National Educational Standards: Crabs


National Standards for Science

Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry

  • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry:
    • identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;
    • design and conduct a scientific investigation;
    • use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data;
    • develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models using evidence;
    • think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations;
    • recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions;
    • communicate scientific procedures and explanations;
    • use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
  • Understanding about scientific inquiry
    • different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigation;
    • current scientific knowledge and understanding guide investigations;
    • mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry;
    • technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and analysis;
    • scientific explanations emphasize evidence;
    • science advances through legitimate skepticism, answering and querying others' work;
    • scientific investigations can result in new ideas or methods for study;

Content Standard C: Life Science

  • Regulation and Behavior
    • all organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing environment;
    • regulation of an organisms internal environment involves sensing it and changing physiological activities;
    • behavior is one kind of response to an internal or environmental stimulus, it is a set of actions determined by heredity and experience;
    • behavior evolves through adaptation;
  • Populations and Ecosystems
    • a population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time; populations living together compose an ecosystem;
    • populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem;
    • sunlight is the major source of energy for ecosystems;
    • the number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources;
  • Diversity and adaptations of organisms
    • biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed over many generations; species acquire many characteristics through biological adaptation;
    • extinction occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient.

Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

  • Characteristics and changes in populations
    • the size of a human population can increase or decrease.
  • Types of resources
    • resources are things we get from the living and nonliving environment to meet the needs and wants of a population;
    • the supply of many resources is limited.
  • Changes in environments
    • environments are the space, conditions and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life;
    • changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans, some are good, bad or neither, pollution can influence organisms;
    • some environment changes are rapid, others are slow;

Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science

  • Science as a Human Endeavor
    • women and men of various backgrounds engage in science and related professions, alone or in teams;
    • science requires different abilities, and relies on basic human qualities such as reasoning, insight, energy, skill and creativity.
  • Nature of science
    • scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models;
    • scientists can have different opinions in areas of active research;
    • it is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations;

National Standards for Mathematics

Data Analysis and Probability

  • Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them:
    • 6-8:
      • formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a characteristic shared by two populations or different characteristics within one population;
      • select, create, and use appropriate graphical representations of data, including histograms, box plots, and scatterplots.
  • Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data:
    • 6-8:
      • find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread, including mean and interquartile range;
      • discuss and understand the correspondence between data sets and their graphical representations, especially histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, box plots, and scatterplots;
  • Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data:
    • 6-8:
      • use observations about differences between two or more samples to make conjectures about the populations from which the samples were taken;
      • make conjectures about possible relationships between two characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and approximate lines of fit;
      • use conjectures to formulate new questions and plan new studies to answer them.

National Standards for Geography

Element 5: Environment and Society

  1. How human actions modify the physical environment;
  2. How physical systems affect human systems;
  3. The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

Element 6: The Uses of Geography

  1. How to apply geography to interpret the past;
  2. How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future;

Last updated: April 14, 2015

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