Anticipation grew after nearly a month-long pause at the summit of Kīlauea volcano. On January 5, 2023, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) geologists recorded heightened earthquake activity and changes in ground deformation. This indicated that magma was on the rise. HVO raised the alert to “watch” and “orange," and at 3:28 p.m. a 3.2 magnitude earthquake joggled visitors at the national park.
This reference map depicts the Kīlauea summit eruption on January 18, 2023. One eruptive vent is active inside Halema‘uma‘u crater, within the actively circulating lava lake (red) on the eastern side of the crater floor. The extent of the active lava lake—the area in red—is 27 acres (11 hectares); part of this area is comprised of the active lava lake footprint from the end of the 2021–22 eruption, which has filled with new lava that upwelled from below. The full extent of new lava from this eruption, totaling both the active lava lake (red) and flows that have crusted over (pink) is 292 acres (118 hectares).
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Increased pressure beneath the Halema'uma'u crater led to a 164-foot fountain during the initial phase of the 2023 eruption. In this video, lava outgasses at the surface of an active lava lake producing lava fountains.
Last updated: January 20, 2023