Timeline for the Civil War in the Shenandoah Valley

#11 CEBE Civil War Maps 1864 Hotchkiss Battle of Cedar Creek 1864
Sketch of the battle of Belle Grove or Cedar Creek, Wednesday, Oct'r 19th, 1864 / by Jed. Hotchkiss &c.

Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C.


March 11

Thomas J. Jackson evacuates Winchester.

March 12

Nathaniel P. Banks occupies Winchester.

March 18

Skirmish at Middletown.

March 23

First Battle of Kernstown

Forces Engaged: 12,300 total (US 8,500; CS 3,800)
Estimated Casualties: 1,308 total (US 590; CS 718)
Result: Federal Victory

April 30

Richard S. Ewell's division crosses the Blue Ridge at Swift Run Gap into the Shenandoah Valley.

May 3

Jackson's army departs the Valley via Brown's Gap.

May 4

Jackson returns his army to the Valley by rail, from Mechum's River Station via Rockfish Gap to Staunton.

May 8

Battle of McDowell

Forces Engaged: 12,500 total (US 6,500; CS 3,000)
Result: Confederate Victory

May 23

Battle of Front Royal

Forces Engaged: 4,063 total (US 1,063; CS 3,000)
Estimated Casualties: 960 total (US 904; CS 56)
Result: Confederate Victory

May 25

First Battle of Winchester

Forces Engaged: 22,500 total (US 6,500; CS 16,000)
Estimated Casualties: 2,419 total (US 2,019; CS 400)
Result: Confederate Victory

May 29-30

Jackson demonstrates against Harper's Ferry.

May 31

Jackson's army marches through Winchester.

June 6

Skirmish near Harrisonburg, Brig. Gen. Turner Ashby killed in action.

June 8

Battle of Cross Keys

Forces Engaged: 17,300 total (US 11,500; CS 5,800)
Estimated Casualties: 951 total (US 664; CS 287)
Result: Confederate Victory

June 9

Battle of Port Republic

Forces Engaged: 9,500 total (US 3,500; CS 6,000)
Estimated Casualties: 1,818 total (US 1,002; CS 816)
Result: Confederate Victory

June 17

Jackson leaves the Valley for Richmond, Virginia.

September 11

Jackson with three divisions crosses the Potomac back into Virginia from Williamsport, Maryland. Brig. Gen. Julius White's Federal garrison at Martinsburg retreats to Harper's Ferry.

September 12-15

Siege of Harper's Ferry

Forces Engaged: 36,900 total (US 14,000; CS 22,900)
Estimated Casualties: 12,922 total (US 12,636; CS 286)
Result: Confederate Victory, Federal surrender

September 19-20

Battle of Sheperdstown

Forces Engaged: (US 2,000)
Estimated Casualties: 654 total (US 363; CS 291)
Result: Confederate Victory


January 1

President Lincoln's EmanciPa.tion Proclamation. General Robert Milroy occupies Winchester.

June 13-15

Second Battle of Winchester

Forces Engaged: 19,500 total (US 7,000; CS 12,500)
Estimated Casualties: 4,709 total (US 4,443; CS 266)
Result: Confederate Victory

June 15

Ewell's Second Corps crosses the Potomac River northward at Williamsport, Md. and Shepherdstown, W.V.

June 24

Hill's Third Corps crosses the Potomac River at Boteler's Ford (Shepherdstown, W.V.).

June 25

Longstreet's First Corps crosses the Potomac River at Williamsport, Md.

July 14

Army of Northern Virginia enters Martinsburg, W.V.


April 30

Federal army under Franz Sigel advances south from Martinsburg, W.V.

May 1

Sigel occupies Winchester.

May 11

Sigel's army encamps at Cedar Creek just south of Middletown.

May 15

Battle of New Market

Forces Engaged: 10,365 total (US 6,275; CS 4,090)
Estimated Casualties: 1,380 total (US 840; CS 540)
Result: Confederate Victory

May 16

Sigel returns to Cedar Creek

May 19

Sigel is relieved of command and posted to Harper's Ferry.

May 21

David Hunter takes command of Federal army at Cedar Creek.

May 26

Hunter advances southward.

June 2

Hunter's army reaches Harrisonburg, Va.

June 5-6

Battle of Piedmont

Forces Engaged: 14,000 total (US 8,500; CS 5,500)
Estimated Casualties: 2,375 total (US 875; CS 1500)Federal Victory

June 6

Hunter enters Staunton, Va.

June 11

Hunter sacks Lexington, Va., including burning Virginia Military Institute.

June 13

Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early's Second Corps is ordered to the Shenandoah Valley.

June 17

Early's Second Corps begins arriving in Lynchburg, Va.

June 17-18

Battle of Lynchburg

Result: Confederate Victory

July 2

Early's Army of the Valley reaches Winchester, Va.

July 9

Battle of Monocacy

Result: Confederate Victory

July 22

Federal troops reoccupy Winchester.

July 24

Second Battle of Kernstown

Forces Engaged: 23,000 total (US 10,000; CS 13,000)
Estimated Casualties: 1,800 total (US 1,200; CS 600)
Result: Confederate Victory (last in the Valley)

July 30

Confederate cavalry under John McCausland burns Chambersburg, Pa.

July 14

Early crosses the Potomac back into the Valley at White's Ferry, Va.

August 7

Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan arrives in Harper's Ferry, W.V., assuming command of the Middle Military Division and the Army of the Shenandoah.

August 15

Early's army is reenforced by Kershaw's infantry and Fitzhugh Lee's calVa.ry divisions.

September 16

Gen. Ulysses S. Grant meets with Sheridan at his Charles Town, W.V., headquarters. Kerhsaw's Division begins returning to Lee's army.

September 19

Third Battle of Winchester (Battle of Opequon)

Forces Engaged: 54,440 total (US 39,240; CS 15,200)
Estimated Casualties: 8,630 total (US 5,018; CS 3,612)
Result: Federal Victory.

September 22

Battle of Fishers Hill

Forces Engaged: 38,944 total (US 29,444; CS 9,500)
Estimated Casualites: 1,763 total (US 528; CS 1,235)
Result: Federal Victory

September 23

Skirmish at Front Royal, Federal cavalry execute six of Mosby's Rangers.

September 24

Kershaw's Division rejoins Early's army.

September 27

The systematic destruction of the Valley begins under Sheridan's command. Known simply as "The Burning". Lee urges Early to defeat Sheridan in the Valley.

October 3

Lt. John R. Meigs is killed by Confederate scouts near Dayton. Sheridan orders the burning of Dayton, Va. and surrounding homes in retaliation.

October 4

Sheridan rescinds the order to burn Dayton.

October 9

Battle of Tom's Brook (Battle of Woodstock Races)

Forces Engaged: 9,800 total (US 6,300; CS 3,500)
Estimated Casualties: 407 total (US 57; CS 350)
Result: Federal Victory

"The Burning" is completed after 13 days.

October 10

Sheridan's army encamps along Cedar Creek.

October 13

The Sixth Corps marches to Ashby's Gap en route to Alexandria but is recalled by Sheridan.

Skirmish at Hupp's Hill

Forces Engaged: 8,400 total (US 1,900; CS 6,500)
Estimated Casualties: 370 total (US 220; CS 150)

October 14

The Sixth Corps returns to right of Federal line along Cedar Creek.

October 15

Sheridan leaves for Washington, D.C. to attend a war strategy meeting.The Eighth and Nineteenth Corps begin entrenching.

October 16

Early has decoy message wigwagged from Signal Knob in view of the Federal army. Sheridan receives word of the decoded message in Front Royal and wires the news to Halleck.

October 17

Gen. John B. Gordon, Gen. Clement A. EVa.ns, Maj. Robert W. Hunter, and Maj. Jedidiah Hotchkiss climb Massanutten Mountain and observes Sheridan's army from Signal Knob. Rosser attacks Custer's pickets.

Sheridan arrives in Washington at 8 a.m., meets with Stanton and Halleck, and takes a noon train to Martinsburg, W.V.

October 18

At a headquarters conference, Early accepts attack plan proposed by Gordon and Hotchkiss. Gen. Gordon, Gen. Stephen D Ramseur, and Maj. Hotchkiss reconnoiter trail around Massanutten Mountain. Pioneers from Rodes' (Ramseur's) Division improve trail.Sheridan rides from Martinsburg to Winchester.

October 19

The Battle of Cedar Creek

Forces Engaged: 46,091 (US 32,000; CS 14,091)
Estimated Casualties: 8,575 total (US 5,665; CS 2,910)
Result: Federal Victory

Last updated: June 27, 2022

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