John Fluno and John Dillebaugh

The names of John Fluno and John Dillebaugh hand written in the same style included in the Barent Roseboom ledger.
Handwritten names of individuals who had transactions recorded in Barent Roseboom's ledger.

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John Fluno

This page from the Barrent Roseboom ledger highlights transactions with John Fluno at Fort Stanwix on May 15, 1764. On this day, we know that Mr. Fluno was able to acquire a shirt and cash. Later, in June, he got a pound of chocolate and a pair of stockings. Since these entries are crossed out and a payment is noted in the amount of 2 pounds, 19 shillings, Mr. Fluno apparently covered his debt from these purchases. Yet, no payment is indicated for his July 7th transactions where Mr. Fluno received another shirt, along with a pair of britches and 2 pounds of sugar.

Hand written script writing describing the transactions of John Fluno.
Entry in Barent Roseboom's ledger detailing transactions with John Fluno in 1764.

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Pages like this one highlight the variety of goods that could be obtained within the colonial frontier setting. For example, cloth was one of the most traded items. Artifacts often reveal the many physical remains of trade and daily life, but textiles are not well preserved in the archeological record. Archeologists depend on accessories, such as pins or bale seals, to "see" cloth in the past. Clothing items often traveled to places like Fort Stanwix directly from Europe, so the trade of textiles would have been far reaching indeed. Ledgers and primary documents help to detail this trade and the importance of textiles within the 18th century trade economy.

Fluno also received chocolate, which was a fairly new commodity in the 18th century. Chocolate during this time period was different than can be found in the stores today. During this time, cocoa beans, from which chocolate is made, were grown and imported to the colonies from the "West Indies" or Caribbean Islands. The beans were usually ground and pressed into "cakes". It was thought to have medicinal properties and in 1761, Ben Franklin recommended chocolate as a cure for small pox (Theobald 2012). It is probably for this purpose that chocolate was being consumed, most likely as a hot chocolate drink, on the New York frontier.
Handwritten script details the transactions of John Dillebaugh in 1764 in Barent Roseboom's journal.
The transactions of John Dillebaugh in 1764 recorded in Barent Roseboom's journal.

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John Dillebaugh
The penmanship and handwriting style on this page are consistent, indicating that both entries were made by the same person and that the debt or purchases were made to the same merchant. From this entry, it is known that in 1764 John Dillebaugh was at Fort Erie on August 16th and 27th, September 24th, October 2nd, and November 1st.

All of the entries for Mr. Dillebaugh are for cash. Merchants sometimes carried cash for individuals and paid off their debt at other locations. As seen on this page, cash was lent to John Dillebaugh from John Tingue, via Roseboom. John Tingue may have owed Roseboom money and, as a way of removing his debt, he lent John Dillebaugh cash. John Dillebaugh now owes Roseboom the amount that Mr. Tingue originally owed to Roseboom. In other words, Mr. Tingue transferred his debt to Mr. Dillebaugh. Mr. Dillebaugh now owes Roseboom. This is an example of a triangular payment.
Transcribed page from Roseboom ledger.
Transcribed entries detailing Fluno's and Dillebaugh's transactions.

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Book Keeping

As recorded on this page, when the debt is finally paid, the account is "crossed out". On some other ledger pages a "Contra" account is established. A "contra" account would be used to document the payment of the debt in part or in full. Both methods of settling accounts were used in the book entries of both ledgers.

Further Questions

In 1764, Fort Stanwix was occupied by the British military. Once the American Revolution began, John Fluno served with the 5th Regiment as an enlisted soldier under the command of Colonel Lewis Duboys, Lieutenant Colonel James Bruyn, and Lieutenant Colonel Marinus Willet (Roberts, 1897). We know that one battalion of the 5th NY Regiment served at Fort Stanwix under the command of Marinus Willett.

Did John Fluno ever return to Fort Stanwix as a soldier of the Contiental Army?
Works Cited
Theobald, Mary Miley
2012 A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S'good for What Ails Ya. Colonial Williamsburg Journal, Winter.

Roberts, James A.
1897 New York in the Revolution as Colony and State: These Records were discovered, arranged and classified by James A. Roberts, Comptroller in 1897. Albany, NY: Weed-Parsons Printing Company.

Last updated: October 4, 2017

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