Treaties of the Fort

The history of Fort Stanwix, from first contact through the end of the fort's useful military life, symbolizes the broader contest of nations (European, United States and American Indian) for economic and political control of the Oneida Carrying Place, the Mohawk Valley, the homelands of the Six Nation Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. The following web pages focus on treaties and land transactions negotiated and concluded at Fort Stanwix. Beginning with the earliest contacts at the Great Carry, continuing through the influential years of Sir William Johnson, and culminating in the Treaties of 1790 negotiated at Fort Stanwix, a controversial pattern of European/American-Indian relations evolved and was applied on a national level. Seven treaties were negotiated and concluded at Fort Stanwix. These include the 1768 Boundary Line Treaty, the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the Pennsylvania-Six Nations Land Transaction, and four Treaties negotiated by the State of New York with the Oneida (1788), Onondaga (1788 and 1790) and Cayuga (1790) Nations. When these treaties are placed within context of the series of events from 1763 to 1795, the westward expansionist philosophy and the beginnings of the policy of American Indian removals from east of the Mississippi can be found. That philosophy and policy would have profound effects on the United States and American Indian history; effects that can still be felt today.

Negotiating at the Oneida Carry by William J. Campbell, Ph.D., is the latest publication that closely examines the treaties that were signed/negotiated at Fort Stanwix. Dr. Campbell used historic texts to examine those involved with the treaties, and their actions before, during, and after negotiations took place.


Last updated: May 11, 2020

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