P.S. I got into a lot of trouble on July 12, 1804, when I was on guard duty. I was caught sitting down and accused of falling asleep while on guard. In the army, that offense could be punished by shooting a soldier. Instead of being shot I was sentenced to 100 lashes. After that I had no more problems, and helped the expedition by blacksmithing along with John Shields. I later worked for the government as a blacksmith for Indian tribes. I got married in 1807 and eventually had 12 children. I served in the War of 1812 and lived in Missouri and Wisconsin. In 1852 I took my family overland in a covered wagon to the new state of California. I died in 1865 near Sacramento at the age of 87.
Last updated: April 10, 2015