Lesson Plan

Material Culture: The Powder Horn

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Grade Level:
Third Grade-Eighth Grade
Language Arts, Revolutionary War, Science and Technology, Social Studies, Visual Arts
Group Size:
Up to 24
in the park
National/State Standards:
SC: ELA 3rd IV-A ,B, E; V-A, B, C; 4th IV-A, B, G, J; V-A, B; 5th IV-A, D, E; V-A, B, C; 6th IV-A, C, f, K; V-A; 7th IV-A, B, C, G, H, L; V-A, B; 8th IV-A, B, D, E, F, G; V-A. Vis Arts Comp 1-4. Sci 4th I-A; II-A; 7th I-A; II-A Soc Stud 3.2.6, 8.1.2


GOAL: To introduce to students material culture related to the Battle of Cowpens.


The student will describe the function of a common natural material (a powder horn) as necessary to the Battle of Cowpens.

The student will use cognitive skills in answering progressively difficult questions.

The student will see relationships between this natural material and its cultural adaptation contemporary with the battle.

The student will use language arts skills to create a story based on use f this material in the Battle of Cowpens.

The student will use art skills to design scrimshaw to picture some aspect of the Battle of Cowpens on a powder horn.


Militia in the Revolutionary War used powder horns to prime rifles for firing. Such horns, obtained from slaughtered oxen or cattle, became an inexpensive and convenient method of storing and carrying powder. Powder horns were strong and watertight, and would not mold or decay. Also, they would not build up static electricity or spark when struck against metal.

To prepare a powder horn, one boiled the inner material out with water, plugged the big end and put a stopper in the small end. Plugs were made of wood and often caulked with beeswax or tallow. Some horns were scraped to thin as to be translucent so the owner could see the powder level inside.

Many soldiers or militia engraved their powder horns with scrimshaw as a pastime to while away the leisure hours. Engravings included dates, names, road maps, rhymes, bird or animal pictures, and, in some cases, ships or forts. Succeeding generations often added their own names and dates to the original engravings.

Horns often were used for other purposes such as salt containers, cups, sword grips, windowpanes, and spoons.


Additional Resources

Lagerman, Robert and Albert C. Manucy, The Long Rifle, Eastern Acorn Press, Eastern National, 1993.

Hogg, Ian V. and John H. Batchelor, Armies of the American Revolution. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1975.

Klinger, Robert Lee and Richard a Wilder. Sketch Book 76: The American Soldier 1775 - 1781. Union City, TN: Pioneer Press

Neumann, George C. and Frank J. Kravic. Collector's Illustrated Encyclopedia fo the American Revolution. Secaucus, NJ; Castle Books, 1977.

Frontier,  2910 San Bernardo, Laredo, TX 78040
Jas. Townsend & Son, Inc., 133 North First St., PO Box 415 Pierceton, IN 46562


Prime - to add powder to the pan in loading firearms
Static electricity - a stationary electrical charge built up on an insulating material
Tallow - animal fat
Translucent - permitting diffused light to pass through
Militia - members of colonial volunteer armies; not professional soldiers
Scrimshaw - the art of carving or engraving into whalebone, horn or other material
Accouterments - the equipment of a soldier
Gesso - a plaster-like material on which designs can be scratched to simulate scrimshaw

Last updated: April 14, 2015