Why is Isle Royale a Unique Research Location?
Isolation: Isle Royale is an island in Lake Superior. The closest mainland location is Canada, located about 20 kilometers to the north.
Limited Human Influence: Isle Royale National Park was established in 1940. The park closes annually for public use from October 30th to April 15th in order to protect wildlife.
Simple Ecosystem: the island’s remoteness restricts the number of species that populate the island.
Field researchers have conducted surveys of wolves, moose, beaver, and vegetation since the mid—1900s. Isle Royale predator-prey relationships have been continuously investigated since 1958- making this study the longest of its kind in the world.
Isolation and Predator-Prey Relationships
What if an ecosystem was unreachable for some species?
Not all mainland species are found on remote Isle Royale. Large mammals like wolves, moose, and beaver have made the journey. The trip can be too far for others. Animals that hibernate in the winter do not inhabit the island—like bears. Hibernating animals miss the chance to cross an ice bridge that sometimes forms between the mainland and the island. Isle Royale's isolation limits the number of species a part of its ecosystem.
What would happen if only one predator inhabited an isolated ecosystem?
Wolves have been the single island apex predator of moose and beaver since the late 1940s. Other large predators are absent from the island, such as bears, coyotes, and mountain lions. Wolves directly impact how many moose and beaver there are at Isle Royale National Park.
What if an island lacked an apex predator? What if prey roamed unchecked on a secluded landscape?
Scientists have been asking similar questions about the predator-prey relationships on Isle Royale for over sixty years. The populations of wolves, moose, and beavers have fluctuated over time. One thing is certain- their island existence is interconnected.
Wolves and Moose
Island Predator: Wolves
Lynx and coyotes have been absent from Isle Royale since the early to mid-1900s. Island presence of bears and mountain lions has not been recorded. Wolves became the single island apex predator upon their late 1940s arrival.
Island Prey: Moose
Moose were found on island in the early 1900s. Caribou and moose existed together for a brief period before caribou were wiped out in the early 1900s. Moose became a food source for wolves upon wolf arrival to the island.
Wolves and Beaver
Island Predator: Wolves
Wolves utilize beaver as a secondary food source. Primarily in the summer wolves prey on beaver. In winter wolves will lie in wait near beaver lodges in hopes of an ambush. Often beaver are hidden in their lodges under the safety of ice.
Island Prey: Beaver
It is uncertain when beaver first inhabited Isle Royale. They are ecosystem engineers who construct dams that provide important aquatic habitats for other animals. Similar to moose, beaver are herbivores and influence island vegetation.
Predator-Prey Relationships: Wolves-Moose & Beaver
Although considered a relatively simple ecosystem when compared to the mainland, the relationships between moose, beaver, and wolves on Isle Royale are quite complicated. Many internal and external factors influence the populations of island predator and prey.
abundance of vegetation
- climate change
Abundance of prey on Isle Royale is undoubtedly influenced by the number of wolves, however, many other factors impact both moose and beaver populations. In one study, wolves were demonstrated to have a larger impact on the moose population prior to a disease outbreak within the wolf population than after. In combination with decreasing populations of both moose and beaver, a likely increased amount of wolf on wolf mortality related to food shortages, and the canine parvovirus (CPV2) disease outbreak which greatly reduced the number of pups surviving into adulthood, the Isle Royale population of wolves, naïve to this strain of the virus, was significantly impacted. Dropping from 50 to 12 in just two years, this change shifted the ecosystem from one where wolves had a greater influence on the prey population, to one where climate, available forage, and other undetermined factors were more influential. The relationships between prey and predator are constantly changing and that dynamic can be influenced by any number of environmental factors.
The island ecosystem may seem simple at first glance, but relationships between island predator and prey are more complex than is readily apparent.
This graph displays how Isle Royale predator and prey populations have varied through time. The National Park Service and Michigan Technological University have collaborated to conduct the longest consecutive predator-prey study that focuses on the relationship between wolves, moose, beaver, and vegetation. Relationships among wolves, their prey, and the environment have been affected by:
fluctuating population numbers
moose and beaver effects on plant browse
wolf inbreeding depression
Due to the wolf population decline in recent years, Isle Royale National Park decided to relocate wolves to the park in hopes to restore an apex predator in island predator-prey relationships.