Lesson Plan

Grade 3-5: Pre-visit - Connemara Farm

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Grade Level:
Third Grade-Fifth Grade
Agriculture, Biology: Animals, Social Studies
45-60 minutes
Group Size:
Up to 36
National/State Standards:
Reading Standards:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7, RI.4.3

North Carolina Essential Standards Science:
5.L.1, 3.L.1


This lesson can be used to prepare for a visit, or as a stand-alone lesson in the classroom.  Students will explore Mrs. Sandburg's prize-winning dairy goats with a focus on learning about the properties of goat's milk, how it's different from cow's milk and how goat's digest differently than humans.


Learning Targets

  • I can analyze and discuss information presented on a website.
  • I can use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast human and goat digestive systems.

Common Core State Standards
Reading Standards for Informational Text:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.3 Explain concepts in a scientific text based on specific information in the text.

North Carolina Essential Standards
5.L.1 Understand how structures and systems of organisms (to include the human body) perform functions necessary for life.
3.L.1 Understand body systems and organs, functions, and their care.


Check out the other lessons in this plan:

Pre-Visit Lesson: Connemara Farm (farm life)
Pre-VIsit Lesson: Poets and Poetry (poetry)
Pre-Visit Lesson: Sandburg Through Time - Growing Up (autobiography)

On-Site Lesson: Sandburg Through Time - From Prairie Town Boy to Famous Writer (identify objects in text)
On-Site Lesson: Sandburg's Writing "Spring Grass" (poetry)

Post-Visit Lesson: Sandburg Through Time (autobiographical poem)
Post-Visit Lesson: Sandburg and Lincoln (compare Sandburg and Lincoln)
Post-Visit Lesson: Why Goat's Milk? (nutrition goat vs. cow milk)


Materials Needed:



Have the students work in small groups or individually to write an advertisement that communicates the need for people or goat healthy eating based on what they have learned about the digestive systems.

Additional Resources


A Comparison Between the Human and Ruminant Digestive Systemby Julie Eden.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Julie_Eden  




·       Mouth is taken to food.  Specialized tongue and lip for grasping and tearing.

·       Food is taken to mouth by hands, utensils, etc...

·       Well-developed molars and premolars for grinding, movement is "lateral".   A gap between premolars and molars allows the tongue to manipulate the food into small amounts prior to swallowing.

·       Incisors and canine produce shearing action, used for cutting food, premolars and molars for grinding and crushing.  Upper and lower teeth movement is "vertical".   

·       Protein needs supplied by rumen bacteria.

·       Protein is a dietary requirement and is provided by the intake of various foods.

Need variety of foods to obtain various other nutrients.

·       One set of teeth for life, teeth wear flat with age.   In most ruminants upper teeth replaced by "Dental Pad".

·       Two sets of teeth (childhood and adult).  Adult tooth loss through decay and improper nutrition - replaced by dentures (false teeth).

·       Regurgitation of cud for chewing at rest


·       Vomiting more common in carnivores and omnivores. Forceful ejection of gastric contents from the mouth.

·       Complex digestive system (Four Stomachs).

·       Digestive System (one stomach).   Ill health, weather changes, irritability and stress, may have an effect on digestive processes.

·       Herbivores – do not eat meat.

·       Omnivores – eat meat and plants.


  • We require food, water, and oxygen to sustain life.
  • We require similar nutrients.
  • We produce similar waste products.