Valentine, Margie G.

    1973             ASelected food practices of Papago Indians.@ Master=s thesis, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Bibl. 77 pp. [The author interviewed 130 Papago women from three villages: Kerwo (Gu Vo), Sells, and San Xavier. The thesis seeks to examine difference which occur in thirteen separate areas with regard to menus, foods, herbs, meal patterns, foods used in cures, illness caused by diet, etc. etc. Differences in food practices in the three villages were slight.]


Valenzuela, Felipe de J.

    1987             Perfil biográfico de Eusebio F. Kino. In 300 años del arribo del Padre Kino a Sonora, 1687-1987. Simposio binacional de estudios sobre Eusebio Francisco Kino. Memoria, pp. 11-23. Hermosillo, Gobierno del Estado de Sonora. [This is a biographical sketch of Father Kino, the Jesuit missionary who was the pioneer European settler in the Pimería Alta and the first to evangelize among the Northern Piman Indians.]

    1995a           Cronografía de Kino. Newsletter, no. 9 (September), insert. Nogales, Arizona, Pimería Alta Historical Society. [This is a 4-page chronology of the life of Eusebio Francisco Kino, pioneer European and missionary among the Northern Piman Indians. It incorrectly states that in 1703 Kino began construction of Auna iglesia mayor@ (a major church) at San Xavier del Bac.]

    1995b           Kino=s chronology. Newsletter, no. 7 (July), insert. Nogales, Arizona, Pimería Alta Historical Society. [This is the English version of Valenzuela (1995a).]


Valenzuela, Rodriquez

    1982             The bull roarer. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 9. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Writes Papago student Valenzuela: "The bull roarer is dangerous because it brings lots of wind. The wind can be dangerous and the bull roarer is also dangerous because the strong can twist and hit you in the face."]


Valenzuela M., Felipe de Jesús

    1991             Why I must know about my past. In 1992. Indians of the Pimería Alta [calendar], p. [4]. Nogales, Arizona, Pimería Alta Historical Society. [Dr. Valenzuela=s five-paragraph essay, while making no mention of O=odham, is nonetheless printed here in Spanish, English, and O=odham.]


Valoyce-Sanchez, Georgiana

    1994             [Twelve poems by a woman described as "Chumash and O'odham (Tohono/Pima)."] In The sound of rattles and clappers [Sun Tracks, Vol. 26], edited by Greg Sarris, pp. 73-91. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [One poem, "Mama's Water Story," is about the poet's "Papago Pima mama" and her life in the desert and drinking water from an olla.]


Valverde, Benito; Juen Tereso Álamo, and Cristóbal Aliso

    1997             To the legal authorities of the prefecture of Altar. In A frontier documentary. Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848, edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 117-118. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [This complaint was written at the village of Átil in the Altar Valley on Sonora on October 18, 1846. The three signers, O=odham from Oquitoa, Átil, and Tubutama, complain that the mission lands, traditionally theirs, Aare now being taken over by private citizens without the concurrence of or consultation with our official missionary. ... Instead, all these benefits are going to the private citizens usurping the rights to our own lands. Justice demands that these lands immediately be returned to the administration of our missionary.@ See Moreno and Bustamante (1997) for the response.]


Van Camp, Gena R.

    1979             Kumeyaay pottery: paddle-and-anvil techniques of Southern California [Ballena Press Anthropological Papers, no. 15]. Socorro, New Mexico, Ballena Press. Map, illus., appendices, bibl. 117 pp. [This study of the pottery of the Kumeyaay (Southern Diegueño) Indians makes frequent comparisons with Papago Indian pottery based on the study by Fontana and others (1962). Papagos and their pottery are mentioned on pages 42, 49, 51, 61, and 65.]


Van Devender, Thomas R., and Mark A. Dimmitt

    2000             Dsert grasses. In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp. 265-280. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [AAt Ventana Ranch between Ajo and Sells on the Tohono O=odham Reservation in Arizona, tobosa (Pleuraphis mutica) covers a periodically flooded valley at 2100 feet (635 m) elevation. This is an isolated, low elevation, western example of the tobosa swales of the Chihuahuan Desert@ (pp. 27-271).]


Van Dyke, John C.

    1901             The desert. New York, Charles Scribner=s Sons. 233 pp. [Much of the description in this book B of air, mountains, plants, animals, desert colors, etc. B is based on the desert of southern Arizona. Mention of Baboquivari Peak occurs throughout, and Papagos are mentioned specifically on pages 2 and 13. The trincheras site described on pages 9-20, including speculation concerning it, is possibly that of Black mountain on the San Xavier (Papago) Indian Reservation.]

    1922             The open spaces. New York, Charles Scribner=s Sons. 272 pp. [Although he doesn=t mention the place by name, Van Dyke apparently camped at the Papago settlement of Poso Verde in Sonora, giving an account of encountering presumed horse thieves there. He also talks about meeting Papago and Yaki (Yaqui) Indians in Arizona Awho were friendly and helpful@ (p. 92).]


Van Otten, G.A.

    1987             Economic development and land use planning for the San Lucy District of the Tohono O=odham Nation. In Applied Geography Conferences, no. 10, pp. 159-164. Binghamton, New York, Department of Geography, State University of New York at Binghamton; Kent, Ohio, Department of Geography, Kent State University. [The O=odham village of San Lucy on the Gila Bend Indian Reservation was relocated in 1966 after construction of the Painted Rock Dam. Two subsequent decades of flooding have made it impossible for the people to use their land, and 560 residents live in poverty. Their houses have deteriorated, and they are dependent on federal and tribal governments for support. Discussed here is recent progress in economic development and land use planning by members of the San Lucy District.]


Van Slyke, Clague

    [1996]          [Untitled.] Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, front page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [President Van Slyke gives details of the amount of money thus far raised, some $1,485,627 from 1991 through 1995, for interior conservation of the church at Mission San Xavier del Bac. He tells how the money has been spent.]

    [1997]          [Untitled.] Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, front page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [President Van Slyke celebrates the 1997 completion of interior conservation of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac, noting the success of a celebration held in a tent on school grounds behind the mission that drew some 1,500 guests.]

    [1998]          [Untitled.] Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, front page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [This article by the President of the Patronato San Xavier thanks past board members of the Patronato for their work and thanks, too, Fr. Alberic Smith, O.F.M., San Xavier's pastor since August, 1977, for his help in making possible continuing conservation efforts on the San Xavier church. There is a photo of Fr. Alberic accompanying the essay.]

    2001             President=s comments. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1-page insert. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Van Slyke summarizes work that has taken place on the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac in the preceding year, especially thanking Fr. David Gaa, O.F.M., the mission=s pastor, for his enthusiastic cooperation.]


Van Valkenburgh, R.B.

    1865             Letter to M.O. Davidson. In Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs for 1865, pp. 136-138. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Van Valkenburgh was Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs when he wrote this letter on September 7, 1865 from the Office of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C. The letter contains various instructions for M. Oliver Davidson, who had been appointed as special agent to the Papagos. It contains information concerning salary, distribution of funds and goods, hiring a teacher and blacksmith, payment to Papago chiefs, setting up reservations, hiring a clerk, policy regarding relations with the military, relations with Sonora, and transportation of goods from Guaymas, Sonora.]


Van Valkenburgh, Richard

    1945             Tom Childs of Ten-Mile Wash. Desert Magazine, Vol. 9, no. 2 (December), pp. 3-6. El Centro, California, Desert Publishing Company. [This is an excellent article about Tom Childs, an Anglo man born in Arizona City (Yuma) in 1870 and who married a San Papago woman and who lived some ten miles north of Ajo, Arizona. There is considerable information here about Sand Papagos, including Caravajales, Athe hermit of Tinajas de los Papago on the Sonora side.@ There are photos of Child=s house, the Gila Bend stage station, and a pair of Papago brush houses, ca. 1900, with a Papago family in the scene. There is also a map of Sand Papago country.]

    1995             Tom Childs of Ten Mile Wash. Ajo Copper News, August 2 (Wednesday), pp. 5-6. Ajo, Arizona, Ajo Copper News. [This is a reprint of a newspaper article that appeared first in the Ajo Copper News on December 12, 1945. This lengthy interview with Tom Childs about himself and about Sand Papagos is a reprint of Childs (1945). The article was again reprinted in the newspaper ca. December 11, 2001.]

    1947             His compass was a burro=s tail. Desert Magazine, Vol. 10, no. 11 (September), pp. 19-22. El Centro, California, Desert Press, Inc. [This article about prospector Fred Wright, a man who had spent thirty-seven years searching for gold in the region of the Camino del Diablo in southwest Arizona/northwest Sonora, mentions the 1751 Pima Revolt which resulted in the death of Father Enrique Ruhen at Sonoyta, Sonora. Sometime early in the 20th century, Wright hiked across the sand dunes between the Pinacate Mountains and the Gulf of California, en route encountering Acorral-like houses and cemeteries of the Areneño@ (Sand Papagos). AMany times since I wish that I had picked up some of the pottery and other Indian stuff lying around in those deserted camps.@]

    1948             On Kino=s trail to Pozo Verde. Desert Magazine, Vol. 11, no. 9 (July), pp. 5-9. El Centro, California, Desert Press, Inc. [With a map and illustrations, this article is about a journey made by the author to the Papago village Pozo Verde (Cheotak=vavia), Sonora, Mexico. There is a discussion of the legend of Hau=kauks, the ACruel Old Woman,@ and her relationship to the village=s legendary past.]


Van Willigen. John G.

    1971a           The Papago Indian community development worker. Community Development Journal, Vol. 6, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 85-91. Swansea, Wales, Social Administration Division, University of Swansea. [A discussion of the Papago community development project initiated on the Papago Reservation in July, 1967, one covering the various tasks carried out by Papago people who were employed as community development workers. He also stresses the need of linkage among villages and the larger tribal body politic.]

    1971b           AThe role of the community level worker in Papago Indian development.@ Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Bibl. 244 pp. [This dissertation examines the role of the community development worker in the social and physical development of certain small communities located on the three Papago reservations. The major conclusion is that the community-level worker can be part of an effective strategy in bringing about development in small-scale communities.]

    1973a           Community selection of village-level workers in an American Indian community development program. In Abstracts of 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, edited by Deward Walker, p. 64. Tucson, Society for Applied Anthropology.

    1973b           Concrete means and abstract goals: Papago experiences in the application of development resources. Human Organization, Vol. 32, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 1-8. Washington, Society for Applied Anthropology. [AInstitutions providing resources for development goal attainment in Papago Indian communities are evaluated in terms of their consistency with the abstract goals of community development. Specifically, resources are analyzed in terms of their location, focus of application, goal orientation, duration, linkage with community organizations, and propensity to encourage the creation of new social structures. It is concluded that generally the resources available to Papago communities are inconsistent with the abstract goals of community development.@]


Vanderbilt, Cornelius, Jr.

    1955             The living past of America. A pictorial treasure of our historic houses and villages that have been preserved and restored. New York, Crown Publishers, Inc. Illus. xiv + 234 pp. [Included in this illustrated (in black-and-white) catalogue of historic places in the United States is a one-paragraph account of Mission San Xavier del Bac and a mention of Mission Tumacácori. A photo of the portion of the church=s retablo mayor accompanies the description.]


Vanderpool, Tim

    1991             Opportunity or deception for Mexico=s O=odham? In These Times, May 8-14, pp. 7, 22. Chicago, Institute for Public Affairs. [This is a fairly lengthy, newspaper-format article concerning efforts by the Tohono O=odham Nation to get recognition of land rights for Tohono O=odham living in Mexico. The article makes the assertion, probably erroneous, that there are a thousand Tohono O=odham living in Mexico.]

    1995             Tucson: Native American exhibit charts new path. Sunset, Vol. 194, no. 1 (January), p. 18. Menlo Park, California, Sunset Publishing Corporation. [A notice concerning the Paths of Life exhibit in the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona mentions the O'odham portion of the exhibit.]

    1998             Putting the wail in waila. Tucson Monthly, Vol. 1, no. 8 (April), pp. 6-7. Tucson, Madden Publishing, Inc. [An article about the annual Waila Festival staged at the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson is accompanied by a black-and-white photo of O'odham waila musicians performing there. The emphasis is on Tohono O'odham musicians.]

    2001             Arizona's desert people. Sunset, Southwest Edition, Vol. 206, no. 2 (February), pp. 31-32. Menlo Park, California, Sunset Publishing Corporation. [A color photo of the annual Sells rodeo and of the interior of the basket room at the Gu Achi Trading Post accompany this article about the Tohono O'odham Nation. While the rodeo and fair are featured, there is also mention of Kitt Peak, Wiwpul Du'ag Native Arts store near San Pedro Village, Mission San Xavier del Bac, the Papago Cafe, the Desert Diner, Sacred Heart church in Covered Wells, and the Casa Grande O'odham Tash celebration.]


Vanderpool, Tim, compiler

    2004             When in Tucson: TGQ readers and savvy locals reveal their top picks in our 3rd annual Abest of@ poll. Tucson Guide Quarterly, Vol. 22, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 52-56. Tucson, Madden Preprint, LLC. [Listed here as a Anot to miss historic attraction@ is Mission San Xavier del Bac. Vanderpool quotes Bernard Fontana discussing the balance and harmony evident in the design of the church.]


VanPool, Todd L.

    2003             AExplaining changes in projectile point morphology: a case study from Ventana Cave, Arizona.@ Ph.D. dissertation, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 382 pp. [Ventana Cave is an archaeological site in the Tohono O=odham Nation. It was occupied and/or used from Paleoindian to historic (Papago) times. This is a detailed study of the stone projectile points uncovered there by archaeologists. He argues that stemmed arrow points increased after about 1,500 years before the present in part, at least, because of the increased use of arrows after that time.]


Varney, Philip

    1996             Trekking Buenos Aires Wildlife Refuge by mountain bike. Arizona Highways, Vol. 72, no. 9 (September), pp. 50-53. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Three of the four color photos accompanying this article show the east-southeast elevation of Baboquivari Peak, "sacred to the Tohono O'odham as the home of their god I'itoi" (p. 50).]


Vásquez, Francisco X.

    1997             A brief report on the Indians and villages they occupy along the Caborca, Tubutama, and San Ignacio rivers. In A frontier documentary. Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848, edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp.94-95. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Father Vásquez was diocesan priest at Altar, Sonora and vicario for all of northern Sonora when he penned this report to the Bishop of Sonora and Sinaloa at La Cieneguilla on May 2, 1844. He describes the condition of the churches at Caborca, Pitiquito, and Tubutama; mentions the Aformer@ missions of Oquitoa, Átil, Tubutama, and Saric; and says that countless numbers of Papagos, Aalthough they have been catechized and baptized, have fled beyond the frontier. Mexican settlers, lured by the gold and silver mines discovered in Papago territory, have been coming in to replace them. No towns have been established in the mining area, due to the inconstancy of the mines and of the Papagos themselves, who have twice rebelled against the government.@

                           Although Tubac and Tucson receive mention, there is none of San Xavier or Tumacácori.]


Vásquez, Raúl F.

    1955             Geografía del Estado de Sonora. México, D.F., Libros Mexicanos. Maps, illus. [There is a brief discussion of Sonoran Papagos on pages 126-127.]


Vásquez Aguirre, Rafael

    1979             See Camou H. (1985)


Vavages, Teresa

    1982a           Papago language is forgotten. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 5. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Vavages, a Papago Indian woman, laments not knowing the Papago language. "It think it happened when things began to change because the people that knew English couldn't understand us and they began to teach us English instead of our own language."]

    1982b           [Untitled.] Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 14. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Vavages has this to say about a drawing she has done that appears on this page: "I drew a picture of a coyote howling at the moon because he was hungry and desperate. If he didn't get food the coyote would starve. Coyotes howl at the moon when it is full. It is the sign of hunger and dying."]

    1982c           [Untitled.] Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 29. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [This is Vavages's interpretation of petroglyphs imagined and drawn by fellow Papago student Shiela Francisco (1982b).]

Vavich, M.G.; A.R. Kemmerer, and J.S. Hirsch

    1954             The nutritional status of Papago Indian children. Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, no. 1 (September), pp. 121-132. Philadelphia, The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. [Report of a survey made in March and April, 1949 on the Sells portion of the Papago Indian Reservation, one comparing Indian children enrolled in Indian Service schools with children in Aprivate@ (i.e., Catholic) schools. The study was flawed by poor control over measurement errors in heights and weights, and the age distribution in the two samples varied. Four tables are included.]


Veil, Charles H.

    1993             The memoirs of Charles Henry Veil. A soldier's recollections of the Civil War and the Arizona Territory. Edited and with an introduction by Herman J. Viola. New York, Orion Books. Illus., notes, index. 194 pp. [Veil's Arizona reminiscences include an account of his personal involvement in the Camp Grant Massacre in 1871, an episode in which Apaches were killed largely thanks to a large force of Papago warriors.]


Velarde, Luis Javier

    1856             Descripción del sitio, longitud y latitud de las naciones y sus adyacentes septentrionales seno Californio y otros noticias y observanciones hechas por el R. Padre Luis Velarde, de la Compañia de Jesús, rector y ministro de dichas provincia ... . Y es sección del título del capítulo 9: de las cualidades y temperamento de esta Pimería; origen y costumbres de sus naturales, y otras noticias hasta su conversión ... . Del principio de la cristianidad de esta Pimería, progresos y contradicciones que ha tenido, y estado que al presente tiene. In Documentos para la Historia de México, 4th series, Vol. 1, pp. 344-390. México, Imprenta de Vicente García Torres. [Father Velarde worked among the northern Piman Indians at the mission of Dolores, Sonora from 1714 until his death there on December 2, 1737. This description of Sonora, which largely concerns the Piman Indians, both directly and indirectly, was written in 1716. It can be construed as the earliest ethnographic account of the Indians of the Pimería Alta.]

    1926             Descripción del sitio, longitud y latitud de las naciones y sus adyacentes septentrionales seno Californio y otros noticias y observanciones hechas por el R. Padre Luis Velarde, de la Compañia de Jesús, rector y ministro de dichas provincia ... . Y es sección del título del capítulo 9: de las cualidades y temperamento de esta Pimería; origen y costumbres de sus naturales, y otras noticias hasta su conversión ... . Del principio de la cristianidad de esta Pimería, progresos y contradicciones que ha tenido, y estado que al presente tiene. In Luz de Tierra Incógnita en la América Septentrional y Diario de las Exploraciones en Sonora [Publicaciones del Archivo General de la Nación, Vol. 10, pp. 297-332], by Juan Mateo Mange. México, Talleres Gráficos de la Nación. [This is a slightly different version of Velarde (1856).]

    1931             Padre Luís (sic) Velarde=s Relación of Pimería Alta, 1716. Translated and edited by Rufus Kay Wyllys. New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 6 (April), pp. 111-157. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico. [An English translation, with notes, of Velarde (1926).]

    1954             This is a description of the site, longitude and latitude of the nations of the Pimería Alta and its northern adjoining nations, the land of California. It also contains other news and observations by Reverend Father Luis Velarde of the Company of Jesus, rector and minister of the Pimería. ... This part of the title of Chapter IX in regard to the qualities and temperament of this Pimería, the origin and customs of its natives and of other events, before their conversions. ... This tells of the start of Christianity in this Pimería, of the progress and setbacks which the people have had, and the status quo at the present time. In Luz de tierra incógnita. Unknown Arizona and Sonora, 1693-1701, by Juan Mateo Manje and translated by Harry J. Karns, pp. 219-282. Tucson, Arizona Silhouettes. [This is another translation into English of Velarde (1926).]

    1971a           Complete text of Velarde=s plan. In Kino and Manje: explorers of Sonora and Arizona and their vision of the future. A study of their expeditions and plans [Sources and Studies for the History of the Americas, Vol. 10], compiled, with summaries of the trips, by Ernest J. Burrus, pp.680-708. Rome, Italy, and St. Louis, Missouri, Jesuit Historical Institute. [Spanish text of a plan written by Father Velarde in 1717. The purpose of his writing this text was to propose means for the spiritual improvement of the Pimería Alta. Among other things, he recommends establishment of a presidio in the San Pedro River Valley among the Sobaipuris, the soldiers being subject to the Jesuit missionary. He also calls for more missionaries and an autonomous Jesuit treasurer for the region.]

    1971b           Velarde=s description of Pimería Alta. In Kino and Manje: explorers of Sonora and Arizona and their vision of the future. A study of their expeditions and plans [Sources and Studies for the History of the Americas, Vol. 10], compiled, with summaries of the trips, by Ernest J. Burrus, pp.622-675. Rome, Italy, and St. Louis, Missouri, Jesuit Historical Institute. [Spanish text of an account of Jesuit missionary Luis Javier Velarde written in 1716 describing conditions in the Pimería Alta. The Spanish text here is taken from a scribe=s copy and is somewhat different than that found in Velarde (1856). See Velarde (1931, 1954) for translations into English.]

    1977a           Descripción del sitio, longitud y latitud de las naciones de la Pimería y sus adyacentes, septentrionales y Seno Californio, y otros noticias y observaciones. In Etnología y misión en la Pimería Alta, 1715-1740 [Series de Historia Novohispana, núm. 27], by Luis González R., pp. 27-88. México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. [This is another version, a corrected one, of the Spanish text of Velarde (1971b), one with González=s extensive footnoting. González refers to this as ALa primera relación de la Pimería Alta.@]

    1977b           Forma, planta y medios para reducir toda la Pimería y otros muchas naciones confinantes a la fe de Christo y obediencia de el catholico rey nuestro señor, don Phelippe V, que Dios guarde. Y es como segunda parte de la relación de la Pimería Alta. In Etnología y misión en la Pimería Alta, 1715-1740 [Series de Historia Novohispana, núm. 27], by Luis González R., pp. 89-122. México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. [This is a corrected version of the Spanish text of Velarde (1971a), one with the addition of González=s footnoting. González refers to this as ALa segunda relación de la Pimería Alta (1717).@]

    1997             Velarde to Genovese, 1722. In The presidio and militia on the northern frontier of New Spain, a documentary history. Volume two, part one. The Californias and Sinaloa-Sonora, 1700-1765, compiled and edited by Charles W. Polzer and Thomas E. Sheridan, pp. 287-301. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Father Velarde, a Jesuit missionary, had been in charge of the missions of the Pimería Alta from his cabecera at Dolores during the eight years preceding his writing this letter to his superior on March 2, 1722. Among other things, he writes here about the conditions of the missions, noting that the renovated missions of Tubutama and Caborca have "new ministers."]


Velasco, José Francisco

    1850             Noticias estdadísticas del Estado de Sonora acompañadas de ligeras reflexiones. México, Imprenta de Ignacio Cumlido. [See Velasco (1861).]

    1861             Sonora: its extent, population, natural productions, Indian tribes, mines, mineral lands, etc. etc. Translated by William F. Nye. San Francisco, H.H. Bancroft and Company. 190 pp. [This translation is a condensed version of Velasco (1850). There is a section regarding Papagos on pp. 100-03. And on pp. 141 and 143, there is considerable information about Papagos at Quitovac, where they worked gold placers, and at Sonoyta.]


Velderrain, Juan Bautista

    1976             The builder of San Xavier reports. In Desert documentary: the Spanish years, 1767-1821 [Historical Monograph, no. 4], by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 65-71. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [Father Velderrain was the Franciscan who began construction of the present church of Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1783. His letter to Sonoran Intendant Corbalán, dated May 25, 1774, offers details of his earlier work in construction of a church for the mission San Ignacio del Suaqui, Sonora, including methods of paying the Indian (Lower Pima) workers. The introduction of editor and translator McCarty notes: AConstruction of San Xavier may have begun as early as 1776 when Father Juan Bautista Velderrain, who laid the foundation, first arrived. An oral tradition of the last century gives 1783 as a beginning date. External evidence indicates that a start in 1776 is unlikely. ... Some time between 1776 and 1783, therefore, the planning, contracting, and building of San Xavier began. The mission was completed in 1797 ... .@]

    1977             Velderrain: 1774. In Bac: where the waters gather, by John P. Schaefer, Celestine Chinn, and Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 44-45. [Tucson], privately printed. [With a new introduction by McCarty and a somewhat different translation by him, this is otherwise identical to Velderrain (1976).]


Venet, Terry

    1979             Ex-Cleveland Indian Terry DeWald B now he works as an Indian trader. Arizona Alumnus, Vol. 57, no. 1 (September), pp. 6-7. Tucson, University of Aruzona Alumni Association. [This is a brief biographical sketch of the author of The Papago Indians and their basketry, a University of Arizona graduate and former professional baseball player who had turned his attention to dealing in Papago baskets and pottery. Illustrated, including photos of Papago baskets and pots and one of DeWald.]


Vennum, Thomas, Jr.

    2000             Locating the Seri on the musical map of Indian North America. Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 42, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 635-760. Tucson, University of Arizona, The Southwest Center. [This detailed discussion of Seri Indian music, including musical instruments, dance music, ritual and ceremonial music, and speculations concerning the future of Seri music draws comparisons with the musics of other Indian groups, Tohono O'odham included.]


Verdugo de Juárez, María Isabel

    1994             El noroeste: Sonora. In Visión histórica de la frontera norte de México, edited by David Piñera Ramírez, Tomo 2, pp. 42-50. Mexicali, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Autíónoma de Baja California and Editorial Kino/El Mexicano. [This overview of the aboriginal populations of Sonora includes considerable information on Pápagos and Pimas.]


Verheggen, Peter; Tom Frost, and Larry Dolan

    1991             Is there a Topawa in your future? Westfriars, Vol. 24, o. 6 (June), p. 14. Tucson, Franciscan Province of St. Barbara. [This is a notice by three Franciscans missionaries on the Papago Indian Reservation B members of the Asearch@committee B to the effect that Brother David Paz had left the reservation for assignment in Tularosa, New Mexico and that they are looking for a replacement, a friar skilled in bookkeeping, maintenance, and living an exemplary life.]


Verrill, A. Hyatt

    1954             The real Americans. New York, G.P. Putnam=s Sons. Illus. 309 pp. [This book about American Indians devotes a single paragraph to a description of Papagos (p. 230).]


Vesilind, Priit J.

    1994             The Sonoran Desert. National Geographic, Vol. 186, no. 3 (September), pp. 36-63. Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society. [One photograph, but a considerable part of the text, involves Tohono O'odham. Vesilind stresses the O'odham's traditional relationship to their environment and native religion.]


Vicencio E., Rosa María, and David Vásquez Aguirre

    1981             Los pápagos, victimas del desarrollo económico desigual. México Indígena, no. 43 (octubre), supplement. México, Instituto Nacional Indigenista. [An overview of the social and economic circumstances of the Papago Indians living in Sonora, Mexico as of the late 1970s and early 1980s, with comparisons to Papagos living in the United States.]


Viele, Egbert L.

    1878             Our southern frontier. The east and west boundary line between the United States and Mexico. Frank Leslie=s Popular Monthly, July, pp. 725-738. New York, Frank Leslie Publishing House. [This illustrated article includes a discussion of Papagos (pp. 727-728) with regard to warfare, division of labor, agriculture, ethnobotany, dress, influence of the Jesuits, and the Sand Papagos or Areneños.]


Vietmeyer, Noel D.

    1981             Rediscovering America=s forgotten crops. National Geographic, Vol. 159, no. 5 (May), pp. 702-712. Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society. [Includes photos and discussion of the Papagos= use and cultivation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius). The author visited Big Fields on the Papago Reservation.]

    1985             Saving the bounty of a harsh and meager land. Audubon, Vol. 87, no. 1 (January), pp. 100-107. New York, National Audubon Society. [Included in this article on Southwest Indian agriculture is a lengthy section concerning the aboriginal farming methods of Papagos and about Gary Nabhan=s involvement in the study of native crops (including those of the Papago). Excellent color photos include one of Papago Eloise Velasco and a pail filled with tepary beans harvested from her garden in a reservation village.]


Vieyra, Stephanie

    1999             Song. In When the rain sings. Poems by young Native Americans, edited by David Gale, p. 55. Washington, D.C., National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution; New York, Simon & Schuster. [This 13-year-old Tohono O'odham student from Baboquivari High School writes about looking at Baboquivari Mountain while her grandmother sings a song about I'itoi.]


Villalpando C., María Elisa

    1985             Cazadores-recolectores y agricultores del contact. In Historia general de Sonora, Vol. 1, edited by Armando Hopkins D., pp. 261-289. Hermosillo, Gobienro del Estado. [Although the emphasis here is on Sonoran natives other than Upper Pimas (Northern Pimans), there is some information here concerning them at the time of contact with Europeans.]

    1990             Hunters and gatherers of the Sonoran islands. In Perspective on Southwestern prehistory, edited by Paul E. Minnis and Charles L. Redman, pp. 38-46. Boulder, Colorado, San Francisco, and Oxford, Westview Press. [The author says it is assumed that basketry technology was introduced to the Seri Indians by the Papagos.]


Villaseñor y Sánchez, José

    1965             Societatis Iesu in America Septentrionali pro Gloria Dei laborantis. In Kino and the cartography of northwestern New Spain, by Ernest J. Burrus, plate 16. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers= Historical Society. [This is a 1752 tracing, first published in 1754, of the official map of the Mexican Jesuit Province. It includes, in a very sketchy fashion, the region of the Pimería Alta with the names and rough locations of a few Northern Piman Indian mission communities.]


Villegas, Mary

    2002             San Xavier District enters joint venture with Advanced Ceramics Research. Newsletter, January-March, p.6. Phoenix, Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs. [An article stating that the San Xavier Business Development Authority, a tribal enterprise of the Tohono O'odham Nation, has purchased a 51% interest in Advanced Ceramics Research, a company that makes specialized ceramic products of high strength, high temperature composite wear-resistant materials used in defense applications. Plans call for construction of a manufacturing facility in the San Xavier Industrial Park, already home to the Desert Diamond Casino, Empire-Caterpillar, Arizona Storage, and Desert Sand Mobile Home Sales.]


Villegas, Olivia A.

    1974             Tribal management procedures study of the Maricopa Ak Chin Reservation. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Bureau of Ethnic Research. Illus. i + 41 pp. [Papagos predominate in the population of the Ak Chin Reservation. This study was carried out in an effort to help community members improve their management procedures.]



    1920             A missionary=s perfect day. Franciscan Herald, Vol. 8, no. 9 (September), pp. 406-407. Chicago, Friars Minor of the Sacred Heart Province. [Fr. Vincent was a Franciscan missionary stationed at St. John=s Indian School B whose students included Papagos B on the Gila River Indian Reservation. Here he writes about how he got struck in his car in the Gila River.]


Vincent, J.D., and G.W. Bossard

    1966             Development and design of the Mission Unit by-product plant. Mining Congress Journal, Vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 25-30. Washington, D.C., American Mining Congress. [The "Mission Unit" is a part of American Smelting and Refining Company's operation on the San Xavier Indian Reservation.]


Vint, Bob [a.k.a. Robert Vint, q.v.]

    1988             Perspectives on restoration at San Xavier. Dove of the Desert, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. [5]-[6]. Tucson, San Xavier Mission Parish. [Drawing from Bernard Fontana=s Biography of a Desert Church, architect Vint provides a chronology of events at Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1697-1988. He also includes plans for the future of the mission in terms of a new museum and restoration of the church.]

    1989             Restoration progress report. Dove of the Desert, no. 4 (Winter), p. [7]. Tucson, San Xavier Mission Parish. [Three paragraphs summarize progress being made on restoration work on the exterior of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac in preparation for eventual renewal of its interior art. He writes about removal of cement from the exterior surface and its replacement with lime/sand/cactus juice stucco. Illustrated.]

    1990a           Mission San Xavier del Bac restoration. Traditions Southwest, Issue 2 (Spring), pp. 42-43, 46-47. Albuquerque, Michael Moquin. [Architect Bob Vint has been hired by the non-profit Patronato San Xavier to oversee the repair of southern Arizona's Mission San Xavier del Bac. In the first part of this well-illustrated two-part article, he outlines the history of the mission, describes the Patronato, talks about preservation and the philosophy behind it, and describes conditions as these existed at the church in 1988.]

    1990b           Mission San Xavier del Bac restoration. Traditions Southwest, Issue 3 (Fall), front cover, pp. 24-26. Albuquerque, Michael Moquin. [In this second part of his two-part essay, Vint stresses the need for skilled workers and writes about preparation: removal of cement and synthetic coatings; debt to masons of 1783-1797; repair and filling of cracks and fissures; re-plastering; entorrado and enlucido; burnishing sealant; work on walls; conclusion and overview. This superb article provides an important historical record that's certain to be appreciated by future caretakers of the mission.]

    1990c           The restoration of Mission San Xavier del Bac: phase I. Triglyph, no. 10 (Summer), pp. 33-43. Tempe, College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State University. [A dozen black-and-white photographs and a line drawing of a longitudinal section through the east elevation of this late 18th-century southern Arizona mission accompany a succinct essay describing repair work sponsored by the Patronato San Xavier which has been carried out under Vint's supervision on the exterior of the church since 1988.]

    1990d           San Xavier B restoration update and construction of a new friary. Dove of the Desert, no. 6 (Winter), pp. [1]-[2]. Tucson, San Xavier Mission Parish. [Vint summarizes work that has taken place on the exterior of Mission San Xavier del Bac as of October, 1990 by way of replacing old stucco. He also tells about completion of a design for a new friary at the rear (north) end of the church.]

    [1990]e        1984-1991. The outside. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Vint discusses conservation work carried out on the exterior of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac, describing the process being used by the workers.]

    1991             Mission San Xavier del Bac: a preservation update. Traditions Southwest, Issue 5 (Winter), pp. 34-35. Albuquerque, Traditions Southwest. [This is an update on progress of the conservation project being overseen by Vint. He notes the discovery that the church's massive walls are built in the sacco system: interior and exterior fired brick and lime mortar with a central core of stone rubble and lime. Illustrations include Vint's drawings of planned modifications to the mission's windows to allow for better air circulation.]

    1995             The San Xavier District Elders' Center. Wa:k Newsletter, August, pp. [2]-[3]. Tucson, San Xavier District of the Tohono O'odham Nation. [This discussion by the building's architect centers on the role played in the design and choice of materials in a meeting hall dedicated late in July, 1995, by the elders in the San Xavier community. Vint came to understand the Elder's Hall as a kind of communal living room.]

    [1998]          Conservation program phase 2: completion of the exterior. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Architect Vint provides details concerning work of conservation on the physical structure of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac. He notes that the Patronato hopes to complete the work in the next five to eight years.]

    [1999]          Getty matching grant awarded to Patronato, or "The Getty Grant Experience." Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, 1 [unnumbered] page. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Architect Vint provides details concerning the Patronato San Xavier's being awarded a $250,000 matching grant from the Getty Grant Program for work on the exterior of the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]


Vint, James M.

    2003             Charles Di Peso and the Origins of the Sobaipuri Pima. Archaeology Southwest, Vol. 17, no. 3 (Summer), p. 14. [Vint summarizes the efforts of archaeologist Charles Di Peso to bridge the gap between the prehistoric peoples of the San Pedro River Valley and the historic Sobaipuri (O=odham) Indians. A color photo accompanying the article is of a rock outline of a presumed Sobaipuri house. The captions says, ASobaipuri houses were simply structures of bent-pole frames covered with brush.@]


Vint, Robert [a.k.a. Bob Vint, q.v.]

    2000             Dr. Jorge Olvera Hernández -- un reconocimiento. Fin de Siglo, Año 3, vol. 1, núm. 10 (Octubre), pp. 55-56. Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Consejo Estatal para la Cultura y las Artes de Chiapas. [Included here is mention of Olvera's consultation on the conservation of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]

    2002a           To replicate or not? (Let=s not, and say we did...). SMRC Revista, Vol. 136, no. 132 (Fall), p. 20. Tucson, Southwestern Mission Research Center. [In arguing against reconstruction of the Tucson visita church and convento of San Agustín, architect Vint says Tucson already has a good example of Spanish-period architecture in Mission San Xavier del Bac, Aan authentic eighteenth-century building, where one may enter an architectural space and experience the past as have countless others through the past 205 years.@]

    2002b           Update on work now in progress and work for the coming season. Patronato Mission San Xavier del Bac, p. [3]. Tucson, Patronato San Xavier. [Vint writes in some detail about work taking place on and around the church of Mission San Xavier del Bac by workers of Morales Restoration and Builders, Inc. He also observes that beginning in 2002, visitors to the mission will see scaffolding going up around the west bell tower.]


Viri, Denis F.

    1989             ASubjective realities of American Indian students in an urban community college setting: a Tohono O=odham case study.@ Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona. 481 pp. [The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a public community college on the American Indian students in terms of their goals, aspirations, and persistence. ... None of the students completed the programs in which they had enrolled. A main finding was that students perceived the community college as a way to disassociate themselves from social problems that marginalize Indian people and engender stereotypes. However, the culture that was produced at the college discounted the students= sense of competence and reinforced a sense of marginalization they were attempting to overcome. ... Community colleges are unaware of the actual affects that they have on culturally diverse students. ...@]


Vivian, Richard G.

    1965             An archaeological survey of the Lower Gila River. Kiva, Vol. 30, no. 4 (April), pp. 95-146. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Prehistoric as well as five historic Papago sites are discussed. Two of the historic Papago sites were villages or house sites and four of the five were on the south side of the Gila River (pp. 125-127). Included here is a photograph by Bernard Fontana of a family of five Papagos who in 1963 were living near Dome, Arizona.]

    1976             Current research B greater Southwest. American Antiquity, Vol. 41, no. 2 (April), pp. 219-224. Washington, D.C., Society for American Archaeology. [Mention is made (p. 222) of excavations by Albert C. Goodyear in the Santa Rosa Valley where Hohokam-related groups and post-1860 Papago sites were found. A survey undertaken by Bernhart Johnson and Bettina Rosenberg on the Gila River Indian Reservation found both prehistoric Hohokam remains and evidence of early history Papago-Pima and/or Maricopa occupation.]


Voegelin, Carl F.

    1941             North American Indian languages still spoken and their genetic relationships. In Language, culture, and personality: essays in memory of Edward Sapir, edited by Leslie Spier, A. Irving Hallowell, and Stanley S. Newman, pp. 15-40. Menasha, Wisconsin, Sapir Memorial Publication Fund. [Pima-Papago is listed as a Uto-Aztecan language (p. 21).]

    1962             Methods for typologizing directly and by distinctive features (in reference to Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan vowel systems). Lingua, Vol. 11, pp. 469-487. Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Company. [This essay demonstrates methods for typologizing Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan vowel systems. Papago is a member of the Uto-Aztecan language family and is specifically referred to on page 477.]


Voegelin, Carl. F., and Florence M. Voegelin

    1970             Our knowledge of semantics and how it is obtained (with reference to Hopi /?as/ and Papago /cim/. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 36, no. 4 (October), pp. 241-246. Baltimore, Indiana University. [The authors suggest that knowledge of language-linked semantics is obtained from three sources: (1) from folk definitions; (2) from syntax of the languages involved; and (3) from the logic of the ultimate typology, one that encompasses language universals. Papago and Hopi are examined with reference to these three sources.]

    1971             The autonomy of linguistics and the dependence of cognitive culture. In Studies in American Indian languages [University of California Publications in Linguistics, Vol. 65], edited by Jesse Sawyer, pp. 303-317. Berkeley, University of California Press. [The linguistic techniques used by Kenneth Hale and Joseph Casagrande (1967) are discussed on pages 304-05).]

    1973             Southwestern and Great Basin languages. In Current trends in linguistics, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok, Vo. 10, pp. 1100-1142. The Hague and Paris, Mouton. [Passing mention is made of Piman languages (p. 1105), and the linguistic work of Albert Alvarez, Madeleine Mathiot, and Donald Bahr on Papago is mentioned on p. 1109. Ethnoscience work on Papago is mentioned on p. 1111, and Papago in relation to other Uto-Aztecan languages is mentioned on pages 1122-24 and 1126.]


Voegelin, Carl. F.; Florence M. Voegelin, and Kenneth L. Hale

    1962             Typology and comparative grammar of Uto-Aztecan: I (phonology). International Journal of American Linguistics, supplement to Vol. 28, no. 1 (January), pp. 1-144. Baltimore, Indian University. [Papago is one of the Uto-Aztecan grammars compared. Extensive references to Papago throughout.]


Voegelin, Carl. F.; Florence M. Voegelin, and Noel W. Schultz, Jr.

    1967             The language situation in Arizona as part of the Southwest culture area. In Studies in Southwestern ethnolinguistics, edited by Dell H. Hymes, pp. 403-451. Paris, Mouton & Co. [Monolingualism and bilingualism among Papago and Pima Indians in southern Arizona are discussed on pages 416-419.]


Vogler, Lawrence

    1978             Reports on data recovery operations at two sites on the Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona: Sonora C:3:2 and Arizona Z:14:47. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, no. 119. Tucson, Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona. Refs. cited. v + 38 pp., and v + 45 pp. [Reports concerning the archaeological mapping, collecting, and testing of two prehistoric sites in the right-of-way along the new road between Kom Vo and Papago Farms in the southern portion of the Papago Indian Reservation. The work was carried out in November, 1977. Sonora C:3:2 is a Classic Hohokam site; Arizona Z:14:47 is a Sells Phase site of the Classic Hohokam period. Both essays are accompanied by figures and tables.]


Vokes, Arthur

   1987a            Shell artifacts. In The archaeology of the San Xavier Bridge Site (AZ BB:13:14), Tucson Basin, southern Arizona [Archaeological Series, no. 171], edited by John C. Ravesloot, Part 3, pp. 251-269. Tucson, University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [This is a description and analysis of the shell artifacts and fragments recovered from a Hohokam prehistoric site on the San Xavier Reservation. There were 336 pieces of shells representing seventeen marine and one fresh water genera. All marine genera are found in the Gulf of California with the exception of Haliotis, which comes from the west coast of California. Most shell fragments represented ornamental artifacts.]

    1987b           Shell artifacts. In The archaeology of the San Xavier Bridge Site (AZ BB:13:14), Tucson Basin, southern Arizona [Archaeological Series, no. 171], edited by John C. Ravesloot, Part 3, Appendix N, pp. 483-492. Tucson, University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [This is the complete list of shells analyzed by Vokes (1987a), including artifact types, genus, provenience, level, length, width, thickness, estimated diameter, and bag number.]


Vorpahl, Ben M.

    1978             Frederic Remington and the West. Austin and London, University of Texas Press. Illus., index. 294 pp. [Artist Remington visited the San Xavier Indian Reservation ca. 1887 and did sketches and a painting. There are a discussion of his visit and reproductions of his drawings on pages 73-76 and page 196. Also see Remington (1887) and Pitz (1972).]


Voss, Stuart F.

    1981             Societal competition in northwest New Spain. The Americas, Vol. 38, no. 2 (October), pp. 185-203. Washington, D.C., Academy of American Franciscan History. [Papagos are mention (p. 15) as having participated in the Pima Revolt of 1751.]

    1982             On the periphery of nineteenth-century Mexico. Sonora and Sinaloa, 1810-1877. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Bibl., index. xv + 318 pp. [Brief mention is made of Papagos in Sonora in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, including the Papago uprising in 1841. Data based on secondary sources.]


Vroman, James P.

    1976             The Black Mountain fault. Arizona Geological Society Digest, Vol. 10 (March), pp. 341-345. Tucson, Arizona Geological Society. [Concerns the existence of a northeast-southwest geological fault underlying Black Mountain on the San Xavier (Papago) Indian Reservation.]


Vuich, J.S., and J.C. Wilt

    1974             Bibliography of the geology and mineral resources of Arizona, 1965-1970. Bulletin of the Arizona Bureau of Mines, no. 190. Tucson, The University of Arizona. [Includes references to studies done on the Papago Indian Reservation, such as those by Judith K. Percious (1968a, b) of the Del Bac Hills on the San Xavier Reservation and Maung M. Min (1965) of the Kitt Peak area. Also includes references to the Mission and Lakeshore mines, both of which are on Tohono O'odham lands.]