Many different Indian tribes lived in the Chesapeake region, and their social, cultural, and political identities were extremely varied and complex. They spoke different languages, had distinct cultures, and organized themselves in a range of political structures and alliances.
The Indians who lived around the Chesapeake Bay spoke three main languages in a variety of dialects. Most of the tribes spoke Algonquian, but others spoke Siouan and Iroquoian. These language languages could not be mutually understood, although Captain Smith was helped by native translators who could speak multiple languages.
The political and government systems of the Chesapeake natives were complex, and they varied from tribe to tribe.
Most tribes had a chief, called a werowance or weowansqua in the Algonquian languages. A chief's duties were primarily in military, diplomatic, and religious matters. They governed with the assistance of priests and councilors. Some tribes were led by a council.
In some cases, tribal chiefs paid tribute and allegiance to a paramount chief. Tribute often took the form of food and goods in return for leadership, protection, and support in times of difficulty.
For example, at the time of John Smith's voyages, Powhatan's paramount chiefdom included as many as 30 Algonquian-speaking tribes (not all of the Algonquian-speaking groups in the region). It is quite possible that Powhatan perceived Smith as the chief of the English and wanted to bring him into the paramount chiefdom.
The power of a paramount chief was not absolute and had to be earned. Powhatan acquired his position partly through inheritance but also through his own leadership, personal charm, force and spiritual reputation.
Captain John Smith called Powhatan and other paramount chiefs "kings" or "emperors." While this is not a perfect metaphor, it gives an idea of how the English perceived the high status of paramount chiefs.
American Indian Tribes of the Chesapeake
Major paramount chiefdoms and tribes of the Chesapeake circa 1607:
No two Indian groups had exactly the same culture. However, some of the interesting features common among Chesapeake Indian tribes in the early 1600s included:
Conflict was common. Raids - especially between different language groups - were carried out regularly, and men trained to be warriors. In raids, women and children were often taken and adopted, but make captives were frequently tortured, which was considered an honor. Some Indian towns were surrounded by palisades for protection from attacks.
Last updated: January 11, 2018