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Chapter 2
Review of the Archaeological Data
Kenneth M. Ames


Figure 1: The Columbia (Southern) Plateau and subregions (after Ames et al. 1998).
Figure 2: Areas and localities within the Southern Plateau mentioned in the text.
Figure 3: Rainfall patterns in the Pacific Northwest (from Ames 1988).
Figure 4: Distribution of vegetation zones on the Columbia Plateau to illustrate degree of environmental complexity relative to elevation and rainfall.
Figure 5: Phase sequences for the Southern Plateau from Chatters and Pokotylo 1998 and Ames et al. 1998.
Figure 6: Phase sequence for the Southern Plateau (Galm 1981).
Figure 7: Dated Archaeofaunas with bison from the Late Holocene.
Figure 8: Distribution of Pre-Mazama Period 1B sites on the Columbia Plateau.
Figure 9: Windust Points from Hatwai (Sappington 1994).
Figure 10: Examples of Cascade Points from the Clearwater River Area (from Sappington 1994).
Figure 11: Distances to obsidian sources from Paulina Lake (Connolly 1999).
Figure 12: Sequence of events before and during the Early Modern Period for the Lower Snake River Region (Reid 1991a).
Figure 13: Temporal Distribution of uncorrected intercept dates/50 increment with a 200 year moving average.
Figure 14: Percentage of uncorrected intercept dates/50 increment.
Figure 15: Calibrated age ranges of radiocarbon dates from the study area.
Figure 16: Number of sites \250 year increments. The counts are based on tallying the number of sites\increment with a calibrated dates (two sigma age spans), not on tallying number of dates. The trend line is based on a 500 year moving average.
Figure 17: Chatters' plot of intercept dates/20 years for radiocarbon dates from the Columbia Plateau (Chatters 1995).
Figure 18: Chatters' plot of radiocarbon dates from house floors on the Columbia Plateau (Chatters 1995).
Figure 19: Hess' scatter plot of intercept radiocarbon dates/50 year increment (Hess 1997).
Figure 20: Hess' scatter plot of residuals (Hess 1997).
Figure 21: Raw counts of calibrated radiocarbon dates from Plateau Pithouses (Ames 1991).
Figure 22: Ames' plot of Plateau house numbers through time (Ames 1991).
Figure 23: The radiocarbon curve at c. 2500 BP.
Figure 24: Distribution of 215 late Holocene radiocarbon dates from the Lower Snake River (from Reid 1991a).
Figure 25: Temporal distribtion of radiocarbon dates from the Chief Joseph Reservoir project and other projects on the Upper Columbia River (Salo 1985).
Figure 26: Age ranges of Projectile Point classes (adapted from Lohse 1985).
Figure 27: Project Point sequence from Marmes Rockshelter (Rice 1972).
Figure 28: Connolly's Sequence of Projectile Point Bases from Paulina Lake (Connolly 1999). Reproduced courtesy of the University of Utah Press.
Figure 29: Pit house form on the Northern Plateau, British Columia (Teit 1928).
Figure 30: Roald Fryxell's recontruction of a Harder Phase house on the Lower Snake River (Leonhardy and Rive 1970).
Figure 31: Distance to obsidian sources from post-Mazama localities in the Newberry Crater area (Connolly 1999). Reproduced courtesy of the University of Utah Press.
Figure 32: Reid's developmental sequence for the Lower Snake River (Reid 1991a).
Figure 33: Reconstructed trade routes into and across the Plateau (Galm 1994).
Figure 34: Examples of Plateau trade goods (Galm 1994). Reproduced courtesy of Plenum Press.

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