AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION:
*[This document has been replaced by The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, 1995]
General Standards for Historic Preservation Projects
The following general standards apply to all treatments undertaken on historic properties listed in the National Register.
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for a property that requires minimal alteration of the building, structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2. The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when possible.
3. All buildings, structures, and sites shall be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations which have no historical basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance shall be discouraged.
4. Changes which have taken place in the course of time are evidence of the history and development of a building, structure, or site and its environment. These changes may have acquired significance in their own right, and this significance shall be recognized and respected.
5. Distinctive architectural features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize a building, structure, or site shall be treated with sensitivity.
6. Deteriorated architectural features shall be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of features, substantiated by historic, physical, or pictoral evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural elements from other buildings or structures.
7. The surface cleaning of structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Sandblasting and other cleaning methods that will damage the historic building materials shall not be undertaken.
8. Every reasonable effort shall be made to protect and preserve archeological resources affected by, or adjacent to, any acquisition, stabilization, preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, or reconstruction project.
Specific Standards for Historic Preservation Projects
The following specific standards for each treatment are to be used in conjunction with the eight general standards and, in each case, begin with number 9. For example, in evaluating acquisition projects, include the eight general standards plus the four specific standards listed under Standards for Acquisition. The specific standards differ from those published for use in Historic Preservation Fund grant-in-aid projects (36 CFR Part 68) in that they discuss more fully the treatment of archeological properties.
10. Properties shall be acquired in fee simple when absolute ownership is required to insure their preservation.
11. The purchase of less-than-fee simple interests, such as open space or facade easements, shall be undertaken when a limited interest achieves the preservation objective.
12. Every reasonable effort shall be made to acquire sufficient property with the historic resource to protect its historical, archeological, architectural or cultural significance.
10. Protection shall safeguard the physical condition or environment of a property or archeological site from further deterioration or damage caused by weather or other natural, animal or human intrusions.
11. If any historic material or architectural features are removed, they shall be properly recorded and, if possible, stored for future study or reuse.
10. Stabilization shall be accomplished in such a manner that it detracts as little as possible from the property's appearance and significance. When reinforcement is required to reestablish structural stability, such work shall be concealed wherever possible so as not to intrude upon or detract from the aesthetic and historical or archeological quality of the property, except where concealment would result in the alteration or destruction of historically or archaeologically significant material or spaces. Accurate documentation of stabilization procedures shall be kept and made available for future needs.
11. Stabilization work that will result in ground disturbance shall be preceded by sufficient archeological investigation to determine whether significant subsurface features or artifacts will be affected. Recovery, curation and documentation of archeological features and specimens shall be undertaken in accordance with appropriate professional methods and techniques.
10. Preservation shall include techniques of arresting or retarding the deterioration of a property through a program of ongoing maintenance.
11. Use of destructive techniques, such as archeological excavation, shall be limited to providing sufficient information for research, interpretation and management needs.
10. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to structures shall be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were to be removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unimpaired.
10. Reinforcement required for structural stability or the installation of protective or code required mechanical systems shall be concealed wherever possible so as not to intrude or detract from the property's aesthetic and historical qualities, except where concealment would result in the alteration or destruction of historically significant materials or spaces.
11. Restoration work such as the demolition of non-contributing additions that will result in ground or structural disturbance shall be preceded by sufficient archeological investigation to determine whether significant subsurface or structural features or artifacts will be affected. Recovery, curation and documentation of archeological features and specimens shall be undertaken in accordance with appropriate professional methods and techniques.
10. Reconstruction of all or a part of a historic property shall be appropriate when the reconstruction is essential for understanding and interpreting the value of a historic district, or when no other building, structure, object, or landscape feature with the same associative value has survived and sufficient historical or archeological documentation exists to insure an accurate reproduction of the original.
11. The reproduction of missing elements accomplished with new materials shall duplicate the composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities of the missing element. Reconstruction of missing architectural or archeological features shall be based upon accurate duplication of original features substantiated by physical or documentary evidence rather than upon conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural features from other buildings.
12. Reconstruction of a building or structure on an original site shall be preceded by a thorough archeological investigation to locate and identify all subsurface features and artifacts. Recovery, curation and documentation of archeological features and specimens shall be undertaken in accordance with professional methods and techniques.
13. Reconstruction shall include measures to preserve any remaining original fabric, including foundations, subsurface, and ancillary elements. The reconstruction of missing elements and features shall be done in such a manner that the essential form and integrity of the original surviving features are unimpaired.
The guidelines for the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects, not included here because of their length, may be obtained separately from the National Park Service.