TUBES AND TRANSISTORS
Invented in 1947 at Bell Laboratories, the transistor used semi-conducting
material to perform the functions of a vacuum tube. Transistors were
smaller, more power-efficient, created less heat and usually lasted
longer than tubes. It was not until the mid-1960s that they became
commonly available for electronic equipment.
Above: A transistorized single-sideband set on the bridge
of the Great Lakes carrier S.S. Spartan is operated by Captain
Altswager in 1969.