As western expansion increased in the mid 1800's, tensions and violence between the Native Americans and white settlers began to escalate. These rising tensions were the origins of the Red River War fought in the year 1874. This war essentially ended the traditional way of life for the Plains Indians, and at the conclusion of this war, many Native Americans in the southwestern territories had been forced onto reservations. One such reservation was Fort Sill in current day Oklahoma. It was from this reservation that 74 prisoners, mostly male warriors, were chosen for confinement. They came from five different tribes; there were 33 Cheyenne, 27 Kiowa, 11 Comanche, 2 Arapaho, and 1 Caddo. Included among the prisoners were 10 Mexicans who had been assimilated into these tribes.
Cheyenne: Heap of Birds (chief), Bear Shield (chief), Eagles Head, Medicine Water (warrior), Long Back (sub-chief), White Man (warrior), Rising Bull (warrior), Broken Leg (warrior), Bear’s Heart, Star (warrior), Howling Wolf (warrior), Making Medicine (warrior), Antelope (warrior), Wolf’s Marrow (warrior), Little Medicine (chief), Shave Head (warrior), Roman Nose (warrior), Squint Eyes (warrior), Little Chief (warrior), Matches (warrior), Buffalo Meat (warrior), Buzzard (warrior), Soaring Eagle (warrior), Bear Killer (warrior), Left Hand (warrior), Chief Killer (warrior), Buffalo Calf (woman), Gray Beard, Big Moccasin (warrior), Lean Bear (chief), Shaving Wolf (warrior), Spotted Elk (warrior), Big Nose Kiowa: Lone Wolf (chief), Woman Heart (chief), White Horse (chief), Beef (warrior), Bad Eye (warrior), Double Vision (chief), Bear in the Clouds (leader), Ankle (Mexican), High Forehead (Mexican), Boy (Mexican), Toothless (Mexican), White Goose (warrior), Teeth (warrior), Old Man (Mexican), Good Talk (warrior), Wild Horse (warrior), Flat Nose (warrior), Wise (warrior), Straightening an Arrow (warrior), Kicking (Mexican), Bull or Buffalo with Holes in His Ear (Mexican), Bear Mountain (warrior), Pedro (Mexican), Biter, Straightening an Arrow (warrior), Sun (warrior), Coming to the Grove (warrior), Man Who Walks Above the Ground (chief) Comanche: Buck or Red Antelope (Mexican), Dry Wood (warrior), Black Horse (chief), Mad-a-with-t (warrior), Telling Something (warrior), Tail Feathers (warrior), Always-Sitting-Down-in-a-Bad-Place (warrior), Pile of Rocks (warrior), Little Prairie Hill (Mexican), Mother (woman), Ah-kes (girl age 9) Arapaho: Packer (warrior), White Bear (warrior) Caddo: Choctaw
These Native Americans were transported by wagon to a rail depot 165 miles east of the reservation. Their journey took them by train and boat through the western, mid-western, and southeastern regions of the country before reaching their final destination in St. Augustine, Florida.
Conditions at Fort Marion
Initially, conditions at the fort seemed bleak. Many of the prisoners were uncertain whether their lives were in danger or just how long the imprisonment would last. They wore chains and shackles, were kept under lock and key, and were confined to the casemates (rooms) and courtyard. The gundeck was blockaded and access was only allowed when accompanied by a guard. The prisoners slept on the room floors, most of which were dirt, although some wooden floors were added to make the conditions more sanitary. Still, disease was a constant concern, and the continuous presence of guards from the St. Francis Barracks made the Native Americans very apprehensive.The commanding officer at St. Francis Barracks was initially responsible for the care of the Native Americans in St. Augustine, but after six months of confinement, Captain Richard Henry Pratt was given command of the prisoners at Fort Marion. Under his direction conditions at the fort would drastically change.
Captain Pratt Arrives
Richard Henry Pratt was a Captain in the 10th Calvary. He was assigned to duty in the District of the Indian Territory, comprising most of present-day Oklahoma, as early as 1867. In 1875, Captain Pratt went east to Fort Marion and served as the jailer at the fort until the prisoners were released to the Indian Bureau in 1878. In 1879, Captain Pratt was the driving force behind the founding the Carlisle Industrial School in Carlisle Pennsylvania. He served as the school's superintendent until his dismissal in 1904. Captain Pratt retired from the army in 1903, and the Indian Bureau closed the Carlisle School in 1918.
When Captain Pratt was given charge of the prisoners, he initiated many changes. First, all the chains and shackles were removed, the blockade to the gundeck was taken down, the guards from St. Francis Barracks were relieved, and the rooms ceased to be used as living facilities. The prisoners were given wood to build housing accommodations on the north gundeck, a structure described as being 100 feet long and the width of the gundeck, with rough board bunks on each side. Pratt also organized a guard unit comprised of the prisoners themselves and he furnished these guards with army uniforms and weapons. For the duration of their confinement, the prisoners carried out daily drills, performed all guard duties, were subject to daily inspections, engaged in morning exercise routines, went camping on Anastasia Island, learned how to sail and fish, learned agricultural skills, and made periodic trips to Fort Matanzas. Captain Pratt also organized or approved many special events at the fort or in St. Augustine, such as a dance at the fort, the production of stage performances for profit, a buffalo chase in downtown St. Augustine, and a circus inside the old fort.
Education & Industry
During the imprisonment, the young men received a western education. They learned how to speak and write in English along with other elementary level skills. Many of the casemates were converted into classrooms, and lessons were conducted during the morning hours. The teachers were mostly local women who volunteered their time. These women included Sarah Mather, Anna Pratt, Rebecca Perrit, Nannie Burt, Julia and Laura Gibbs, and Amy Carruthers. In addition to receiving an education, the prisoners were engouraged to earn money by producing items to sell and engaging jobs in town. Bows and arrows, polished alligator teeth, canes, and paper toys were all sold for profit. Popular souvenir items at the time were sea beans.Sea beans could be collected on Anastasia island, and those found here are called MacKay beans, which are seeds found in the tropics and deposited on the coastlines of Florida. These beans were collected, polished, and sold to tourists. In addition, the prisoners were periodically engaged in odd jobs such as clearing land, and one prisoner worked at a local rail depot.
Many of the young men confined at Fort Marion engaged in drawing and painting. The work that they produced is referred to as ledger art. This is a general term used to describe most Native American works of art in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This term refers to the artists' use of paper, usually ledger paper from an accountant's ledger book, to create works of art. This trend became more common as buffalo became scarce and increased contact with white settlers made paper more accessible. Many examples of ledger art still exist today from the period of the imprisonment. These works illustrate a close connection between ledger art and traditional Native American hide painting. Common characteristics include a lack of background, faces usually in profile, no intentional shading or color variations, a lack of perspective, and near and far objects were generally placed on top of one another to show distance. The surviving sketches indicate the prisoners had access to blank or partly used ledgers, army rosters, day books, memorandums books, and various pieces of paper. The works are produced in lead pencils, ink, colored pencils, oil pastels, and watercolors. The most common themes included scenes of life on the plains, the journey to Florida, and the prisoners' experiences at the fort.
Life after Fort Marion
In 1878, the prisoners at Fort Marion were released to the care of the Indian Bureau. Many prisoners made their way back west, but 22 expressed a desire to stay in the east and continue their education. Captain Pratt then made arrangements for these men to have their education funded by white citizens. With the help of Miss Mather, Captain Pratt convinced the superintendent of the Hampton School, a school in Virginia started for freed slaves after the Civil War, to accept 17 of these men as students. The remaining five went to live with families in the northeast.
A Kiowa Legacy
Captain Pratt worked at the fort to assimilate the prisoners. And in doing so, he asked those prisoners to give up their cultural identity and accept a new way of life. Some prisoners were more receptive to this program than others. But at least one prisoner wanted to make a lasting record of their presence at the fort. Remembering his cultural values, he chose to etch a Kiowa Sundance Camp scene on the walls of this prison. Today, that carving is a physical reminder of that Native American experience at Fort Marion.