|The Fountain of the Pioneers complex in Bronson Park is nationally significant under Criterion C as a rare, if not the only, complex work of skillful public outdoor design and sculpture whose components combine stylistic, theoretic and thematic elements of America's Prairie School, Modernist, Art Deco and Cultural Nationalism movements; for its association with Alfonso Iannelli, a master designer, artist and architect who was also a leader and teacher in America's professional Modern design and Modern design education movements; and as an outstanding example oflannelli's work over his half-century career. The Fountain of the Pioneers complex is also nationally significant under Criterion A as a rare, if not the only, example of American public sculpture whose primary figurative sculptural elements directly or indirectly reference the United States government's nineteenth-~entury Indian Removal activity, and the following commonly held European-American belief and federal policies supporting Indian assimilation. It is also significant for its contribution to the history of public art criticism through its sustained period of interpretive conversation and debate about its meaning by the artist, his colleagues, and the public, beginning before the work was completed and continuing to today. This criticism practice is common to public sculpture, but rare for the period during which the Kalamazoo Fountain of The Pioneers was created. As a skilled artist-designer and frequent critic, Iannelli used this opportunity to create a work in Kalamazoo which was not just a fountain, and not just a modern public art work whose meaning might be long-debated, but which could be understood as different from anything else created at the time.