For thousands of years, the Chinook people have lived along the Columbia River and their home near the river's mouth was strategically located to provide abundant food, such as salmon and shellfish. In addition, the nearby forests were home to game animals and the grasslands and marshes provided ample materials for making shelter, clothing and trade and household goods. The river provided a way for Chinook traders to travel to the south shore and up and down the Columbia.
They developed a sophisticated, rich culture and enjoyed great success as traders. The waterway near Middle Village became a virtual trade "water highway." During the 10 years before Lewis and Clark arrived overland at the this spot almost 90 trade ships from Europe and New England are documented to have crossed the Columbia River Bar to trade with Native Americans. These ships brought metal tools, blankets, clothing, beads, liquor and weapons to trade for beaver and sea otter pelts. By the time the Corps reached the site, the Chinook's had moved to their winter village and this village was unoccupied.