Native & Early History

The early history of Georgia contains the interactions of many cultures; including the indigenous chiefdoms of the Mocama and Guale Indians, Spanish Missionaries, British traders, and later the introduction of various groups of Creek Indians. The Creeks (prominently the Yamacraw tribe) favored British over Spanish interests, and were instrumental in aiding Oglethorpe's new settlement of Georgia. The following links contain these stories:
detail of native pottery

John Worth’s “Georgia before Oglethorpe”
When plagues and slave raids destroyed early chiefdoms, Spain and England conducted war by proxy for this land. Anthropologist John Worth's site has several chapters to explore.

Spanish Mission

Spanish Missions in Georgia
From New Georgia Encyclopedia Online
The Spanish chapter of Georgia's earliest history is the mission era, from 1568 - 1684. Catholic missions were used to assimulate Georgia's native chiefdoms into the Spanish colonial system on the frontier of Spanish Florida.


Tomochichi (ca. 1644-1739)
From New Georgia Encyclopedia Online
This chief of the Yamacraw Indians, is a prominent character of early Georgia history. He served as the principal mediator between the native population and the new English settlers during the first years of settlement.

mary musgrove silhouette

Mary Musgrove (ca. 1700-ca. 1763)
From New Georgia Encyclopedia Online
Coosaponakeesa (Creek name) served as a liaison between colonial Georgia and her Native American community in the mid-18th century. Used her status to promote Creek interests and expand trade.

detail of verelst painting

Native Americans in the "Trustees of Georgia" Painting
Discussion paper by Donald Panther-Yates
In Verelst's work, the Georgia Trustees were identified by the painter, but the visiting natives depicted were not. This site attempts to identify them.

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Mailing Address:

Fort Frederica National Monument
6515 Frederica Rd.

St. Simons Island, GA 31522


(912) 638-3630

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