|The Columbia Turnpike East Tollhouse is a rare and significant survival from New York State's turnpike era. This historic overland transportation route, chartered in 1799, helped shape the development and growth of adjacent areas of Columbia County, New York, following its completion, as well as parts of Berkshire County, Massachusetts; from the terminal point on the Hudson River, at Hudson, transportation of goods to distant markets was effected. The turnpike remained in operation as a toll road until its closure in 1906, by which time its importance as a travel artery had been greatly diminished by new and more efficient modes of transportation. During its heyday the turnpike served as a valuable conduit for agricultural products and livestock from New York and Massachusetts farms and for the shipment of other regional products and material, including marble from stone quarries in western Massachusetts. The nominated building served as the easternmost of a series of toll houses established by the company, which collected revenue from travelers on the Columbia Turnpike from the Massachusetts border to its terminal point at Hudson. Its physical features suggest it was constructed in the 1830s to replace an earlier building, which had by all indications been located further to the west. Toll collectors resided with their families and were tasked with collecting usage fees and operating the gate that restricted movement at points along the road. While the gate that once spanned the road was by all indications removed over a century ago, the dwelling itself survives with its basic form and spatial features intact to the nineteenth century and with any number of interpretable interior features. It remains an important legacy of the early nineteenth century turnpike era, which witnessed the creation of incorporated toll roads that were of tremendous benefit to commerce, communication and settlement of new areas in New York State. NRHP significance is being claimed in association with Criterion A, in the area of Transportation, given the building's vital and longstanding historic association with the former Columbia Turnpike,the historic route of which largely survives to this day, and additionally under Criterion C, in the area of Architecture, as a largely intact example of domestic architecture built specifically as a toll keeper's house.