Stonehenge is a monument in England that was built between 3000 BC and 2000 BC.
The Parthenon was a temple in Greece. Construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 432 BC.
The Colosseum was completed in AD 80 in Rome Italy. It was an amphitheater used for gladiator contests and other public performances and spectacles. It could hold 80,000 people.
The Eastern Woodlands tribes that lived along the Atlantic Coast were the first native Americans that had contact with Europeans. Friendships were made, alliances forged, land deals struck, and treaties were signed. But as settlers in increasing numbers encroached on tribal lands, conflicts arose. In the 1800s many Eastern Woodlands tribes were forced off their native lands.
This map, created in 1608 by Captain John Smith shortly after his arrival in the New World, is the earliest published map of the Jamestown colony.
This painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris is a fictional depiction of the first Thanksgiving which was actually a Harvest Feast in 1621. Documentation shows that about 50 colonists and 90 Native Americans attended the meal prepared by the four adult Pilgrim women, their daughters and servants.
This map shows the ownership of land in the New World before and after the French and Indian War.
This map shows the claims of ownership of land after the American Revolution when the United States of America was established.
In establishing the new nation, leaders wrote our Constitution (ratified in 1788), and then in 1791, they ratified the Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. The Fifth Amendment allows the government to take land from citizens under certain conditions, but requires that the landowner receive "just compensation."
In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States. By 1840, almost 7 million Americans has moved west in hopes of securing land.
James Madison was the fourth President of the United States and inherited a sketchy relationship with the British who, despite Madison's attempts at diplomacy, repeatedly seized American ships and took their sailors prisoner. He was the first president to ask Congress for a Declaration of War--the War of 1812.
Abraham Lincoln saw the U.S. through one of its darkest periods--the Civil War. But, out of that came the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments: the 13th banned slavery, the 14th defined citizenship to include African Americans, and the 15th gave African Americans the right to vote.
Yellowstone was the first national park established in the U.S., setting a precedent for preserving certain national treasures for the enjoyment of future generations rather than allowing private industry to extract resources and alter its beauty.
Theodore Roosevelt explored Yosemite National Park in 1903 with naturalist John Muir. Muir so inspired Roosevelt that during his presidency (1901-1909) he signed into existence five national parks, 18 national monuments, 55 national bird sanctuaries and wildlife refuges, and 150 national forests.
Woodrow Wilson was the President who signed the Organic Act that created the National Park Service. He also signed the Antiquities Act and under that, designated ten national monuments. During his travels, he visited all 39 parks and monuments prior to signing the Act.
President Hoover and his wife spent many weekends during his presidency at their retreat, Rapidan Camp. When he left office he donated the camp and its 164 acres for inclusion in Shenandoah National Park.
The porch of the Hoover's cabin, called the Brown House was host to many pleasant evenings in earshot of the Rapidan River. That same porch remains as part of Rapidan Camp in Shenandoah National Park.
President Hoover used drought-relief funds to hire local laborers and contractors to begin construction of the Skyline Drive that was to be the centerpiece of the new Shenandoah National Park.
Roosevelt took over as President, but continued Hoover's commitment to national parks and conservation efforts.
Roosevelt immediately began implementing a plan to end the Great Depression and put people back to work. Many found work in national parks and on other public lands through the Civilian Conservation Corps program.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dedicated Shenandoah at Big Meadows on July 3, 1936, declaring, "We seek to pass on to our children a richer land--a stronger Nation. And so, my friends, I now take great pleasure in dedicating Shenandoah National Park, dedicating it to this and succeeding generations of Americans for the recreation and for the re-creation which they shall find here."
To help people displaced by Shenandoah's establishment, the federal government, through the Resettlement Administration, created seven relocation communities outside the new Park boundary. Former residents were offered new homesteads - small houses and plots of land - in the Shenandoah Valley to the west of the new Park or in the Virginia Piedmont to the east. One hundred and seventy-five families took the government up on its offer to relocate them.
While some former resident families were relocated outside the Park - or chose to relocate on their own or were physically evicted - 42 former residents in 16 families were given lifetime tenancy in the new Park. These designated "heads-of-household" were thus allowed to live out their remaining years within the Park. When they died, the land on which they had lived became the property of Shenandoah National Park.
Lewis Mountain - the coffee shop, cabins, campground, and picnic grounds - was set aside "for the exclusive use of negroes," and became Shenandoah's first and only area "for colored visitors." Eventually, Shenandoah would integrate facilities in the Park - in 1950, five years before desegregation became law.
World War II began, and the boys of the CCC were needed, either at war or at home. For this and other reasons, the CCC program was put on hold. It was never reinstituted.
When Franklin Roosevelt died in April 1945, Harry Truman took the helm as 33rd president of the United States.
Truman was still president when World War II ended later in 1945. The war had taken attention and work away from the young Shenandoah National Park, but with that war over, work on the Park's infrastructure was begun anew.
Shenandoah was officially desegregated. African American visitors were no longer restricted to the picnic grounds and campground at Lewis Mountain, which had been established in 1938 "for the exclusive use of negroes." All areas of the Park were now open to all citizens, regardless of race.
As the 1960s got underway, John F. Kennedy became the nation's 35th president.
The 1960s were a decade of political unrest and activism. As connections were made between technology and the health of our planet, citizens - individually, but mostly en masse - called for changes in environmental policy to protect people, the land, water, air, and wildlife from the perils of an increasingly polluted world.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act into law on September 3, 1964. Twelve years later, Shenandoah would receive its own Wilderness designation under the Eastern Wilderness Act.
Richard M. Nixon was elected the 37th president of the U.S. in 1969. He served until his resignation from office in 1974.
A growing anti-war counterculture movement called for an end to the Vietnam War. The United States ended its involvement in Vietnam in late summer 1973.
Essentially an extension of the 1964 Wilderness Act, the Eastern Wilderness Act of 1975 allowed nearly 80,000 acres of Shenandoah to be designated as Wilderness IN 1976. The new designation changed the way Shenandoah's resources are managed and brought greater protection to 40% of the Park's area.
Denali (formerly known as Mt. McKinley) in Denali National Park received greater protection as part of ANILCA (Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act). It is the highest peak in North America at 20,310 feet.
Delicate Arch is a famous geologic feature and one of 2,000 stone arches in Arches National Park in Utah.
El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park in California. It a favorite challenge of climbers.
Old Faithful is a geyser in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, so named because it is one of the most predictable geothermal features on earth, erupting every 44 to 125 minutes.
Mount Rushmore is a massive stone sculpture in South Dakota that depicts George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. Mount Rushmore National Memorial was established in 1925. The sculpture was completed in 1941.
Fort McHenry is a star-shaped fort on the eastern coast of the U.S. near Baltimore, Maryland. It was built in 1798 and was used through WWII. After a bombardment during the War of 1812, a larger American flag was raised to signal victory. The sight of that flag was the inspiration for our national anthem.
The World Trade Center was destroyed in a terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, killing 2,606 people there and an additional 390 elsewhere.
Native American Woodland Indians inhabited the area of the Blue Ridge Mountains from as early as 10,000 BCE. Even before white settlements began to appear in the area, their population began to dwindle. Then with the arrival of European settlers, new diseases were introduced and by the mid-1700s, the Native American population had all but disappeared.
Jamestown was established as the first permanent English settlement in the New World. It began as a money-making adventure with explorers hoping to find mineral wealth, as well as a Northwest Passage to the Orient.
As the coastal plain of the Tidewater began to get more populated, the soil was depleted by over farming so settlers began to head westward into the Piedmont.
The French and Indian War (1754-1763) ended with British control of much of North America. To pay for the war, England increased taxes on the colonists.
The colonists rebelled resulting in the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) which ended with American independence.
The U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1788.
The Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791 with Eminent Domain as part of the 5th Amendment.
War of 1812, under President James Madison, was fought for "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights."
The Civil War under President Lincoln produced the "Civil War Amendments", ended slavery, and granted citizenship and voting rights to African Americans.
Poor farming practices caused more westward movement to find fertile land in Virginia. Farmers began to diversify agricultural crops, particularly fruit.
Yellowstone, the first national park in the United States was established to preserve wildlife and showcase unique geothermic features.
The National Park Service was established by the Organic Act for the purpose of preserving and providing for the enjoyment of the 35 existing national parks and those yet to be established.
At the request of local Shenandoah Valley business people, President Coolidge signed legislation for the authorization of Shenandoah National Park. The legislation included no federal funding for land acquisition. Governor Harry F. Byrd created the Virginia State Commission on Conservation and Development to raise funds to purchase land for a national park.
The Public Park Condemnation Act was passed by Virginia Legislature allowing the state to group all land tracts in a county for condemnation.
President Herbert Hoover and his wife, Lou established a fishing camp on land destined for the Park bringing national attention to the beauty of the area; Hoover assured residents that they would not be evicted if not in the path of Skyline Drive.
The most devastating stock market crash in U.S. history occurred bringing on The Great Depression.
Construction of the Skyline Drive began.
Roosevelt was sworn-in and established the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a Great Depression work relief program.
The first of 12 CCC camps was established and thousands of enrollees began work on the Park-to-be's infrastructure.
The Re-organization Act Executive Order 6166 transferred national monuments and military sites to the NPS
Residents began receiving "Notice to Vacate" notices. Parts of Skyline Drive opened to the public.
Preservation of Historic Sites Act strengthened the NPS's ability to expand historical programs and properties;
U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Condemnation Act; deeds for 1088 tracts of land were presented by Virginia to the federalgovernment establishing Shenandoah National Park.
President Roosevelt dedicated Shenandoah National Park.
Resettlement Administration budgeted $1.5 million to create homesteads outside the Park.
Re-location of residents was complete with 16 "heads-of-households" retaining lifetime tenancy.
Lewis Mountain area was opened and designated "for the exclusive use of negroes."
Pearl Harbor - WWII
CCC program was suspended due to WWII.
Truman became President
Shenandoah National Park was officially desegregated, five years ahead of Brown v. Board of Education decision.
The decade of the 1960s brought tremendous attention to the environment and conservation as increased pollutants threatened the nation's health and the beauty of the land.
Involvement in Vietnam
Wilderness Act of 1964
Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965
Mission 66 completed for NPS 50th anniversary
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966
Endangered Species Protection Act of 1966
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968
National Trail System Act (1968) nationally protecting the Appalachian Trail
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
Volunteers in Parks Act of 1969 authorizes volunteers to aid in interpretation and other visitor services
Environmental Protection Agency 1970 (Nixon)
Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Nixon)
U.S. leaves Vietnam
Wilderness designation for Shenandoah National Park
Congress passes Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (1980) (Carter) doubles the size of the national park system.
75th NPS birthday
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (GHW Bush).
The Vail Agenda of 1992 (GHW Bush) addressed the status and needs of national parks into the 21st century.
Updated NPS Mission..."The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations." Oct 4, 2012
September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on U.S. soil.
100th Anniversary celebration!