started. In 1928,
Clark designed the multistory Medico-Dental Building at Hamilton
and Ramona, which now houses the University Art Center on the
ground floor. Across Ramona, Weeks designed the Cardinal Hotel,
Palo Alto's first non-frame hotel. Excitement attended the Cardinal's
debut, for it became the scene of tea dances and balls. The hotel
had another purpose; it was intended to help make Hamilton a commercial
street. The unified aspect of the 500 Ramona Street block was
recognized by its designation in 1985 as a Historic District in
the National Register of Historic Places. Since then, Plaza Ramona
and other remodelings at the University Avenue end of the block
have enhanced the theme.
Ramona Street is located in downtown Palo Alto, between University
and Hamilton aves. The Ramona Street Architectural District includes
518 to 581 Ramona St. and 247, 255-267 Hamilton Ave.
In 1889 land was subdivided to provide home sites for the professors
who preferred to own rather than lease university land at Stanford
University. The area, which came to be known as Professorville,
is bounded by Kingsley, Lincoln, and Addison avenues and the cross
streets of Ramona, Bryant, and Waverly. The city of Palo Alto
was created subsequent to the founding of Stanford University,
essentially to serve as a university town. Construction of the
University began on May 14, 1887, on land that had been the Leland
Stanford farm. Early founders desired the presence of a town near
the University but the two existing nearby towns of Mayfield and
Menlo Park did not seem suitable to them, as the founders wanted
the new university town to prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages.
Since the two existing towns did not meet this requirement or
seem willing to give up their saloon businesses, Leland Stanford,
in 1887, acquired 740 acres to create a new townsite. The area's
eclectic architecture is known for its brown shingles with gambrel
roofs. Classic examples are Professor Angell's home at 1005 Bryant
and Bernard Maybeck designed "Sunbonnet House" at 1061 Bryant.
Professor A. B. Clark designed the stately 433 Melville house
for Professor Charles Gilbert, one of Stanford's first teachers
and a leading citizen of Palo Alto.
Stately Dutch Colonials dominate three blocks of Kingsley Avenue.
At 450 Kingsley Avenue is the former home of one of Stanford University's
pioneer professors, Ferando Sanford, who headed the physics department.
The architect, Frank McMurray of Chicago, was a former student
of Professor Sanford. He designed the three-story, 14-room frame
house with a variety of features fashionable at the time--a Queen
Anne corner tower, a Palladian window in front and an unusual
archway reaching out past the second story. The comfortable, columned
front porch reaches across the front to the west side of the house,
where a doorway, once the carriage entrance, has been covered
over. The buildings, which give the Professorville area its strongest
image, are the brown-shingled houses whose stylistic allegiances
range from the Colonial Revival to the Craftsman. The Professorville
Historic District reflects the area's origins and its early years
to the founding of both Stanford University and Palo Alto itself.
The Professorville Historic District is bounded by Kingsley,
Lincoln, and Addison aves. and the cross streets Ramona, Bryant,
and Waverly, in Palo Alto.
US Naval Air Station
Sunnyvale, California, Historic District (Moffett Field)
Admiral William A. Moffett is credited with the creation of the
two Naval Air Stations commissioned in the early 1930s to port
the two U.S. Naval Airships (dirigibles). One of those stations,
the Naval Air Station Sunnyvale, California, was the Pacific coast
location selected, with help from northern Californian politicians
and the leadership of the Chambers of Commerce from Mountain View
to San Jose. The site of the US Naval Air Station Sunnyvale, California,
Historic District, consists of a large number of buildings that
were constructed from the 1930s on. By far the most famous and
visible sites are Hangars #1, #2, and #3, which dwarf the surrounding
buildings, standing as testament to the engineering skills of
their builders. Towering majestically in the northeast corner
of Santa Clara Valley is Hangar #1. Named as a Naval Historical
Monument in the early 1950s, the hangar is constructed on an amazing
network of steel girders sheathed with galvanized steel. It rests
firmly upon a reinforced pad anchored to concrete pilings. The
floor covers eight acres and can accommodate 10 football fields.
"Number One," as it is popularly referred to, is 1,133 feet long
and 308 feet wide. Its walls curve upward and inward, to form
an elongated dome 198 feet high. Unique and spectacular are the
"orange peel" doors, weighing 500 tons each. The doors are operated
by an electrical control panel. Each door is powered by a 150
horsepower motor. One of the most recognizable landmarks in the
San Francisco Bay Area, Hangar #1 and the original base are significant
in the history of Naval Aviation, defense and in the development
of the Santa Clara Valley. Making use of the facility location
and landing field, NASA Ames Research Center is located to the
north adjacent to the original plaza boundary and at the north
boundary of the historic district. It was here that some of the
original moon rocks taken from the Apollo lunar landings were
studied by NASA geologists.
The hangar's interior is so large that fog sometimes forms near
the ceiling. A person unaccustomed to its vastness is susceptible
to optical disorientation. Looking across its deck, planes and
tractors look like toys. Along its length maintenance shops, inspection
laboratories and offices help keep the hangar busy. Looking up,
you can see a network of catwalks for access to all parts of the
structure. Two elevators meet near the top, allowing maintenance
personnel to get to the top quickly and easily. Narrow gauge tracks
run through the length of the hangar. During the lighter-than-air
period of dirigibles and non-rigid aircraft, the rails extended
across the apron and into the fields at each end of the hangar.
This tramway facilitated the transportation of an airship on the
mooring mast to the hangar interior or to the flight position.
During the brief period that the U.S.S. Macon was based
at Moffett from October 1933 until it was lost at sea in February
1935, Number One not only accommodated the giant airship but several
smaller non-rigid LTA craft simultaneously. Hangar One is truly
one of the most unique hangars in the world. Hangars #2 and #3
are significant more for their size than their unique styling
or design. Along with Hangar #1, these two buildings help define
the South San Francisco Bay Area from all distant directions.
The style of the other buildings on the base is largely Spanish
Colonial Revival, mostly built in the 1930s, with some International
style buildings constructed in the 1940s and beyond. The Moffett
Field Historical Society was founded in May of 1993. Until recently, their museum was located in historic "Hangar One."
Naval Air Station Sunnyvale is located near Mountain View and Sunnyvale, California, 35 miles south of San Francisco. From Highway 101 use the Moffett Field exit. The Moffett Museum has been located in Hangar One for several years, but relocated to an adjacent building after the hangar was closed due to potential toxic chemicals. If you plan to visit, inform the guard at the main gate that you are going to the museum and follow his instructions. Call 650-603-9827 or visit the Moffett Field Museum's website for further information.
Plan Wind Tunnel
Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, a National Historic Landmark, was a
research facility used extensively to design and test new generations
of aircraft, both commercial and military, as well as National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space vehicles, including
the space shuttle. The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel was created by
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), parent
agency of NASA. Constructed between 1950 and 1955, this complex
actually contains three wind tunnels. It represents the continual
development of superior aeronautical research facilities after
the end of the Second World War. These research facilities formed
the foundation from which NASA would launch the American effort
to land a man on the moon.
After the construction of the Variable Density Wind Tunnel at
Langley in 1921, NACA built an impressive variety of technical
research facilities upon which the American aircraft industry
was based. These facilities enabled the American aircraft industry
to dominate the skies in both commercial and military aviation.
By 1945, America's lead in the field of aviation seemed to be
evaporating. The technological achievements of the German missiles
and jet aircraft indicated a lag in American aeronautical research.
In 1949, Congress passed the Unitary Plan Act, under which the
Federal government coordinated a national plan of facility construction
encompassing NACA, as well as the Air Force, private industry,
and universities. The Unitary Plan resulted in the construction
of a new series of wind tunnel complexes to support the American
aircraft industry, including the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel
Construction of this facility began in 1950-1951 and continued
until 1955. Because no one wind tunnel could meet all the demands
for additional research facilities simulating the entire range
of aircraft and missile flight, NACA chose to build the Ames tunnel
with three separate test sections drawing power from a common
centralized power plant. The transonic test section spanned 11
by 11 feet, while the two supersonic sections were smaller: nine
by seven feet and eight by seven feet. Giant valves 20 feet in
diameter supplied air from one supersonic leg to another. The
American West Coast aircraft industry quickly capitalized on the
Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Complex. The famed Boeing fleet
of commercial transports and the Douglas DC-8, DC-9, and DC-10
were all tested here; as well as military aircraft such as the
F-111 fighter, the C-5A transport and the B-1 bomber. In addition
to aircraft, in the 1960s and 1970s almost all NASA manned space
vehicles including the Space Shuttle were tested in the Ames Unitary
Plan Wind tunnel complex.
The major element of the tunnel complex is its drive system,
consisting of four intercoupled electric motors. The transonic
wind tunnel is a closed-return, variable density tunnel with a
fixed geometry, ventilated throat, and a single-jack flexible
nozzle. Airflow is produced by a three-stage, axial-flow compressor
powered by four-wound-rotor, variable-speed induction motors.
For conventional steady-state tests, models are generally supported
on a string. A schlieran system, one that allows regions of varying
refraction in a transparent medium caused by pressure or temperature
differences and detectable by photographing the passage of a beam
of light, is available for studying flow patterns, either by direct
viewing or by photographs. The details of the larger supersonic
tunnel are much the same, except that it is equipped with an asymmetric,
sliding-block nozzle and the airflow is produced by an 11-stage,
axial-flow compressor powered by four variable-speed, wound-rotor,
induction motors. The smaller supersonic tunnel is a closed-return,
variable-density tunnel equipped with a symmetrical, flexible-wall
throat and the sidewalls are positioned by a series of jacks operated
by hydraulic motors.
The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, a National Historic Landmark, is also featured in the Aviation History Travel Itinerary. It is located at the Ames Research
Center, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, California. Moffett Field is
35 miles south of San Francisco. From Highway 101 use the Moffett
Field exit. The Ames Research Visitor Center is open 8:00am to
4:30pm Monday - Friday, you can reach them at 650-604-5000. Admission
is free. There are no tours of the wind tunnels.
The James Lick Mill a complex of buildings reflecting the varied
uses of the property over its history. The major historical constructions
are a brick granary and millpond from the original mill built
by James Lick around 1855, the large house built by Lick around
1858 and a late Victorian-era office building. James Lick was
born in Pennsylvania in 1796. He came to San Francisco in 1848
after a successful career as a piano builder in South America.
From San Francisco Lick went to Santa Clara County. Lick built
this Italianate mansion between 1858 and 1860 next to his flour
mill. The mansion is constructed of native redwood featuring marvelous
woodwork and imported marble fireplaces in each of its 24 rooms.
This property was once part of the RanchoUlistac grant, a square
league reaching from the Alviso shoreline southward and encompassing
all the land between the Guadalupe and Saratoga Creeks. His farm
background helped him realize the potential of the site for agricultural
production. Around the mansion and mill, Lick developed a highly
successful orchard operation and pioneered the introduction of
new fruits and horticultural techniques. Imported specimens include
the impressive cork oaks on the property planted by Lick himself.
Shrewd real estate investments at the time of the gold rush
made Lick the richest man in California by 1873. When he died
James Lick left an estate of over three million dollars for various
public projects, a major part of which went to establish Lick
Observatory on Mount Hamilton where he is buried. Lick generously
gave his estate to benefit charitable and scientific organizations.
The Home of Benevolence, San Jose's orphanage for many years,
was founded through one of Lick's grants and was later known
Children's Home. It is now part of EMQ Children and Family Services.
An 1882 fire destroyed the mill and in 1902 the Lick Mill complex
A series of owners, including Union Distilling, Western Grain
and Sugar Products, Western Carbonic Gas, American Salt and
and Commercial Solvents and Chemical, manufactured a wide variety
of products at this location. In the 1970s, the site was sold
to a developer. The Lick Mansion and grounds were preserved and
today the public can visit
The Lick Mansion and grounds are located at 4101 Lick Mill
Blvd., Santa Clara, on the grounds of the Mansion Grove Apartment
complex. The public can visit by going to the Mansion Grove Apartment complex office, which is open between 9:00am and 6:00pm, to gain access. For more information
contact Mansion Grove Apt. at 408-980-0502.
Today known as the world famous Sun Microsystems/Agnews Developmental
Center, the campus-like setting of the former Agnews Insane Asylum
consists of a grouping of numerous reinforced concrete, brick,
stucco and tile buildings. They are constructed in large rectangular-shaped
plans and designed in a Mediterranean Revival style. The buildings
are formally placed within a landscaped garden of palms, pepper
trees and vast lawns. The treatment of the insane in California
dates from the earliest days of the Gold Rush. The first provisions
for the insane were to lock them up with criminals in the ship
Ephemia, purchased in 1849 by the City of San Francisco,
and later to house them at the San Francisco marine hospital in
1850, used primarily for ailing seamen. In 1885 the Agnews Residential
Facility was established by the California State Legislature as
a neuropsychiatric institution for the care and treatment of the
mentally ill. Agnews, opened in 1889, was the third institution
in the state established for the mentally ill. Twenty-one years
later, the greatest tragedy of the 1906 earthquake in Santa Clara
County took place at the old Agnews State Hospital. The multistoried,
unreinforced masonry building crumbled, killing over 100 patients.
The Institution was then redesigned in, what was then, a revolutionary
cottage plan spreading the low-rise buildings along tree-lined
streets in a manner that resembled a college campus. The Mediterranean
Revival style buildings were constructed of concrete with tile
roofs, decorative tile patterns, rustic wooden balconies, porch
columns and bannisters. Bands of decorative tile patterns reflect
the Hispanic influence on the buildings. Now at the center of
the Sun Microsystems/Agnews complex is the Clock Tower Building
(formerly the Treatment Building) with its massive symmetrical
clock tower. The auditorium is an outstanding building, which
seems as beautiful today as it was in 1913. Agnews State Hospital
was significant as the first modern mental hospital in California,
and subsequently other State facilities, followed the example
of Agnews. It embodied the distinctive characteristics of a progressive
mental hospital in the early 20th century as it was intended to
be a "cheerful" place with its decentralized specialized buildings
for different treatment purposes and different types of patients.
Its small, low-scale buildings were designed to bring light and
air to patients.
After World War II, new approaches to treatment had an effect
on hospital operations and facilities. Among the most important
new approaches were the establishment of community clinics, treatment
outside of hospitals, and treatment of the developmentally disabled
at State Hospitals formerly intended for the mentally ill. A watershed
event was the passage of the 1971 Laterman Act, which resulted
in closing of several State hospitals and restructuring of the
State system. Since that time there has been an increasing move
toward closing hospitals and reliance on community treatment programs.
In 1996, the State of California put up for sale 90 acres of
the surplus State land (the former site of Agnews Developmental
Center). Intense community interest in the future of the site
made decisions about the development of the land a challenge.
To foster the site's preservation, Agnews Hospital was listed
in the National Register of Historic Places for its historic and
architectural significance. Sun Microsystems invested $10 million
in the restoration of key historic buildings on the property where
it built its corporate headquarters, office/research and development
space for more than 3,000 employees. This project was a first
of its kind; in which a city, community and corporation share,
in an interactive way, a work environment and a public environment.
Two of the restored historic buildings, the auditorium and the
mansion, are available for cultural and social events by community
groups on evenings and weekends. Most of the major stands of heritage
trees around the historic buildings were preserved and the park-like
grounds beautified and maintained for the use of local residents.
Local historical groups worked with Sun to refurbish a small local
history museum inside the auditorium, the historic Agnews cemetery
and a monument to victims of the 1906 earthquake. Smaller residential
buildings from the original Agnews Hospital complex are being
relocated and will become part of an affordable housing project
on another portion of the State surplus land. The site also includes
100+ year-old trees, historically a habitat for the protected
species of burrowing owls. Worries about this owl population were
overcome when the State agreed to purchase a suitable habitat
for the owls and deed it to the California Deparment of Fish and
Game for perpetual management. Both Sun and the City helped to
finance the acquisition of this new home for burrowing owls. The
auditorium and mansion have been used for many public events since
their restoration was completed including performances by the
community ballet, chorale, symphony and drum and bugle corps.
Located on Lafayette St. at Agnew Rd., Santa Clara. Park
and grounds are open to the public. For rental of the auditorium
and mansion, contact the City of Santa Clara's Parks and Recreation
Department at 408-615-3140.
In 1892 Charles Copeland Morse, "The American Seed King" who
co-founded the giant Ferry-Morse Seed Co., completed the house
of his dreams. Born in Thomaston, Maine, in 1842 Charles came
to California originally in 1859, lured by the search for gold.
After mining for a couple of years, he found his way to Santa
Clara in 1862. Santa Clara was then a small town with an agricultural
setting. Mr. Moore engaged in several occupations, among them
that of a house painter. Charles Copeland Morse married Maria
Josephine Victoria Langford in 1868. In 1877, he and a Methodist
minister pooled their money to buy a seed-growing enterprise,
which became the Ferry-Morse Seed Co. This company eventually
led the world in flower and vegetable seed productions. In addition
to being active in his business, he was one of the founders of
the Bank of Santa Clara and the Advent Christian Church of Santa
Clara. Charles and Maria had five children who grew up in the
mansion that a local newspaper dubbed "the house that seed built."
This house is a classic Queen Anne Victorian. Rising three stories
over a raised basement, the twin gables, witches' hat turret,
decorative shingles, trims and stained glass windows all contribute
to the grand effect. The entry is distinguished by an ornate front
porch. Inside the mansion are rich wood molding, stained glass
windows and chandeliers. A unique chandelier is found in the old
dining room. This brass fixture came from the family of the founder
of the Bank of America, A. P. Giannini. About 1975, Caroline and
Vaughn Nixon bought the house and restored the ornate mansion
to its original grandeur. The Morse Mansion presently hosts law
offices but the interior retains an air of elegance.
The Morse Mansion has been used as a law office for the last
20 years and is not open to the public. The house is located at
981 Fremont St., Santa Clara, on the corner of Fremont and Washington
Andrew J. Landrum
The Andrew J. Landrum House is one of the perfect period pieces
which give the Old Quad area of Santa Clara its architectural
quality. Andrew Landrum, a noted Santa Clara carpenter, designed
his new home in 1875. He combined the then popular Italianate
and Gothic Revival styles he found in pattern books, as seen in
the corner quoins, the Italianate porch with scroll brackets,
gables with cross-bracing and the cruciform interior plan. The
two-story wooden residence was built on a "T" shaped plan which
exhibits crossed, steeply gabled rooflines which are punctuated
by a brick chimney and sheathed in wooden shingles. Largely unaltered,
the house is an excellent example of eclecticism.
The Andrew Landrum House is significant not only because of its
distinctive architecture, but also due to the historical associations
with Andrew Landrum, the builder, who was an early pioneer in
Santa Clara. Mr. Landrum was advertised in the Santa Clara County
Directory as a "carpenter." Little can be ascertained about the
Landrum family. However, the Landrums must have been quite prominent
as "Landrum, Miss M. 1217 Santa Clara Avenue" is listed in the
Social Directory of 1903, as compiled by March Bowden Carroll.
Miss Landrum was one of the 29 ladies listed under the Santa Clara
Section of the San Jose Social Directory. Most of the ladies stipulated
certain days and hours when they would be at home for callers,
but Miss Landrum did not do so. It is also said locally that the
Landrum House was one of the few buildings in Santa Clara whose
chimney did not crumble in the earthquake of 1906. No major alterations
have changed the building over the last 125 years and it remains
one of Santa Clara's oldest and best preserved houses.
The Landrum house is located at 1217 Santa Clara St., at
the north west corner of Santa Clara and Jackson Sts. This is
a private residence and is not open to the public.
Santa Clara Depot
The Santa Clara passenger depot, the oldest operating railroad
depot in California, was constructed by the San Francisco & San
Jose Railroad Company in 1863. The 24'x50' board and batten depot
was one of the two "way stations" built between San Francisco
and San Jose. Plans for a railroad linking San Francisco and San
Jose began as early as 1851. Though this scheme ultimately failed,
the incorporation of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad in
1859 met with success. Most of the financing for the project came
from county government in San Francisco, San Mateo and Santa Clara
counties, with the University of Santa Clara and local industry
also playing a significant role in both stock acquisition and
choice of placement of the depot in Santa Clara. The first passenger
service to San Francisco started in January 1864. The Southern
Pacific Railroad acquired the San Francisco & San Jose Railroad
in 1868. The depot, originally erected on the east side of the
railroad tracks, was moved to its present location in 1877 and
attached to the existing 32'x50' freight house constructed several
years earlier. Also, because of the large volume of agricultural
freight shipped from the depot, the freight house was increased
in size at that time to its present dimensions of 32'x160'.
On November 1, 1877, the San Jose Mercury reported the
facility nearing completion. Following construction of the railroad,
farming and fruit-related industries developed in the Santa Clara
area, with the depot serving as a focal point for shipping. Rail
service provided the fast, direct link to San Francisco and, in
the later 1870s, to Southern California. Typical of these efforts
were those of James A. Dawson, who pioneered the area's fruit-canning
industry in 1871. By the turn of the century, the Pratt-Low Preserving
Company, the largest fruit packing plant in central California,
was located just south of the depot. Caltrans acquired the depot
from Southern Pacific in 1980. In cooperation with California
Department of Transportation, the South Bay Historical Railroad
Society, a nonprofit group founded in 1985, began renovation work
in 1986 on the depot, by then badly in need of repair. A group
of dedicated volunteers spent over 25,000 hours hauling away debris,
replacing support timbers, siding, exterior decking and interior
flooring, scraping peeling paint, painting and many other repairs.
With the major renovation now complete, this 139-year-old building
hosts a railroad library and museum while still serving its original
function as a passenger depot.
The museum is located in the restored Depot where model railroads
are on display and school groups are offered courses which emphasize
the influence of the railroad on California's history. Museum
hours are Tuesday from 6:00 - 9:00pm and Saturdays from 10:00am.
- 4:00pm. The Santa Clara Railroad Depot is located at 1005 Railroad
Ave. in Santa Clara. Entrance is free.
The Southern Pacific Depot on Cahill Street in San Jose is a
multilevel combination passenger and freight railroad depot constructed
in the Italian Renaissance Revival style. Built in 1935, it consists
of a three-story central section flanked by two-story wings. The
building, a compilation of rectangular sections, is 390 feet long
and varies in width from 40 feet to 78 feet. The central section,
which contains the passenger waiting room, measures 40 by 80 feet
and is 33 feet in height. The high center pavilion housing the
waiting room is constructed of steel columns and trusses. The
side wings are framed with wood. The exterior walls are clad with
tapestry brick or varied colors and arranged in an English bond
pattern. The depot is located in an industrial area dominated
by warehouses and related commercial businesses. Several vernacular
sheds, a water tower, butterfly passenger sheds and the nearby
Alameda underpass are all contributing buildings and structures
within the railroad station.
The construction of this Southern Pacific Depot in 1935 was the
culmination of a 30-year effort to relocate 4.5 miles of the South
Pacific Coast line of the Southern Pacific Railroad away from
the heavy traffic of the downtown area around the Market Street
Depot to the west side of the city, an industrial neighborhood
area in the 19th century and the former location of rail facilities
belonging to other railroads. The Southern Pacific depot on Cahill
Street was designed by Southern Pacific architect, John H. Christie,
who had worked on the Southern Pacific remodeling of the Fresno,
California, depot in 1915 and later, in 1939, worked on the Los
Angeles Union Passenger Station. This depot is one of only four
Italian Renaissance Revival style depots in California, and the
largest surviving depot of the San Francisco-San Jose line. The
only other large depot built in California during the 1930s was
the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal. The Southern Pacific
Depot in San Jose retains a high level of integrity.
The Southern Pacific Depot is located at 65 Cahill St., San
Jose, and is open during normal business hours.
De Anza Hotel
The historic De Anza Hotel, the tallest hotel in the San Jose
central business district, is a 10-story concrete and steel reinforced
high-rise building with a 4-story rear section. Significant for
its architectural style, the De Anza Hotel is one of San Jose's
few Zig Zag Moderne (Art Deco) buildings. This architectural significance
extends into the elaborate Spanish Colonial Revival interior design
motifs. The De Anza Hotel was funded by the local business community,
united in an organization called the San Jose Community Hotel
Corporation. The hotel took three years of planning by this group
and stock subscriptions were obtained from more than 200 local
citizens. Noted architect William Weeks was the building's designer
and Carl Swenson was the contractor. Local business leaders emphasized
that the hotel would benefit San Jose and that the modern accommodations
would help attract conventions to the area. Ground breaking occurred
on February 27, 1930, and was presided over by the corporation
president, Alexander Hart, and many of San Jose's most prominent
citizens and businessmen.
The facade features a 10-story central section flanked by a 9-story
section on either side. These massings along with the building's
zigzag parapet give it a stepped appearance. The first and second
stories of the building house its lobby and mezzanine. Fenestration
consists mostly of simple sash, double-hung windows except for
the second level of the facade, which is highlighted by a band
of 12 arched windows. The relief patterns include a string course
separating the first and second levels, rosettes on the second
level, and an elaborate art deco design through to the final two
stories. Some Mayan influences can be seen in the design details
of the stepped parapet. On the west elevation is painted "Hotel
De Anza" with a diver used to indicate a swimming pool which is
at the rear of the building within a small courtyard area. The
interior of the De Anza is distinguished by a spectacular main
lobby where Art Deco elements are skillfully integrated into a
predominantly Spanish decorative scheme. The lobby reaches two
stories in height and contains large wooden beams with stenciled
colored floral patterns. Major factors of the interior design
are the highly detailed wrought iron balconies, the huge wrought
iron chandelier and double arch doorways. To one side is a fireplace
with a huge canopy that reaches to the ceiling. Interior doors
are all distinguished by their colored stenciled floral designs.
The De Anza Hotel is located along East Santa Clara, South
First, Second and Third sts. and East San Fernando St., San Jose.
Please call 408-286-1000 for further information, or look up the
history of the hotel at www.hoteldeanza.com
Luis Maria Peralta
The Luis Maria Peralta Adobe was built before 1800, and remodeled
in the mid 19th century. The original builder was probably Manuel
Gonzalez, an Apache Indian. The adobe covers an area of 20 feet
by 41 feet, and has two connecting rooms of approximately equal
size. The walls are about two feet thick and made of adobe blocks
that are 22" by 11" by 4." This building was built
around the Market Plaza of early San Jose. At the time it was
built, this adobe was not unique, but now it is the last vestige
of the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe.
Manuel Gonzalez, his wife and five children accompanied the Anza
Party to California in 1776. He was one of the founders of the
Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, the first municipal government
in California, established in 1777. This was the second house
that Gonzalez chose to live in, the first site was untenable due
to winter flooding. In 1804 Gonzalez died and the adobe went to
Luis Maria Peralta. Peralta was a soldier and one of the owners
of one of the largest ranchos in Mexican California. His father,
Corporal Gabriel Peralta, brought his family with him during the
Anza expedition (1775-76) and was one of the first 15 families
living in San Jose listed in the pardon of 1778. When he reached
the age of 21, Luis entered, as was traditional, into the military
of the King of Spain. Wedding Maria Loreto Alviso in 1784, Luis
afterwards transferred from the Monterey to the San Francisco
Company serving with the Escolta (guards) at Mission Santa Clara,
Mission San Jose and as corporeal of the guard at Mission Santa
Cruz. Phyllis Filiberti Butler records, in her book, The Valley
of Santa Clara, Historic Buildings, 1792-1920, that after
an attack on the priest and majordomo of Mission San Jose in 1805,
"he led the full garrison from the fort at San Francisco into
the San Juaquim Valley in pursuit of the Indians." Surprising
the Indians in their village, Peralta won a swift victory, which
enhanced his reputation. Then a sergeant, he was honored by appointment
as comisionado in charge of Pueblo San Jose in 1807, the highest
military and civilian official. Don Luis Maria Peralta held this
position until 1822, when the position ended with Mexico's independence
The Peralta Adobe is located at 184 West Saint John St., San Jose. History San Jose administers the Peralta Adobe and The Fallon House located on the northside of West Saint John St. The Fallon House is the fully restored and lavishly furnished Italianate home of an early mayor of San Jose. Both the Peralta Adobe and the Fallon House are only open periodically. The History San José website posts when the the houses are open. Call 408-918-1040 for information about upcoming tours.
Hotel Sainte Claire
Today a Larkspur Hotel, the Hotel Sainte Claire is a hexagonal six-story
building, dominating a corner lot at a busy downtown San Jose
intersection. The significance of the Sainte Claire Hotel is twofold.
First, its history is an integral part of the history of San Jose
and remains to this day among the city's most recognized architectural
landmarks. Secondly, the Sainte Claire was designed by the prominent
San Francisco architectural firm of Weeks and Day, which also
designed several of the great hotels in San Francisco, including
the Mark Hopkins and St. Francis. Weeks and Day were well noted
for both their school and hotel designs in California. Interior
similarities exist between San Jose's Sainte Claire and the Mark
Hopkins in San Francisco. Especially notable are the coffered
lobby ceilings designed by the firm for both buildings. The northwest
corner is truncated and recessed forming the corner entrance which
faces the intersection of South Market and San Carlos Streets.
North and west elevations meet the truncated corner at a 120-degree
angle, thus framing the entrance. Tawny brick sheathes the steel
and concrete frame on floors two through six, and rusticated buff
colored stone faces the ground level. The three part vertical
composition includes the arcaded ground level, a shaft of four
stories, and the six floors distinguished by paired windows set
in arched frames. Denticular stringcourses separate the first
and second floors, the third and fourth floors and the fifth and
sixth floors. Detailing is basically derived from the Renaissance
Revival tradition, though there are several references to French
and Spanish architecture.
The hotel lobby remains the most intact interior space within
the building. The Patio Room, once the hallmark of the hotel,
has been covered over, modernized and combined with the Empire
Room. Originally, the open patio room was framed by a Corinthian
arcade. A small formal garden and fountain room, the Spartan Room
on the second floor has also been modernized. Ceilings in the
lobby, Spartan and Empire rooms were handpainted, but alterations
over the years have obliterated the original work. Wood details
in the guest rooms and the ornate hand-carved wood doors leading
to the retail areas are intact. Many of the rooms have original
bathroom fixtures. The hotel was financed by noted realtor and
developer T. S. Montgomery, a prominent citizen of San Jose largely
responsible for much of the commercial development in the downtown.
In addition to financing such an ambitious project, Montgomery
donated to the city a parcel of land across from the hotel for
the new civic auditorium, which stands today. The Hotel Sainte
Claire enjoyed the status of being the premiere grand hotel in
the entire south peninsula region, and the reputation of having
the most elegant accommodations between San Francisco and Los
Located at 302 South Market St., San Jose, the Hotel Sainte
Claire, now a Larkspur Hotel, is an active business.
There are pamphlets available for the public about the hotel's
history. Call 408-295-2000 or visit www.thesainteclaire.com for
The Sainte Claire is a Historic Hotels of America member, a program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
San Jose Downtown
As Santa Clara Valley's mercantile and financial center for the
past 100 years, San Jose's downtown historic commercial district
is significant both from a historic and an architectural perspective.
The district includes buildings dating from the 1870s, reflecting
the emergence of the American city; buildings from the 1890s,
reflecting San Jose's boom years as an agricultural center; and
buildings from the 1920s, showcasing the South Bay Area's first
skyscraper. Thus, the district is unsurpassed in Santa Clara County
in its broad representation of historic California commercial
architecture. San Jose's history stretches back to the days of
the Spanish colonial empire in North America. El Pueblo de San
Jose de Guadalupe, chartered by the King of Spain, founded in
1777, was Alta California's first civil settlement. Following
the Mexican-American War, San Jose was ceded with the territory
of California to the United States. Immediately, the city was
surveyed first by Thomas Campbell in 1847 and later by Chester
Lyman, in 1848, following the standard grid street pattern utilizing
traditional Spanish pathways. This street pattern has remained
virtually unaltered to this day. The development of American commercial
areas in San Jose extended into this newly surveyed area, just
east of the Spanish Pueblo site of 1797 (relocated from the originial
site after major flooding).
The best remaining example of downtown commercial architecture
of the 1870s and 1880s within the district is the three-story
Italianate Oddfellows Building at the corner of Santa Clara and
Third streets (1883). Another building from this time period is
located at 58 South First Street, today known as La Rosa Pharmacy.
The building was built in 1870 and was known as the Pomeroy Building.
Though the façade has been altered with the addition of stucco
siding, an examination of the back of the building reveals the
original brick construction. In the 1870s and mid-1880s, the heart
of downtown commercial activity had moved northward along Market
Street (immediately west of First Street and part of the Pueblo)
to the Santa Clara Street intersection. However, by the latter
part of the 1880s, Santa Clara and First streets became the new
focus for downtown business activity. The early horse drawn railway
systems reinforced the importance of this intersection with single
and, later, double tracks located along both streets. During the
1890s, important commercial buildings were constructed down First
Street reflecting the Romanesque Revival architecture of the East
Coast. This streetscape represents a group of buildings designed
by the finest local architects including Levi Goodrich and Jacob
Lenzen, and built by the leading citizens of the time: James Phelan,
F. Sourisseau, C. T. Ryland, Martin Murphy's descendants and the
Auzerais family. Buildings such as the Knox-Goodrich Building
at 34 South First Street, with its extreme rustication, reflect
the qualities of the wealthy, orchard oriented, agricultural community
of the turn-of-the-century. Other significant buildings include
the Letitia Building (1890) and the Romanesque Revival Security
Building (1892). The dominating building of the intersection is
the Bank of America Building (1926), San Jose's first "skyscraper,"
built by H. A. Minton. The bank was featured in Architect and
Engineering Record of California as one of the first earthquake-proof
constructions in the area. The Bank of America has long been a
"landmark" building, at 13 stories plus tower it locates the heart
of downtown San Jose.
Following the great earthquake of 1906, Edwardian and Neo-Classical
commercial buildings replaced the damaged Victorian and Romanesque
businesses. Another significant building from this time period
within the historic district is the Landmark Square built in 1907
at 87 South Second Street. This building and the streetscape of
Santa Clara Boulevard between Third and Fourth streets represent
excellent examples of the cleaner lines of the post-earthquake
period design. The one building which defies the new 20th-century
style of commercial architecture is the de Saisset property located
at Santa Clara and South Second streets. This three-story Italianate
building was built in 1900 and although representative of styles
common for the previous two decades, was termed to be the "New
Century Block." Mission Revival, California's first indigenous
architecture, dominated smaller commercial architecture. Desimones
Bike Shop (82 South Second Street) and the Jose Theater (64 South
Second Street) perfectly reflect the design qualities of the city's
new Hispanic influenced downtown architecture. Spanish Colonial
Revival also provided California with a new historic architectural
mode and the "El Paseo" shopping block on South First Street reflects
the most popular commercial architecture of the 1920s in California.
During the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, modernization and further
consolidation characterized the downtown core. The Moderne Drug
Company at 50 Santa Clara Street reflects the "machine age" streamline
design of the 1930s, as does the Moyer Music Store at South Second
and San Fernando streets. New Growth patterns to the west and
south of the center of the city changed the commercial desirability
of the downtown core area of San Jose. New construction was virtually
nonexistent until the government sponsored redevelopment programs
of the 1960s began razing of the entire center city blocks for
planned new development. The historic downtown commercial district
retains the highest concentration of older buildings in the downtown,
which reflects the best examples of architecture from almost every
period in the growth of the "American City." There is currently
a movement on the part of many property owners to rehabilitate
and reuse their older buildings. Designation of this area as a
National Register of Historic Places district has promoted and
encouraged renewed pride.
The San Jose Downtown Commercial District is roughly bounded
by S. First St. to the west, E. San Fernando St. to the south,
S. Third St. to the west, and E. Santa Clara St. to the north,
but also includes the south side of E. Santa Clara St. between
Third and Fourth Sts. Visit www.sjdowntown.com to find information
on upcoming events and attractions in the downtown area.
The Winchester House, or Winchester Mystery House as it is better
known, is a 160-room Victorian Mansion built by Sarah L. Winchester,
wife of rifle manufacturer William Wirt Winchester. Sarah and
William were married on September 30, 1862, and had one child,
Annie Pardee, who died about a month after birth in 1866. William
Winchester died on March 7, 1881, after which Mrs. Winchester,
upset at the deaths of her husband and daughter, reportedly consulted
a spiritualist. This medium informed Mrs. Winchester that the
victims killed by the Winchester rifles her family manufactured
were seeking revenge by taking the lives of her family. The spiritualist
also conveyed to Mrs. Winchester that the spirits had placed a
curse on her, and that if she wished to live, she must appease
them by moving out west and constantly, without ceasing, build
a house for them night and day. It wasn't until Sarah Winchester
died at the age of 85 in September 1922 that work on her bizarre,
multi-gabled house finally stopped. The fantastic Eastlake shingle
Queen Anne house was built at an estimated cost of five million
Construction began in 1884. The abundance of timber within close
proximity to San Jose allowed Mrs. Winchester's imagination free
reign to try out what was evidently her consuming interest in
architectural innovation. This unique building includes many outstanding
elements of Victorian architecture and fine craftsmanship. There
are rooms with gold plated fixtures, exquisite doors and windows
of stained Tiffany glass set in silver designs as well as practical
household innovations years ahead of their time. The continual
building and remodeling created a 160-room house covering an area
of six acres. Shortly after Mrs. Winchester's death in 1922 the
house was sold and then opened to the public as the Winchester
Mystery House. The Gardens Tour also has many points of interest,
including the Greenhouse, Tank House and Fruit Drying Shed.
The Winchester Mystery House is located at 525 South Winchester
Blvd., San Jose. Tours are offered daily, for a fee. For information
on seasonal operating hours, special tours and events call 408-247-2101
or visit www.winchestermysteryhouse.com
Le Petit Trianon
Built in 1892 for Charles A. Baldwin and his wife Ellen Hobart
Baldwin, the mansion known as Le Petit Trianon was once the center
of their successful wine-producing estate where the couple was
known to entertain lavishly. Baldwin installed a massive stone
winery; built underground cellars (today part of the De Anza College
grounds) and planted vines from Bordeaux and other regions of
France. Under the label Beaulieu, Baldwin's wines were sold in
New York, London and Central America. The design for Le Petit
Trianon was drawn from classical French architectural motifs popular
in America at the end of the 19th century. It is also the only
example of "V" rustic redwood construction remaining in the
area. The name Le Petite Trianon stems from its similarities to
the architecture of "Le Grand Trianon," built for Louis
XIV of France. Similar detail to this French precedent can be
seen in Le Petite Trianon's columns, pilasters, windows and wood
In 1909, the mansion was sold to Harriet Pullman Carolon, daughter
of George Pullman, inventor of the Pullman sleeping car. Carolon
also found the home a wonderful setting for elaborate social functions.
In 1940, the house was sold to E. F. Euphrat, owner of the Pacific
Can Company. Since 1965 the estate has been the site of De Anza
College. Remnants of the garden remain; the winery is still there,
as are the guest cottages. The lovely house has twice been moved,
first to make room for the Flint Center (theater) and next yielding
to a parking lot. A restoration of the mansion was completed in
the 1980s, and the house now serves as the California History
Center, dedicated to preserving and bringing to life the history
of Santa Clara Valley, the bay region and California.
Le Petite Trianon is located within the De Anza College Campus
at 1250 Stevens Creek Blvd., Cupertino, California. The California
History Center is open from September through June, Monday-Thursday
8:30am to 12:00pm, and 1:00pm to 4:30pm, or Friday by appointment.
For more information call 408-864-8712. A California Studies program
is offered with changing exhibits, lectures, and special events
which focus on Santa Clara Valley's past.
The Picchetti Brothers Winery, also known as the Picchetti Ranch,
contains a complex of seven buildings built between 1880 and 1920,
which retain their original design details. The Picchetti bothers,
Secondo and Vincenso, for whom the ranch was named, were among
the first settlers on a ridge which they named "Monte Bello" or
"beautiful mountain." They were among the earliest settlers to
plant grapes on this ridge which was later to become one of Santa
Clara's important vineyard areas. Vincenzo and Secundo Picchetti
settled on Montebello ridge in 1877 and purchased an initial 160
acres for $1,500. The ranch went from the original 160 acres to
500 acres by 1904. Vincenzo Picchetti built the first house on
the property about 1882, followed by a larger residence in 1886.
Both homes, plus the stone winery, were in the Picchetti family
until 1976. Instrumental in establishing the Montebello School
in 1892, Vincenzo served on the first school board and supplied
a room for a teacher at his ranch. Vineyards were the life blood
of the town of Cupertino's early economy, although grape parasites
destroyed many of the vines in the region in the 1890s. Cupertino
remained largely rural until the suburban explosion of the 1960s.
Upon Vencenzo's death in 1904, sons Antone and John ran the winery
and ranch. The front porch of the main house was once screened
in and acted as an aviary. Later John had numerous aviaries built
- one of those aviaries still stands in front of the homestead
house. The setting remains intact as part of the Midpeninsula
Regional Open Space District. The Santa Clara County Historical
Heritage Commission provided funding for the restoration of the
winery building. Today the Picchetti ranch and winery on Montebello
Road remain as evidence of a thriving viticulture industry in
Located at 13100 Montebello Rd., south west of Cupertino,
California, the Picchetti Winery operates under private lease
in a cooperative relationship with the Midpeninsula Regional Open
Space District to help preserve the history of winemaking in the
region. Winery is open to the public from 11:00am until 5:00pm
daily. Call 408-741-1310 or visit www.picchetti.com for more information.
Paul Masson Mountain
Today, thousands of music lovers gather for the Music in the
Vineyards Concerts held at the Paul Masson Mountain Winery every
summer high in the hills above Silicon Valley. The view is still
as stunning as when Paul Masson, a Burgundian born in 1859, cleared
the hilltop to plant his vineyards here in 1901. Masson came to
California in 1878 where he met Charles Lefranc, one of a number
of French immigrants who had expanded the viticulture introduced
into the Santa Clara Valley by the Catholic mission fathers. While
in California, Masson took a number of business courses at the
College of the Pacific in San Jose, and in 1880 returned to France
to work in the wine industry there. When the vine pest phylloxera
depressed the Burgundian viticulture, Masson returned to California
where he went to work for Lefranc. In 1887 Lefranc died, and Masson
married his daughter Louise. After their honeymoon in France,
Masson returned to California to take over management of the Lefranc
properties, then owned by Lefranc's two sisters and his son Henry.
After a short-lived partnership with Henry LeFranc, Masson bought
out Henry's share in the Almaden Vineyard. In 1892 Masson's first
champagne was introduced at Almaden, and he eventually became
know as the "Champagne King of California."
Masson later centered his champagne production here in Saratoga
while other wines were developed at the Almaden operation. In
1905, on a knoll above the winery, Masson built his house, dubbed
"The Chateau," where he developed a reputation as an
unrivaled host. Louise Masson was a prohibitionist and did not
attend the lavish dinner parties held at The Chateau. Masson was
able to weather the strains Prohibition placed on the wine industry
by selling grapes to the wholesale market and by receiving a special
dispensation to sell medicinal champagnes. The sandstone winery
was rebuilt after the 1906 earthquake, making use of sandstone
blocks from the Saratoga Wine Company's building on Big Basin
Way, also destroyed in the great quake. At this same time the
ancient entrance portal was added to the structure, reputed to
be medieval and imported from Spain for use in St. Patrick's Church
in San Jose. Wine making ceased in 1952, and the concert series
began in 1958. Today, new owners interested in the wine making
tradition are planning to plant vineyards once again.
The Paul Masson Mountain Winery is located at 14831 Pierce
Rd, in Saratoga. Call 408-741-2822 or visit www.mountainwinery.com
for further information. Events are held at the winery, such as
concert series, special events, weddings, etc.
Villa Montalvo, a magnificent Mediterranean mansion with surrounding
gardens, is one of the last great estates gracing the Santa Clara
countryside. It stands as an appropriate memorial to James Duval
Phelan, for many years considered "the foremost citizen of California."
Son of an ambitious Irish immigrant who came to San Francisco
during the gold rush and made a fortune, James Duval Phelan become
mayor of San Francisco and a United States Senator. Phelan encouraged
the building of the Hetch Hetchy water system for San Francisco,
and is considered to be one of the fathers of the establishment
of San Francisco's Civic Center. He donated the first monument
of Father Junípero Serra in San Francisco. In addition,
the Shakespeare bust in Golden Gate Park was contributed by Phelan,
and he also donated one million dollars to the Red Cross for disaster
relief following the 1906 earthquake. The Phelen Building in San
Francisco was the first business to be erected after the earthquake;
in part to demonstrate Phelan's faith in the rebuilding of San
In 1911, James Phelan purchased 160 acres in the Saratoga foothills
and embarked upon his Villa Montalvo project. Construction began
on the mansion in 1912, with William Curlett chosen as supervising
architect. Upon Curlett's death, his son, Alex Curlett, and partner,
Charles Gottschalk, took over the completion of the sandstone
building. John McLaren, Golden Gate Park's landscape designer,
laid out the grounds with hidden nooks and wisteria-covered pergolas.
While in Europe promoting international participation in the 1915
World's Fair, Phelan purchased in Granada the splendid antique
carved wooden doors that stand at the entry. During this time
he arranged for a fine Italian craftsman to come to Montalvo to
carve a variety of precious woods in the arched hallway and adjoining
Late in 1914 the doors to Villa Montalvo opened to its first
distinguished guests. During that same year, James Phelan was
elected United States Senator, where he served until 1921 when
he, a Democrat, was defeated amid the Republican landslide that
put Warren Harding in office. Upon his death in 1930 the former
senator donated Villa Montalvo to the San Francisco Art Association,
along with income to maintain the property as a public park. The
buildings and grounds were to be used primarily for the development
of art, literature, music, and architecture by promising students.
After standing vacant for many years, Villa Montalvo today serves
as a center for the arts under the sponsorship of the Montalvo
Association. Today, resident artists live and work on the magnificent
estate as envisioned years ago by the generous James Duval Phelan.
Villa Montalvo is located at 15400 Montalvo Rd., Saratoga.
Grounds are open daily: 8:00am to 5:00pm, Monday-Friday; 9:00am
to 5:00pm, Saturday and Sunday; occasionally closed for special
events. There is no fee for admission. For additional information
call the Montalvo Association at 408-961-5800 or visit their website.
Los Gatos Historic
The Los Gatos Historic Commercial District includes the town's
earliest commercial intersection and half of the 19th-century
commercial center. Important businesses, institutions and civic
buildings were all located here. Architectural styles range from
Queen Anne and Richardsonian Romanesque, through most of the intervening
modes, to Art Deco, all in typical commercial forms with large
display windows. Strolling through the streets of this district,
you may note the consistent scale and setback of the buildings
from the street--nothing exceeds 2-1/2 stories, and many buildings
are single-story. There are many excellent examples of architectural
styles represented here. The Mission Revival style is represented
by the Sorenson Plumbing building on 23 West Main Street, a one-story
frame building constructed in 1906. The Fretwell Building at West
Main Street and University Avenue is typical of the Romanesque
Revival, with the fine detailing in the imitation stone-faced
reinforced concrete facade. Built in 1907, it is also a good example
of early heavy reinforced concrete construction. The First National
Bank of Los Gatos occupied the building from 1912 to 1918.
The stucco-faced Rankin Block (Montebello Building) at 123-149
West Main Street is another example of Mission Revival style architecture.
Although two curvilinear parapets have been removed and the storefronts
and applied relief ornamentation on the upper floor have been
modified, the building is an important visual anchor for the district.
It retains the historic tile hip-roofed towers, exterior stucco,
fenestration, ornamental window mullions, corner entrance, brick
pilasters, vertical divisions, entrance and hallways for the upstairs.
The building was constructed in 1902 following a fire on October
13, 1901. The Post Office was located here from 1917 to 1948,
and from 1932 until the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake the Chamber
of Commerce occupied a portion of the building. The First National
Bank Building at the northeast corner of West Main and Santa Cruz
Avenue stands as a fine example of Renaissance Revival style architecture.
This tall one-story building was constructed in 1920 and was occupied
by the First National Bank of Los Gatos until 1955. The lunettes
over four windows contain bas relief sculptures of Franciscan
Missions. Another noted building at this intersection is the Hofstra
Block (La Canada Building- 1-17 North Santa Cruz Avenue). Note
the circular bay window with a witch-hat roof projecting out.
The Bogart Block (Woodmen's Hall) at 18-20 Santa Cruz Avenue was
constructed in 1907. This two-story reinforced concrete building
has Classical Revival ornamentation including rusticated pilasters,
a modillion cornice, paneled parapet and arched second-story windows.
The upstairs was at one time the meeting place for the Woodmen
of the World. The second story separated from the first floor
in the Loma Prieta earthquake, but was set back together and strengthened
without changing the historic appearance.
The Art Deco movement is represented by the Bank of America Building
at 160-170 West Main Street. This stucco faced two-story reinforced
concrete building was constructed from 1931 to 1932. The Art Deco
Style building was occupied by Bank of America until 1963. It
was one of the earliest new buildings constructed for the bank
after the name changed from Bank of Italy to Bank of America,
and includes an enframed window wall composition and a fine zigzag
frieze under the ceramic tile roof. On 24 North Santa Cruz Avenue
stands the Templeman Hardware Store, a one and one-half story
reinforced concrete building in Mission Revival Style with a combed
brick parapet, molded accent blocks and green marble splash panels.
Arthur W. Templeman had a hardware store here from the time the
building was constructed about 1921 until 1966.
The Charles Wagner River Rock Bungalow at 15 University Avenue
is the only residential building included in the district. Constructed
in the 1920s, the exterior of the one-story bungalow is composed
entirely of rounded rock obtained from Los Gatos Creek. The original
owner, Charles Wagner, had a barbershop on West Main Street, and
Mrs. Alice Wagner conducted her professional photography business
here. In the 1930s Jacques Libante resided in the house. In 1934
Libante had his Gem City French Laundry built at the rear of the
lot. The Laundry, at 11 University Avenue, is one of Los Gatos'
best examples of Art Deco style and was used for a French hand
laundry into the 1960s. Today the historic commercial district
continues to be a lively commercial center and an important component
of local tourism.
The Downtown Commercial Historic District boundaries are
Elm St./Old Town Parking lot on the north, Main St. on the south,
Los Gatos Creek to the east and North Santa Cruz Ave. on the west.
Many of the stores and restaurants are open to the public during
normal business hours.
Forbes Mill Annex
The stone building commonly known as Forbes Mill is actually
the two-story stone storage annex which was added to the original
four-story stone mill building in the fall of 1880. The original
"Santa Rosa" Flour Mill building, torn down between 1915 and 1929,
was constructed in 1852-54. James Alexander Forbes, former Vice-Counsel
in San Francisco for the British Government, came to the Santa
Clara Valley in the early 1840s. An educated Scotsman who landed
in California in 1831 when he left the whaler ship Fanny,
Forbes was involved in real estate deals across the present day
Santa Clara County. Recognizing the need for a facility to process
the grain of the growing number of farms south of San Jose, Forbes
found a convenient spot for a mill near Los Gatos Creek on the
Rancho Rinconada de Los Gatos. This site lay astride the old Mission
trail between Santa Clara and Santa Cruz. In 1850 he purchased
3,000 acres in the area of the Los Gatos Creek and proceeded to
build a mill.
The opening of Forbes Mill in 1854 was an auspicious moment in
the history of the Santa Clara Valley. Built on the site of a
Mexican rancho amidst the sylvan landscape of the valley, the
mill represented the shift of land ownership from the Californio
Dons to the new settlers arriving after the Mexican-American War.
The first three stories of the mill were built of stone quarried
from the Los Gatos Canyon. The top story was wood, cut from trees
in the mountains above Los Gatos. In 1880 an annex was attached
to the north wall of the mill building. The town that grew around
this building was first called Forbes Mill, then Forbestown, and
finally Los Gatos. Unfortunately, Forbes knew nothing about flour
milling, over extended himself and was forced into bankruptcy.
The mill passed from hand to hand until 1870 when a stock company
headed by W. S. McMurtry and J. W. McMillen, took it over and
made a success of it. It continued as a flour mill until 1887
when it became successively a power plant for the Los Gatos Ice
and Power Company, a brewing and bottling company, the Los Gatos
Gas Company and finally the P.G. & E. substation for Los Gatos.
The mill remained a storehouse for P.G. & E. until after World
War II. It was then abandoned and finally in 1971 it was revived
as a youth center for Los Gatos. Today the old mill annex operates
as a museum, appropriately named the History Museum, Forbes Mill.
On June 10, 1950, the California Centennial Commission commemorated
the mill's contribution to the State's rich past by designating
it as State Historical Landmark number 458.
Forbes Mill is located at 75 Church St., Los Gatos. The History
Museum is open from 12:00pm to 4:00pm, Wednesdays-Sundays. It
features rotating exhibits and maintains a permanent collection
of Los Gatos area memorabilia. Entrance is free. Visit the museum's
or call 408-395-7375 for further information.
Yung See San Fong
Nestled in the picturesque hills above Los Gatos is the unique
and eclectic Yung See San Fong House, a combination of oriental
decorative motifs and pagoda roofs together with western massing
and layout. Yung See San Fong, "Young's Home in the Heart of the
Hills," was completed in 1917 by Ruth Comfort Mitchell Young,
a writer, and her husband, Sanborn Young, a gentleman farmer,
conservationist and later California State Senator.
Ruth Comfort Mitchell was born in San Francisco in 1882. Summers
were spent in Los Gatos, where her parents and grandparents had
summer homes. At the age of 14 her first poem was published in
the Los Gatos Mail newspaper, thus launching her literary
career, which continued throughout her lifetime. In 1914 literary
friends in San Francisco introduced Ruth to Sanborn Young. A native
of Chicago and a graduate of Northwestern University, Young had
recently sold his grain business and was traveling. The couple
were married in October 1914 in the Grand Canyon and moved to
New York, where Ruth continued her literary pursuits, and he studied
photography. In 1916 her play The Sweetmeat Game opened
at the Palace Theatre on Broadway starring Olive Wyndham. With
a Chinese setting the successful play toured the Orpheum circuit
around the country for two years.
Ruth always loved Los Gatos and in 1916 the Youngs started building
Yung See San Fong on property granted to them by her parents.
The Sweetmeat Game provided her with the inspiration to
combine the best of oriental tastes and usage with her conception
of beauty and comfort in the building and furnishing of her home.
Chinese traditions were adhered to as exemplified by the winding
road, which was supposed to deter the devil from finding the house.
A statue of the Chinese God of Rice and Plenty still greets visitors
at the main gate. Yung See San Fong was basically a self-sustaining
farm where vegetables and poultry were raised.
Sanborn Young devoted his energies to politics, photography,
raising racing dogs and beagles and investments. In 1925 Young
was elected a California State Senator and continued to serve
until 1938. A quiet, retiring man, it is said that he won the
seat because of his wife's campaigning. While in the Senate his
primary interests were the conservation of wild animals and narcotics
control. In 1929 his bill to abolish saw-tooth traps was enacted.
In the State Senate Sanburn Young was head of the Narcotics Committee
and introduced legislation to control narcotics. Because of his
expertise President Herbert Hoover appointed
Young as one of the United States delegates to the International
Conference for the Limitation of the Manufacture of Drugs in 1931,
which was held in Geneva, Switzerland. Attended by 55 nations,
the resulting treaty was partially drafted by Young. These political
ties developed into a close friendship between the Youngs and
the Hoovers, who resided in nearby Palo Alto. Among those who
frequented Yung See San Fong were movies stars Joan and Constance
Bennett, and Senator James Duval Phelan, one time mayor of San
Francisco and United StatesSenator, whose nearby residence, Villa
Montalvo, was the gathering place for the socially prominent,
political and literary notables.
The Yung See San Fong House is located at 16660 Cypress Way,
Los Gatos. It is a private residence and not open to the public.
The Hayes Mansion was built in 1905 to replace the original Queen
Anne style family home, destroyed by fire in 1899. The 62-room
mansion, designed by architect George Page, has been referred
to as one of the finest examples of late 19th-century architecture
in the Santa Clara Valley. It was intended to be a triple residence
for Mary Folsom Hayes Chynoweth and the growing families of her
two sons, although Mary died before the house was complete. The
elegant, 41,000-square foot Mediterranean Villa is built in the
form of a Maltese Cross, a long center section containing an 18-foot
wide solarium connecting the south wing with the north wing. A
loggia connects the east wing with the west wing. Beautiful craftsmanship,
imported marbles and exotic woods decorated its large and airy
rooms. Although it is not evident, the walls are double brick
with stucco coating. As a result of the fire that destroyed the
earlier home, the design of the Hayes Mansion included many fire-safety
features. Throughout the house there are fire hose cabinets that
connect to water tanks on the third floor. The kitchen was located
in a separate building and connected to the mansion with a glass
and marble plant conservatory.
Mary Folsom was born in 1825 in upstate New York, one of the
younger children in a large family. Even though she had little
formal schooling, she educated herself sufficiently to pass the
state exams for school teachers. At the age of 27 she had a profound
religious experience that changed her life forever. In a most
unusual move for a woman of her pre-Civil War era, Mary left teaching
and traveled from town to town preaching and healing. Mary's parents
migrated to Wisconsin and, two years into her ministry Mary visited
them. Her parents were living at the home of newly widowed Anson
Hayes, caring for his young daughter. With time Mary and Anson
fell in love and Anson asked her to marry him. She agreed after
he promised to assist her in her work in any way he could. Anson
died when their sons, Everis and Jay, were attending college in
Madison, Wisconsin. Mary later remarried a San Jose attorney named
Thomas Chynoweth. Both of her sons became practicing attorneys
and believed in their mother's powers as strongly as she did.
In December 1882, Mary felt that a higher power had guided her
sons and herself to invest in certain lands near Ashland, Wisconsin.
After establishing themselves in the mining business in Ashland,
the Hayes family decided to migrate to California. Settling at
this location, isolated from the core of San Jose, the estate
was still the center of Santa Clara County society. The Hayes
brothers became early San Jose Mercury publishers, prominent
valley politicians, and were actively involved in establishing
the Santa Clara Valley fruit industry. The family grew their own
fruits and vegetables and raised their own livestock, and the
Hayes estate became completely self-sustaining. Electricity was
supplied by a power plant on the grounds. The property also included
a post office, railroad station, carriage stop, men's dormitory
for 40 ranch hands, and a chapel. None of these buildings remain
today. The families of the two Hayes brothers lived in the mansion
until they sold it in the 1950s, after which the villa remained
empty and fell into disrepair. In 1994 the mansion was successfully
renovated, and it is now a conference center.
The Hayes Mansion is located at 200 Edenvale Avenue, San Jose.
The conference facilities and two restaurants are open to the
public, and walking brochures are available from the hotel desk.
For further information visit www.hayesconferencecenter.com or
Nestled in a canyon 11 miles south of San Jose between the Pueblo
Hills and the spurs of the Santa Cruz Mountains sits the tiny
village of New Almaden, the once world famous quicksilver mining
community that evolved on Jose Reyes Berreyesa's Rancho San Vicente
during the early 1850s. This National Historic Landmark district
was California's first mining operation--started in 1845, before
the major Gold Rush of 1849. Mexican settler Antonio Sunol discovered
ore deposits here in the 1820s, identified as quicksilver by Mexican
Army officer Andreas Castillero in 1845. Named for the famous
Almaden mercury-producing mines in Spain, New Almaden attracted
a world-wide interest during the Gold Rush, since mercury was
the primary reduction agent of gold and silver. New Almaden became
the most prominent quicksilver mine under the operation of Quicksilver
Mining Company in the Western Hemisphere. Today, the New Almaden
district encompasses the hacienda, homes of the mining community
families along the banks of Alamitos Creek, and the Cinnabar Hills
where the actual mining operation took place. Important California
property laws stemmed from decades of litigation over mining ownership
and interests at this site.
The Hacienda along Alamitos Creek was developed into an attractive
showplace; it was the gateway to the mines that lay in the hills
a half mile down the tree lined Almaden Road. The hacienda included
Casa Grande (21350 Almaden Road), the manager's imposing residence,
as well as neat rows of cottages owned by the company and rented
to supervisory personnel for a nominal fee. Casa Grande was constructed
in 1854, under the direction of the mine's general manager, Henry
Halleck, who used the building until 1920 as a personal and official
residence for the New Almaden Mining Company. John McLaren, of
Golden Gate Park fame, assisted in designing the five acres of
formally landscaped grounds around the house, which included a
picturesque lagoon. A two-teacher school was built in the 1860s
on a flat near Casa Grande. Enrollment came chiefly from the Hacienda
along with some children from nearby ranches. One of the oldest
buildings in the district is the Carson-Perham Adobe, built between
1848 and 1850 by Mexican miners, and later the home of George
Carson, the mine company bookkeeper, postmaster, telegraph operator,
and Wells Fargo agent. Constance Perham lived in the adobe house
for many years and established a private museum there in 1949,
the collections of which were purchased in 1983 by Santa Clara
The mine and its villages flourished under the 20-year directorship
of James Randol, who took over as general manager in 1870 when
S. F. Butterworth retired. Under Randol's orderly discipline the
community became a mining town unlike any other in the state,
somewhat resembling a beneficent feudal society. The residents'
health, wealth, cultural and social lives were taken care of by
company-sponsored organizations that the progressive but authoritarian
Randol set up. After his retirement in 1892 the mine began to
decline. Ore yield dropped off by more than half by the turn of
the century. In 1912 the Quicksilver Mining Company declared bankruptcy
and closed the mine. The hill camps became deserted with only
a few old timers staying on in the company houses along the creek
at the Hacienda. In 1974 the County of Santa Clara purchased the
hills area for development as a county park. It was also the inspiration
for the creation of a County Historic District Zoning Ordinance
to assure preservation of the mining town. In 1997, the New Almaden
Quicksilver Mining Museum was established in Casa Grande. The
museum exhibits the collection of Constance Perham, showing blacksmith
workings, the history of mercury mining, and the lifestyles of
mining communities at New Almaden.
The town of New Almaden is located south of San Jose, off
the Almaden Expressway. The Museum
is located at 21350 Almaden Rd. and is open Friday, Saturday &
Sunday, except for major holidays, 10:00am to 4:00pm (from September-June
Friday hours are limited to 12:00pm to 4:00pm). There is no fee
for admission, and a walking tour is available. Please call 408-323-1107
for further information, or to arrange a special group or school
tour. The Almaden
Quicksilver county park, open from 8:00am to sunset, encompasses
the mining landscape and several historic buildings.
Villa Mira Monte
Listed in the National Register of Historic Places, Villa Mira Monte, the Morgan Hill House, is an elegant but simple historic house that incorporates features of Queen Anne and Stick/Eastlake design. Hiram Morgan Hill built the house for his bride, Diana Murphy Hill in the 1880s. The property is between Monterey Street (part of the historic El Camino Real) and the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Hill’s “country cottage” sits on what was a rancho inherited from Diana’s father Daniel Murphy, a parcel of land that overlooks “Murphy’s Peak,” now known as El Toro Mountain.
Diana was the granddaughter of Martin Murphy Sr. and daughter of Daniel Murphy – each members of the Townsend, Murphy and Stephens wagon train party that crossed into California in 1844 and blazed the trail at Truckee in the Sierra Nevada now the route of the Southern Railroad and the Interstate Highway 80.
Hiram and Diana and their only daughter Diane lived in San Francisco and used the house as a country retreat for themselves and to entertain their many friends who would often come to visit. In fact, the town acquired its name because train conductors would call out, "Morgan Hill's" when making special stops for the Hill's guests to disembark.
The Hills sold the house in 1913, and it subsequently saw use as a private home, a funeral parlor, and an antique shop. In 1992, Villa Mira Monte was deeded to the Morgan Hill Historical Society with the proviso that it be rescued from dereliction and be made available to the public in some way. The Historical Society rehabilitated the house over a five-year period and re-opened its doors in 1998.
Villa Mira Monte, the Morgan Hill House, is located just north of the downtown area at 17860 Monterey St., Morgan Hill, CA. The grounds of the Villa Mira Monte are open daily to pedestrians; there is no on-site parking. The Morgan Hill House is open for self-guided tours on Fridays, 12pm-3pm and Saturdays, 10am-1pm; occasionally closed for special events. The house and grounds also may be rented for weddings, parties, and other private events. The Morgan Hill House and Museum at Villa Mira Monte are operated by the Morgan Hill Historical Society; for more information, contact the Morgan Hill House and Museum at (408) 779-5755, Event Planning (408)779-6992, Email: email@example.com or visit their website.
By clicking on one of these links, you can go directly to a particular
Bibliography for Santa Clara County, California
Links to Santa Clara
County Lexington Tourism and Preservation
Links to Sites Listed in the Santa Clara
for Santa Clara County, California
Butler, Phyllis Filiberti; with architectural supplement by the
Junior League of San Jose. The Valley of Santa Clara: Historic
Buildings, 1792-1920. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1981.
Cringely, Robert X. Accidental Empires: How the Boys of Silicon
Valley Make Their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition, and Still
Can't Get a Date. New York: Harperbusiness, 1996.
English-Lueck, J. A. Cultures@Silicon. Stanford, Calif.:
Stanford University Press, 2002.
Federal Writers' Project (sponsored by Mabel R. Gillis, California
State Librarian). California: A Guide to the Golden State.
New York: Hastings House, 1939, reprinted 1972.
Finn, Christine. Artifacts: an Archaeologist's Year in Silicon
Valley. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001.
Gebhard, David, and [others]. A Guide to Architecture in San
Francisco & Northern California. Santa Barbara, CA: Peregrine
Smith, Inc., 1973.
Goodell, Jeff. Sunnyvale: The Rise and Fall of a Silicon
Valley Family. New York: Random House, 2000.
Gromov, Gregory R. History of Internet and WWW: The Roads
and Crossroads of Internet History posted at http://www.netvalley.com/intval.html
Honnold, Dierdre W. with illustrations by Katy Hardeay and D.W.
Honnold. San Jose with Kids: a Family Guide to the Greater
San Jose and Santa Clara Valley Area. Carmichael, CA: Wordwrights
Jacobson, Yvonne. Passing Farms, Enduring Values: California's
Santa Clara. Los Altos, Calif.: W. Kaufmann in cooperation
with the California History Center, De Anza College, Cupertino,
Kirker, Harold. California's Architectural Frontier: Style
and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century. Salt Lake City, UT:
Peregrine Smith Books, 1986.
Lukes, Timothy J. and Gary Y. Okihiro. Japanese Legacy: Farming
and Community Life in California's Santa Clara Valley. Cupertino,
Calif.: California History Center, De Anza College, 1985.
McLaughlin, John and Carol Whiteley. Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Silicon Valley. Palo Alto, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, 2002.
Rambo, F. Ralph. Pioneer Blue Book of the Old Santa Clara
Valley. San Jose, Calif.: Rosicrucian Press, 1973.
Richards, Sally. Silicon Valley: Sand Dreams & Silicon Orchards.
Carlsbad, Calif.: Heritage Media Corp., 2000.
Sexton, Jean Deitz. Silicon Valley: Inventing the Future:
a Contemporary Portrait. Chatsworth, Calif.: Windsor Publications,
Staff of the Garden City Women's Club (San Jose, Calif.). History
of Black Americans in Santa Clara Valley. Sunnyvale, Calif.:
Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., 1978.
Steinberg, Goodwin B. with Susan Wolfe. From the Ground Up:
Building Silicon Valley. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University
Winslow, Ward, ed. The Making of Silicon Valley: A One Hundred Year Renaissance. Palo Alto, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, 1996.
Woodbridge, Sally Byrne. California Architecture: Historic
American Buildings Survey. San Francisco: Chronicle Books,
Stevenson, James (Editor), and Don Duncan (Editor). California
Missions - History and Model Building Ideas for Children.
Santa Barbara CA: Bellerophon Books, 1993.
Schanzer, Rosalyn (Editor). Gold Fever! Tales From the California
Gold Rush. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society,
Ingram, Scott and Jean Craven. California, the Golden State
(World Almanac Library of the States). Milwaukee, WI: World
Almanac Education, 2002.
Schwarzkopf, Chet and Wayne Trimm (Illustrator). Heart of
the Wild: Animal Stories of the California Redwood Coast.
Christchurch, New Zealand: Caxton Press, 2000.
to Santa Clara County Tourism and Preservation
of Santa Clara, California
The city's official website provides further information on the
celebration of Santa Clara's Sesquicentennial, and other events
and city serivces.
Office of Historic Preservation Department of Parks and Recreation
Preserving and enhancing California's irreplaceable historic heritage
as a matter of public interest so that its vital legacy of cultural,
educational, recreational, aesthetic, economic, social, and environmental
benefits will be maintained and enriched for present and future
This statewide membership-based organization is dedicated to engaging
the public's interest and participation in collecting, preserving,
and presenting art, artifacts, and written materials relevant
to the history of California and to support historical research,
publication, and educational activities.
Get started on your California adventure at this website brought
to you by the California Division of Tourism.
Silicon Valley Gateway
Guide to Tourist Attractions at www.netview.com/svg/tourist/winchest/
Santa Clara County Historical and Genealogical Society
The SCCHGS was formed in 1957 as a nonprofit educational organization
to promote the study of history and genealogy in Santa Clara County.
Visit their website at www.rootsweb.com/~cascchgs
Clara Chamber of Commerce/Santa Clara Convention Center
The source for Santa Clara attractions, accomodations and restaurants.
Clara County Parks & Recreation
Protecting and preserving regional parklands for the enjoyment,
education and inspiration of this and future generations.
This organization involves diverse audiences in exploring the
varieties of human experience that contribute to the continuing
history of San José and the Santa Clara Valley, and cares for
a collection of over half a million objects that collectively
help tell the story of the Santa Clara Valley.
Convention & Visitors Bureau
An excellent resource and travel guide for San Jose.
Action Council of San Jose
The PACSJ is a nonprofit organization promoting programs and policies
for historic preservation and good urban architectural design.
Alto Chamber of Commerce
Find out about events happening in Palo Alto and helpful visitor
Alto Stanford Heritage
A nonprofit organization promoting the preservation of historic
architecture in the Palo Alto-Stanford area.
Chamber of Commerce
A source for Sunnyvale events and information.
Learn about the history and current affairs affecting the Muwekma
Ohlone, the descendants of Santa Clara's original inhabitants.
Preservation Association of Santa Clara Valley
Members of the Victorian Preservation Association of Santa Clara
Valley, a non-profit organization, share an interest in the older
buildings of our community, especially turn-of-the-century homes.
for Historic Preservation
Learn about the programs of and membership in the oldest national
nonprofit preservation organization.
Hotels of America
A feature of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Heritage
Traveler program that provides information on historic hotels
and package tours in the vicinity of this itinerary, including the Hotel Sainte Claire in San Jose.
National Scenic Byways Program
This website, maintained by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, includes information on state and nationally designated byway routes throughout America based on their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational, and scenic qualities. Visit the America’s Byways Ebbetts Pass Scenic Byway website for more ideas.
Sites Listed in the Santa Clara Travel Itinerary
Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley,
was produced by the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department
of the Interior, in cooperation with the City of Santa Clara,
the California Office of Historic Preservation, and the National
Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO). It
was created under the direction of Carol D. Shull, Keeper of the
National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, Patrick
Andrus, Heritage Tourism Program Manager, and Beth L. Savage,
Publications Program Manager. Santa Clara County: California's
Historic Silicon Valley, is based on information in the files
of the National Register of Historic Places and National Historic
Landmarks collections. These materials are kept at 800 North Capitol
St., Washington, D.C., and are open to the public from 8:00am
to 12:00pm and 1:00pm to 4:00pm, Monday through Friday.
Judith Silva, Associate Planner for the City of Santa Clara,
conceptualized the itinerary and provided written and photographic
materials. National Register web production team members included
Jeff Joeckel, who designed the itinerary, Rustin Quaide, and Shannon
Bell (all of NCSHPO). Contextual essays were written by Rustin
Quaide (Early History & Economic Development),
Shannon Bell (Bay Area Architecture), and Judith Silva
(Preservation). Special thanks to History San José
and Lorie Garcia for their photograph contributions.