Raised trail through the Port Hudson battlefield area, and images
of reenactments of the battle now staged at the park
Courtesy of Louisiana State
image of the Port Hudson battlefield and Capt. Edmund C.
Bainbridge's Battery A, 1st U.S. Artillery, 1863
of National Archives, NWDNS-165-CN-12545
Port Hudson was the site of the
longest siege in American history, lasting 48 days, when 7,500 Confederates
resisted some 40,000 Union soldiers for almost two months during 1863.
Realizing that control of the Mississippi River was a key military objective
of the Union, the Confederacy in August 1862, had its forces erect earthworks
at Port Hudson. In 1863, Union Major General Nathaniel P. Banks moved
against Port Hudson. Three Union divisions came down the Red River to
assail Port Hudson from the north, while two others advanced from Baton
Rouge and New Orleans to strike from the east and south. By May 22, 1863,
30,000 Union soldiers had isolated 7,500 Confederates behind 4 ½ miles
of earthen fortifications. On May 26 Banks issued orders for a simultaneous
attack all along the Confederate perimeter the following morning. The
first Union assault fell on the Confederate left wing, which guarded the
northern approaches to Port Hudson. Timely reinforcements from the center
allowed the Confederates to repulse several assaults. The fighting ended
on the left wing before the remaining two Union divisions advanced against
the Confederate center. Here the Confederates repulsed the Federal advance
across Slaughter's Field, killing approximately 2,000 Union soldiers.
Union casualties included 600 African-Americans of the First and Third
Louisiana Native Guards. Free blacks from New Orleans composed a majority
of the First Louisiana Native Guards, including the line officers. Former
slaves commanded by white officers composed the Third Louisiana Native
Guards. Led by Captain Andre Cailloux, a black officer, the two regiments
made their advance on the extreme right of the Union line. Captain Cailloux
was shot down as he shouted orders in both French and English.
Another attempt to take Port Hudson failed on June 13, when the Confederates
inflicted 1,805 casualties on the Union troops while losing fewer than
200. The Confederates held out until they learned of the surrender of
Vicksburg. Without its upriver counterpart, Port Hudson, the last Confederate
bastion on the Mississippi River, lacked strategic significance and
the garrison surrendered on July 9, 1863. Today, the Port Hudson State
Commemorative Area encompasses 889 acres of the northern portion of
the battlefield, and has three observation towers, six miles of trails,
a museum, a picnic area and restrooms. Four thousand Civil War veterans
are buried at the Port Hudson National Cemetery, which stands just outside
the old Confederate lines.
The Port Hudson State Commemorative Area is located at 236 Highway
61, in Jackson. The park is open
9:00am to 5:00pm daily, there is a fee for admission. Groups are requested
to call 1-888-677-3400 in advance. Visit the park's website for further information.
The Port Hudson is the subject of
plan produced by Teaching with Historic Places, a National Register
program that offers classroom-ready lesson plans on properties listed
in the National Register. To learn more, visit the Teaching
with Historic Places home page.