Special Searches


It is possible to see various groupings of people in one search – for example, all those killed in the Pima Rebellion of 1751, or all the Franciscan priests who served in the Pimería Alta. To see any of the groupings listed below, simply type the bolded words or letters on the left into the “Title” box on the search page, leaving the rest of the fields blank.


Apache Attacks

The following are Apache attacks in which several (or many) people were killed


December 9, 1743 – Divisadero Ranch


November 14, 1746Hasohuvaibca


July 27, 1763Buena Vista


February 1, 1769Santa Ana horse range


May 4, 1770 – Calabazas


July 13, 1770 – Sonoitac


July 1, 1771 – Tumacácori and Sonoitac


July 14, 1772 – Guevavi


October 31, 1784 – the mountains above Tumacácori


June 5, 1801 – Tumacácori


May 9, 1848 - Agua de las Mesteñas (Whetstone Mountains). Fifteen Tucson residents were masacred. Captain Limón of the Santa Cruz Presidio took some soldiers out to retrieve the bodies on July 7th. They brought them back to Santa Cruz and buried them in the cemetery there.



Baptisms in Large Numbers


Trip to Caborca – Padre Agustín de Campos visited the settlements to the west of San Ignacio in the spring of 1720, baptizing 39 people at Caborca


Six Nijoras – lists six Nijora children baptized at the same time on November 14, 1723 at San Ignacio by Padre Campos


During the northern – Padre Campos made a trip to the north, traveling 160 leagues, in the early spring 1724 because the O’odham were sick with smallpox and requesting baptism.  Along the road and at the villages of Cocóspera, Guevavi, Xona, Comac, Toaqui, Cuituaboca, San Xavier del Bac, Tres Álamos, Quiburi, Tuhto, Bacarica, Babaquiburica buhvi, and Ímuris he baptized 175 people.


1727 at San Ignacio – Padre Gallardi baptized sixteen children and an adult on August 6th at San Ignacio


1728 at San Ignacio – Padre Campos baptized twenty children the day after Christmas at San Ignacio


1731 at San Ignacio – Padre Campos baptized nine children on March 25th at San Ignacio


Casa Grande – In the summer of 1743, Padre Keller made a trip northward as far as the Gila River. He had with him a company of locals from Suamca, including Francisco Léon, Francisco Martínez, Asencio Sierra, the mission fiscal, Francisco Xavier Gil Robles, and local O'odham converts Francisco, Cristóbal, Manuel, Antonio, Agustín, Teresa, Hacinto, Andrés, and Patricio. On August 24th, in front of the Casa Grande ruins, he baptized twenty-nine children and one grown man who was ill.


1748 at Guevavi – With license from José Garrucho, Padre Joaquín Feliz Díaz baptized ten children from Toac, Sópori, and Guevavi on November 26th.  Feliz Diaz recorded their names, parents and godparents. Later, Padre Garrucho recorded where they were from.


Pipiac in February – Padre Garrucho baptized nine children at this Ranchería on February 22, 1750.


Comacavitcam – On March 9, 1750, Padre Garrucho baptized five children at this ranchería.


Pipiac in March – Padre Garrucho was back at Pipiac on March 15, 1750. It appears that he baptized four children there and then four more at other rancherías on his way home to Guevavi.


Tres Alamos – Padre Miguel de la Vega was sent to Tres Alamos on the San Pedro River from Mission Santa María Suamca by Father Ignacio Xavier Keller to perform baptisms there. Father Vega took an entourage of Spanish helpers/settlers with him from Terrenate, Suamca, and the upper Santa Cruz River Valley, including Antonio Romero, Eugenio Ael, Francisco Bernardo Valenzuela, Ignacio de Rojas, Juan German, Xavier de León, José Antonio Espinosa, Juan Antonio Figueroa, Juan María Quintero, Ignacio Espinosa, and Patricio Amesquita. Also included in the list of workers was Manuel, the native mador of Santa María Suamca. The party likely arrived at Tres Alamos on Friday, September 24, 1751. The next day, Saturday the 25th baptisms were performed for thirty-seven children. The following day being Sunday, no work was accomplished, but on Monday, September 27th, another sixteen baptisms were solemnized, bringing the total to fifty-three children baptized on the two days.


1753 at Guevavi  At Guevavi on December 8, 1753, Padre Keller baptized twenty-eight children brought from various outlying rancherías. He also baptized a newborn son and an Apache captive of Captain Juan Tomás Beldarrain of Tubac at the same time.


Nine Indian children – lists nine Indian children (six Nijoras, two Jallcheduns, and an apparent Apache) who were baptized by Padre Francisco Moyano at Caborca on July 3, 1786.


Yuma girls – lists six captive Yuma girls between the ages of eight and fifteen who were baptized at the same time of February 5, 1820 by Padre Faustino Gonzalez.


Burials beneath the Floors of the Churches


Church at Calabazas – lists 10 deceased persons buried under the floor of the church at Calabazas


Church at Cocóspera – lists 5 people buried under the floor of the church at Cocóspera


Church at Guevavi – lists 105 people buried under the floor of the church at Guevavi


Janos Presidio Chapel – lists 226 people buried under the floor of the presidio chapel at Janos


Old Janos church – lists 18 people buried under the floor of the old church at Janos


Church at San Ignacio – lists 142 people buried under the floor of the church at San Ignacio


Church at Sonoitac – lists 13 people buried under the floor of the church at Sonoitac


Church at Suamca – lists 30 people buried under the floor of the church at Suamca


Church at Tubac – lists 11 people buried under the floor of the church at Tubac


Church at Tumacácori – lists 32 people buried under the floor of the church at Tumacácori. With the exception of the two priests, Baltazar Carrillo and Narciso Gutiérrez, they were all buried in the old Jesuit church, not the present-day Franciscan church. The two priests were first buried under the floor of the Jesuit Church. Later, when the people started to use the new Franciscan Church, the two bodies were disinterred and reburied in the Franciscan Church. Many years later after Tumacácori had become a National Monument, the bodies of the two priests were once again disinterred and reburied at San Xavier del Bac near Tucson.




1723 epidemic – killed fourteen people at the Janos Presidio in a month-and-a-half, six of whom were employees or children of employees of Captain Antonio Bezerra Nieto.


Smallpox epidemic of 1724 – Traveling 160 leagues, Father Campos made a trip to the north in the early spring 1724 because the O’odham were sick with smallpox and requesting baptism.  Along the road and at the villages of Cocóspera, Guevavi, Xona, Comac, Toaqui, Cuituaboca, San Xavier del Bac, Tres Álamos, Quiburi, Tuhto, Bacarica, Babaquiburica buhvi, and Ímuris he baptized 175 people, many of whom were sick and dying.


Measles epidemic of 1728-29 – Over sixty people of all ages died from the measles between the first of September, 1728 and the end of January, 1729, in the vicinity of San Ignacio, with the vast majority dying in January


Small pox epidemic of 1737 – The summer of 1737 saw a devastating small pox epidemic in the Pimería. At least thirty people died in San Ignacio-Ímuris area, alone. Communities at least as far north as Suamca and as far south as Guaymas were effected. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza of Fronteras had the following to say about it:  "...I went to several Indian villages that had been deserted but were now the most crowded. People were lying in the open where some, unfortunately, were dying, having contracted smallpox..."


1743 epidemic – this epidemic occurred at Sópori in December of 1743 and appears to have been characterized by such devastating symptoms as "yellow vomit, urine retention, and swollen throat"


1744 epidemic – devastated the community of Guevavi in December of 1744, killing at least sixteen people, two of whose burials Manuel José de Sosa recorded twice in the confusion of so many deaths in such a short amount of time


1748 epidemic – was devastating Janos, Nueva Vizcaya, in the summer and fall. It is possibly the same one that started up at the first of 1749 in the Pimería Alta.


1749 epidemic –started in January and ran into May but was in full force during the months of February, March, and April. 91 people died at San Ignacio and Ímuris. Guevavi and Sonoitac lost at least 50.


1751 smallpox – the outbreak seems to have started in Ímuris in mid-may, moving quickly to San Ignacio and was at its worst during the months of July, August, and September in those two places. Guevavi was hit hard in late summer and Sonoitac was devastated in October.


1770 measles – this "epidemia de sarampión" began in December of 1769 and lasted through February.  Nineteen natives of San Ignacio died at that mission and one who had traveled to Tubutama. At Oquitoa fourteen children from the Papaguería were baptized on January 21st, most likely because their parents hoped it would prevent them from dying from the disease.


1800 epidemic – an epidemic of unknown cause that killed four children and two youths in the month of April at Tumacácori


1805 epidemic – this disease, which struck Tumacácori in May of 1805, seems to have been characterized by "green vomit" (vómitos verdes)


1816 epidemic – this "plague" (peste) appears to have begun in September of 1816 and did not let up until after January 1, 1817, killing some 28 people in Tumacácori and Calabazas, of whom at least 19 were children


1826 epidemic – this epidemic killed fourteen children at Cocóspera in April of 1826 and is probably the same plague that was recorded as measles in Pitiquito later in June as shown below.


1826 measles epidemic – in June Padre Faustino Gonzales baptized 51 people at Pitiquito whose immanent death was expected from measles. Four of them died almost immediately after their baptism but the record of what happened to the others has not been found. This is probably the same epidemic that started in Cocóspera the previous April.


1826 by typing only “1826” into the title field you will see a list of all the names of the people who either died, or were baptized in expectation of their impending death, at both Cocóspera and Pitiquito.


Expeditions of Juan Bautista de Anza to Alta California

1774 Anza Expedition – gives a list of the soldiers who accompanied Juan Bautista de Anza on the expedition to find a land route between Sonora and Alta California


fundador – lists various members of the expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza in 1775-1776 to found a colony on the Río  San Francisco in Alta California



Franciscan Priests

ofm – see a list of the Franciscan priests who served in the Pimería Alta



Jesuit Priests

ihs – lists the  Jesuit priests who served in Sonora and Sinaloa


(Jesuit Expulsion)

arrest of the Jesuits – gives the Jesuit Priests of Sonora and Sinaloa who died before they got out of Sonora


Port of Guaymas – lists the fifty Jesuits who were shipped out of the Port of Guaymas on the Packet Boat “El Príncipe


tepic – a list of six of the seven Jesuits associated with Guevavi and Suamca who died during the forced march between Tepic, Nayarit, and Guadalajara, Jalisco during the general expulsion of the Jesuits  (The seventh, Pedro Díaz, did not sign any records during his short stay at Guevavi)


Princesa – lists the nineteen Sonoran Jesuits who were shipped out of the Port of Veracruz on the Swedish cargo ship “La Princesa Ulrecca


Aventurero – lists the nine Jesuits who were shipped out of the Port of Veracruz on the French brigantine “El Aventurero



Later History

independence - The struggle for Mexican independence disrupted life on the northern frontier even after freedom from Spain was gained. This section lists some of the people who were involved in various ways in the struggle before, during and after Mexican independence.


homesteader – In the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century many people homesteaded in the vicinity of the Tumacácori Mission. One homesteader, Carmen Mendez, applied for and received title to the land that the mission sat on. Many received the title to their land, but all were forced out in 1914 by the Supreme Court decision in the New Mexico land grant case known as the “Baca Float.” Times were ugly as families were forced off the land by U.S. Marshals. One of the homesteaders was shot and killed, two were poisoned and died from the after effects. By typing <homesteader> in the title search field you will see a list of many of these people who worked hard to “prove up” on their land, only to be forced to leave their farms in the end.


riot – In June of 1903 the Arizona territorial legislature passed a law requiring that men could not be worked underground in the mines for more than an eight hour shift. Although Anglo miners were already working only eight hours per day, Mexican miners were working ten hours for less pay. When the new law was passed the mine owners cut the Mexicans’ time back from ten to eight hours, and then cut their pay accordingly. Some 3500 Mexican miners walked off of the job, effectively closing the copper mining operations in Morenci, Metcalf, and Clifton. The Graham County Sheriff deputized sixty men and the Arizona Rangers, the National Guard, and the Unites States Cavalry were called in to force the miners back to work. In the end some eighteen of the strikers were arrested for their activities in the walk-out. The prosecution first tried to pin a felony charge on them. Evidently feeling that they would not get a conviction, they reduced the charge in the indictment to the crime of “riot,” even though the defendants objected to the change. Even though no shots were fired, no one was hurt, and no riot had taken place, ten men - six Mexicans and four Italian immigrants - were convicted of rioting and sent to Yuma Territorial Prison. By typing <riot> into the title box you can see who those ten men were and read about them in the events with which they are associated.


Nijora Phenomenon

Nijora   Generally Indians of the Yuma speaking nation were called “Nijora.” Possibly other tribes that could not be identified were sometimes called “Nijora,” but that is becoming more doubtful. They all seem to have come from the general area of the Colorado River. There are over 400 of them presently in the system and more than 100 people who married them, rescued them, raised them, or were in some other way associated with them. A search can be done for them under “race or tribe” on the search page. This particular “Title” search, on the other hand, is provided to try to help us understand what is here called the “Nijora Phenomenon,” a sort of captive children trade among the Colorado River Indian tribes. Nothing is absolute in the Nijora Phenomenon, including the name itself. Nijora meant different things to the different priests who recorded them.  Some Nijoras were not even given a name in the mission registers and many have no other information beyond their basic birth, marriage, or death statistics. Some, on the other hand, became very prominent in the work of the missions. Others married Spaniards or mestizos, and many of them married mission Indians and raised families that can be traced. Most seem to have started as captives while they were small children. It was not a business conducted only among the Indians, because certainly Spaniards got involved in it. While some Nijoras may have ended up as “slaves” in the truest sense of the word, by far the majority were raised as foster or adopted children and later became workers among the O’odham or other tribes in the missions and in the various outlying communities. Many mission communities had a “rescatín,” or a mission Indian who “redeemed” or “ransomed” Nijora children when they were brought into the community by the traders, who were always other Yuma tribes, or Opa, Cocomaricopa, Gileño, or Papago. Spaniards who purchased (or ransomed) Nijora children seem to have done so for one of two reasons - they either raised them as their own children, or eventually they put them on their roster of hired employees. The missions sometimes redeemed them from the traders and then sent them to Spanish families to raise. The idea, of course, was to raise them away from gentile tribes and with a Christian upbringing. Our understanding of this phenomenon is rudimentary, but as more “unique” Nijoras are added to the system, they are placed under this search field and the information that makes them unique beyond normal birth and death information is added to their personal notes, which adds to our overall understanding of them.


Nacion – spelled without the accent over the “o”, will show all of the Nijoras who were listed as belonging to the “Nijora nation” or the “Yuma nation, commonly called Nijora.”


Six Nijoras – lists six Nijora children baptized at the same time on November 14, 1723 at San Ignacio by Padre Agustín de Campos.


Three Nijoras – lists three Nijora children baptized at the same time on January 1, 1764 at Caborca by Padre Antonio María Bentz..


Three Young Adult Nijoras – Lists three young adult Nijoras baptized on the same day at Caborca (April 3, 1779) by Padre Francisco Garces with permission from Padre José Matias Moreno. There was at least a fourth, and possibly more baptized that same day by Padre Garces, but the pages are missing.  At least some of those involved were from Pitiquito.



Five Indian children – lists five Indian children (3 Nijoras and two Seris) who were baptized by Padre Antonio Ramos at Pitiquito on the same day, December 14, 1781.


Two Nijora Adults – lists two Nijora “adults” (eight to ten years of age) baptized at the same time by Padre Antonio Ramos at Pitiquito on January 31, 1782.


Two Nijoras – lists two Nijora children baptized at the same time on September 11, 1785 at Caborca by Padre Antonio Ramos.


Four Nijoras – lists four Nijoras, two children and two adults (ranging in age from five to thirteen years), baptized by Padre Antonio Ramos at Pitiquito on January 27, 1786.


Nine Indian children – lists nine Indian children (six Nijoras, two Jalcheduns, and an apparent Apache) who were baptized by Padre Francisco Moyano at Caborca on the same day, July 3, 1786.


Three Gentile Children – lists three Nijora children of gentile parents baptized on the same day, October 29, 1788, by Padre Bautista Llorens at Oquitoa.


Six Nijora Children – lists six Nijora children baptized by Padre Francisco Moyano on May 4, 6, 8, and 18, 1793, four of whom were teenagers.


Yuma boys – lists two captive Yuma boys, eight and ten years old, who were baptized at the same time on September 19, 1800 at Oquitoa by Padre José Gomez.


Yuma girls – lists six captive Yuma girls between the ages of eight and fifteen who were baptized at the same time on February 5, 1820 at Caborca by Padre Faustino Gonzalez.


Three Nijora children – lists three Nijora children (Juan Faustino, Juan Faustino, and Juana Faustina) baptized by Padre Faustino Gonzalez at the same time on February 15, 1820 at Caborca. The baptismal record of one of the boys named Juan Faustino also gives an excellent description of the Nijora phenomenon.


Two Nijora children – lists two Nijora children baptized at the same time by Padre Mariano Nieto of Oquitoa on January 28, 1825.


Nichor Nixor NicorNigor Nihor Nifor Ninfor any of the forgoing will show the various ways that different missionaries spelled the name, often giving an indication of the missionary’s own cultural and language background.



Pasajeros a Indias

(Passengers to the Indies)

pasajero – lists all the passengers to the Indies that are presently in the Mission 2000 database


1675 pasajero – shows Father Kino’s superior, Juan de Salvatierra and the admiral of the fleet that he was on coming to Nueva España


1678 pasajero – shows Padre Marcos de Loyola, a well-known missionary in this region, and the captain of the ship “Jesus Nazareno” that brought 27 Jesuits to New Spain that year


1692 pasajero – lists 33 priests who came to New Spain on board the “Santo Cristo de Maracaibo, ” including missionaries to the Pimería Alta Agustín de Campos, Daniel Janusque, Melchor Bartyromo, and Jerónimo Minutuli. Ship Captain Vicente Álvarez is also included in the list.



Pima Uprising of 1751

house of Luis – see a list of the two women and nine children who were burned to death in Oacpicagigua's house at Saric the evening before the main uprising began


rebellion – records of people killed in the Pima Rebellion of 1751


revolt – list of those who died in the aftermath of the Pima Rebellion of 1751


uprising – lists the officials who were involved in the aftermath of the Pima Rebellion of 1751.



Probate Records

Presently there is only one probate record in the system - that of Gregorio Álvarez Tuñón y Quirós, the infamous captain of the Presidio of Santa Rosa de Corodéguachi, commonly called Fronteras. After being sacked as its commander in 1726, and while awaiting trial in Mexico City, Don Gregorio returned to his home at Jamaica, Sonora where he fell victim to a plague that was devastating the region and died there on March 30, 1728. It took fifteen estate sales and several months of legal maneuvering to liquidate his holdings. There are 209 people associated with this one event alone. You can presently look at three different groupings of people who were involved in one way or another, by typing the following bold letters into the “title” search field:


PIGA gives an alphabetical listing of all 209 early Sonorans associated with the record


APIGA in the title search will list five auctioneers or “public cryers” (pregoneros) who auctioned everything off - three were mulatos, one Negro, and one unidentified - three were slaves, one was free, and one unidentified.


BPIGA shows a list of all 28 successful bidders at the fifteen different auctions that were held to sell off all of Don Gregorio’s property. By clicking on any of their individual numbers, you can look at what they bought - including his gold toothpick and how much it went for.




Royal Military Hospital at Arizpe

hospital – see a list of officials who worked at the Royal Military Hospital at Arizpe just before and after the turn of the nineteenth century



Sacred Datura Poisoning

Sacred Datura – lists people poisoned by ingesting some portion of the Sacred Datura plant



Seri Attacks

November 3, 1757 – lists the name of the leader of the Seri attack on Magdalena and the thirty-one people who died in that massacre


Killed by Seris – gives the names of three people, including one priest, who were killed by Seri Indians near Mission Átil on April 26, 1778.



Troop Reviews and Censuses

Janos-1797 – lists 162 active and retired soldiers and officers of the Presidio of Janos on April 2, 1797


Padrón de Arizona-1752 – lists thirteen people living at the ranchería of Arizona on March 9, 1752


Padrón de Guevavi-1752 – lists sixty-six people living at Mission Guevavi on Arpil 14, 1752. The horrible smallpox epidemic of the summer before is apparent in the absence of small children in this census.


Padrón de Sópori-1752 – lists eighteen people living at Sópori. There were no native officials. There was also only one child under the age of twelve, a probable sign of the smallpox epidemic.


Padrón de Tubac-1752 – lists forty people living at Tubac on April 14, 1752. There were no single women and only three children under the age of twelve at that time. The absence of small children is likely due to the smallpox epidemic the summer before.


Terrenate-1775 – lists 56 soldiers, officers, and scouts of the Presidio of Terrenate on July 1, 1775


Tubac-1752 – lists the original 51 soldiers and officers who signed up for the new presidial company after the Pima uprising of 1751. The soldiers were already recruited and the troop review was carried out on March 26, 1752, a couple of months before Tubac was decided upon as the site for the new garrison.


Tubac-1767 – lists 54 non-military residents of Tubac on April 2, 1767, the person who compiled the census, and the Sonoran governor who ordered it


Tubac-1775 – lists 56 soldiers, officers, and scouts of the Presidio of Tubac on August 13, 1775


Volante-1775 – lists 43 soldiers and officers of the “Flying Company” stationed at the Presidio of Terrenate on July 10, 1775