Nabhan, Gary

    1976-77       White Horse Pass. South Dakota Review, Vol. 14, no. 4 (Winter), p. 58. Vermillion, University of South Dakota. [This is a 14-line poem about the village of White Horse Pass at the northern end of the Papago Indian Reservation, south of the village of Chuichu and south of the off-reservation community of Casa Grande, Arizona.]

    1977a           Indian farmers dive into Arizona water battles. High Country News, Vol. 9, no. 16 (August 12), p. 7. Lander, Wyoming, High Country News. [A review of the water rights of Arizona Indians includes specific mention of Papagos and flood water farming techniques.]

    1977b                                   Viable seeds from prehistoric caches? Archaeobotanical remains in southwestern folklore. Kiva, Vol. 43, no. 2 (Winter), pp. 143-159. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [On pages 153-154 there is a discussion of two specimens of seed pod corn (Zea mays var. tunicata) alleged to have come from a prehistoric ruin and given to the Arizona State Museum by Mrs. Goldie Richmond of the Papago Indian Reservation. The Richmonds planted some of the seeds on the reservation. The specimens, which turned out not to be prehistoric, are illustrated on page 146.]  

    1978a                                   Chiltepines! Wild spice of the American Southwest. El Palacio, Vol. 84, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 30-34. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico. [About the wild chile peppers native to the Sonoran Desert, there is much here concerning Papago lore about them as well as about Papagos= use of both wild and cultivated plants.]

    1978b                                   Desert food. In Sonoran heritage: food on the desert [supplement to the Arizona Daily Star, October], p. 4. Tucson, National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program at the Tucson Public Library. [A chart listing the nutritive value of Sonoran Desert food plants includes the Papago name for the plants, including saguaro. In a two-paragraph text, Nabhan asks, ADid you know ... Papago Indian saguaro fruit has a higher mineral content than store-bought corn syrup?@]

    1978c                                   ATepary bean domestication: ecological and nutritional changes during Phaseolus acutifolius evolution.@ Master of Science thesis, Department of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Xii + 141 pp. Tables, illustrations. [This study of the domestication of the tepary bean is based in fairly large part on studies carried out by Nabhan among Papago Indians on the Papago Indian Reservation. References to Papagos occur throughout.]

    1979a                                   The ecology of floodwater farming in arid southwestern North America. Agro-Ecosystems, Vol. 5, pp. 245-255. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. [A discussion of floodwater farming includes considerable mention of Papago Indian floodwater farming. Included is a good photo of the water-spreading structure, a weir, used by Papagos to get water spread across their fields.]

    1979b                                   Tepary beans. The effects of domestication on adaptations to arid environments. Arid Lands Newsletter, no. 10 (April), pp. 11-16. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Mention is made of the fact that Papagos continue to raise teparies by floodwater farming. Included is a photo of a Papago Indian farmer plowing a floodwater-fed tepary field near Gu Oidag on the Papago Indian Reservation.]

    1980a                                   Ammobroma sonorae, an endangered parasitic plant in extremely arid North America. Desert Plants, Vol. 2, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 188-196. Tucson, The University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Arboretum. [A superb article, illustrated in color and black-and-white photographs, about the Asand food@ of the Papago Indians. Although emphasis is on the botany and distribution of the plant, there is an excellent section on its ethnobotany and a photograph of Luciano, the elder of Quitovac, Sonora.]

    1980b                                   The seeds of prehistory. Garden, Vol. 4, no. 3 (May-June), pp. 8-12. Bronx, New York, The Garden Society. [Mention is made of efforts on the part of some Papagos to try to keep viable seeds of old varieties of cultivated crops.]

    1982a                                   The desert smells like rain. A naturalist in Papago Indian country. San Francisco, North Point Press. xiii + 148 pp. [Here are ten chapters that are poignant and well-written vignettes about poet/biologist Nabhan=s experiences in Papago Indian country on both sides of the International Boundary. Included are materials on the saguaro harvest, Quitovac and Quitobaquito, coyote stories, food gathering, children, and the October Fiesta de San Francisco in Magdalena, Sonora.]

    1982b                                   Papago Indian desert agriculture and water control, 1697-1934. In Application of remote sensing in evaluating floodwater farming on the Papago Indian Reservation, prepared by Applied Remote Sensing Program, appendix A, pp. 41-80. Tucson, Applied Remote Sensing Program, Office of Arid Lands Studies, The University of Arizona. [This is an outline history of the subject, one which includes an excellent list of bibliographic references.]

    1983                                     APapago fields: arid lands ethnobotany and agricultural ecology.@ Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Arizona, Tucson. 246 pp. [This is a study of traditional Papago flash flood (ak chin or de temporal) farming.]

    1984a                                   [Excerpts from The desert smells like rain]. In Saguaro forest cactus drive, compiled by Mary Robinson and T.J. Priehs, pp. 5, 9. Tucson, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. [Quotes from Nabhan=s 1982 book concerning the fact that to a young Papago the desert smelled like rain and that to a Papago woman saguaros were thought of as being human.]

    1984b                                   Replenishing desert agriculture with native plants and their symbionts. In Meeting the expectations of the land, edited by Wes Jackson, Wendell Barry, and Bruce Coleman, pp. 172-182. Berkeley, North Point Press. [Nabhan draws on data from his studies of Papago ak chin agriculture in discussing the potential for use of desert plants in desert agriculture.]

    1984c                                   Soil fertility renewal and water harvesting in Sonoran Desert agriculture: the Papago example. Arid Lands Newsletter, no. 20 (January), pp. 20-28. Tucson, Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona. [A thoroughly-documented study of the effect of traditional Papago de temporal farming on soil fertility. He concludes that such farming enhances fertility.]

    1985a                                   Gathering the desert. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Map, illus., bibl. Essay, index. 209 pp. [There is abundant ethnobotanical information here concerning Papago Indians, including their use of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), sandfood (Pholisma sonorae), mesquite (Prosopis spp.), organpipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), amaranth greens (Amaranthus palmeri), teparies (Phaseolus acutifolius), and devil=s claw (Proboscidea parviflora). Information is based on published historical and scientific reports as well as on field data collected by Nabhan.]

    1985b                                   Native American crop diversity, genetic resource conservation, and the policy of neglect. Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 2, no. 3 (Summer), pp. 14-17. Gainesville, Humanities and Agriculture, University of Florida. [Mention is made of O=odham revival of native crops and of such exemplary projects carried out in the Tohono O=odham Nation.]

    1985c                                   Tepary beans and human beings at agriculture=s arid limits. Arizona Alumnus, Vol. 63, no. 1 (Fall), pp. 6-8. Tucson, University of Arizona Alumni Association. [An excerpt from Nabhan=s Gathering the Desert (1985a), one which discusses past and present agriculture in the Pinacate Mountains of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. The field being farmed was formerly a Papago field; it is now being farmed by a Mexican family.]

    1986a                                   Saguaro: a view of Saguaro National Monument & the Tucson Basin. Photography by George H.H. Huey. Tucson, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. Illus. 74 pp. [Briefly mentioned are an O=odham interpretation of a prehistoric petroglyph (Arainbow@ and Around dance@) and O=odham knowledge of wild plants.]

    1986b                                   The Sonoran Desert. In Arizona: the land and the people, edited by Tom Miller, pp. 90-113. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Passing mention is made of Papagos in connection with their harvesting saguaro fruit on the slopes of the Quijotoa Mountains; the sacred peak, Baboquivari; use of bedrock mortars for pounding mesquite beans; their village at Quitobaquito; and the amount of use of water at San Xavier (50 gals. per day per person). Also mentioned is the fact that Papago farmers at Santa Rosa continue to cultivate bottle gourds, cushaw squash, and sixty-day flour corn, remains of which were found in prehistoric levels in nearby Ventana Cave. Papagos also raise devil=s claw for basketry fiber; no domesticated forms have been found in prehistoric contexts. Finally, government farmer J.M. Berger is quoted concerning floods on the San Xavier Reservation in the late nineteenth century.]

    1988                                     Invisible erosion: the rise and fall of native farming. Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 30, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 552-571. Tucson, University of Arizona Press and the Southwest Center. [Although most of this discussion focuses on the Gila River Pima, ethnobiologist Nabhan mentions a project among modern day Tohono O=odham Ato preserve and revive native crops as a cottage industry@ for its rural-based tribal members.]

    1989                                     Diabetes, diet, and Native American foraging traditions. Journal of Gastronomy, Vol. 5, no. 2 (Autumn), pp. ___-___. San Francisco, The American Institute of Wine and Food. [This essay is very largely about diabetes and diet among the Pima, Desert Papago and Sand Papago. Also see Nabhan 1997b).]

    1990a                                   The desert smells like rain. Louisville, Colorado, The Audio Press. 2 sound cassettes. [In two audio cassettes and four sides, Nabhan reads aloud his book of the same title (Nabhan 1982a).]

    1990b                                   Diabetes, diet, and Native American foraging traditions. In Our sustainable table, edited by Robert Clark, pp. ___-___. San Francisco, North Point Press. [The same as Nabhan (1989).]

    1992a                                   Endangered plants, animals, and places in Native American traditions. Seedhead News, no. 39 (Winter Solstice), pp. 7-10. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Summarized here are responses to surveys sent out to representatives of two dozen tribal groups, including the O'odham. No tribe is singled out for mention in the summary of Native Americans' concerns about their environments and traditional food and plant resources.]

    1992b                                   Exploring parallels between Australian & Southwest Indian diabetes. Seedhead News, No. 38 (Autumn), p. 13. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [About a conference planned to be held in Australia between Native Americans and Australian aborigines to discuss the problem of diabetes. Note is made that historic O'odham farmer-gatherers probably consumed 100-120 grams of dietary fiber every day.]

    1992c                                   Hummingbirds and human aggression. Georgia Review, Vol. 51 (Summer), pp. 213-232. Athens, University of Georgia Press. [Included here is a considerable discussion of the O=odham and aggression and warfare, one that points out that warfare was generally distasteful to these people. Also see Nabhan 1997b).]

    1993a                                   The germination of Native Seeds. Seedhead News, no. 40 (Spring), pp. 1-2. Tucson, Natives Seeds/SEARCH. [In reminiscing about the ten-year history of Native Seeds/SEARCH, Nabhan acknowledges the input of knowledge on the part of Tohono O'odham individuals: Laura Kermen, Jerome Ascencio, Delores Lewis, and Aloysia Valenzuela. A photo of Laura Kermen and Nabhan appears on p. 3.]

    1993b                                   Introduction: diversity in desert wildlife writing. In Counting sheep: 20 ways of seeing desert bighorn, edited by Gary P. Nabhan, pp. xi-xx. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Nabhan mentions that various peoples, male and female and members of different cultures, O'odham included, perceive of desert bighorn sheep in different and distinctive ways.]

    1993c                                   The old desert way of farming: water and nutrient harvesting. sonorensis, Vol. 13, no. 1 (Winter), p. 10. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. [About O'odham floodwater (ak chin or de temporal) farming, the focus here is on a floodwater field in the Sierra Pinacate in northwestern Sonora farmed by the Romero family.]

    1993d                                   When the spring of animal dreams run dry . . . In Counting sheep: 20 ways of seeing desert bighorn, edited by Gary P. Nabhan, pp. 7-26. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [This is a very personal essay on the cultural connections between the O'odham and desert bighorn sheep as discerned by naturalist Nabhan through his associations with O'odham still old enough to know those connections.]

    1994a                                   Children in touch, creatures in story. Seedhead News, no. 44 (Spring), pp. 1-2. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Children were interviewed concerning where they gained their knowledge of other organisms (such as wildlife), and 35% of the O'odham respondents said they gained their knowledge from the media rather than from real life. Nabhan tells how Tohono O'odham potter and elder Laura Kermen blames TV for the situation.]

    1994b                                   Desert legends: re-storying the Sonoran borderlands. Photographs by Mark Klett. New York, Henry Holt and Company. Illus. 207 pp. [This collection of personal, reflective essays by Nabhan about the Sonoran Desert in the region of the Sonora and Arizona boundary includes many observations concerning the Tohono O'odham and their present and aboriginal lands. Included is a recounting of a walk he made from the Gila River south of Phoenix to Magdalena, Sonora, much of it in the company of Tohono O'odham Adrian Hendricks and across the eastern edge of the Papago Indian Reservation as well as across the San Xavier Reservation. There is much here on the history of water use and channel cutting at San Xavier, there is material about Tohono O'odham Laura Kermen and her knowledge of desert plants, and there is a black-and-white photo by Klett of HiaCed O'odham Chico Suni at his home west of Ajo, Arizona.]

    1995a                                   Cultural parallax: the wilderness concept in crisis. In Reinventing nature?, compiled by Michael E Soulé and Gary Lease, pp. ___-___. Washington, D.C., Island Press. [Nabhan writes about what he calls the Aconservation traditions@ of the O=odham, pointing out that the O=odham concept of doajkam, which can be translated as Awilderness,@ also is tied to terms for health, wholeness, and liveliness. He also quotes Papago poet Ofelia Zepeda as saying, AAs O=odham, we know that the desert is a place of songs ... the place where nightmares hide ... a place of power.@ Also see Nabhan (1997b).]

    1995b                                   Finding the hidden garden. Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 37, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 401-415. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press and the Southwest Center. [Nabhan combines a discussion of his friendship with the late Howard Scott Gentry, an ethnobotanist who worked chiefly in northwestern Mexico, with a discussion of his efforts to discern the reasons for the discontinuous distribution of Agave murpheyi, a plant that interested Gentry very much. Some of this story involves the use of the plant by the Tohono O'odham and data collected by Nabhan from O'odham informant Laura Kermen.]

    1995c                                   Finding ourselves in the far outside. In Writing it down for James: writers on life and craft, edited by Kurt Brown, pp. ___-___. Boston, Beacon Press. [Nabhan mentions a 74-year-old Tohono O=odham farmer whose wish it is to visit the Sea of Cortez so he can hear for himself the sound made by sea birds, sounds he=d heard imitated in songs brought back by O=odham who had visited the ocean to gather salt. Also see Nabhan (1997b).]

    1995d                                   Finding ourselves in the far outside. In The place of the wild, edited by David Burks, pp. ___-___. Washington, D.C., Island Press. [Identical to Nabhan (1995c).]

    1995e                                   Hummingbirds and human aggression. In From the island=s edge: a Sitka reader, edited by Carolyn Servid, pp. ___-___. St. Paul, Graywolf Press. [Identical to Nabhan (1992c).]

    1997a                                   Cultural adaptations to the desert's bounty. sonorensis, Vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 9, 14. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. [Nabhan discusses traditional ak chin farming by Tohono O'odham as well as the health benefits of their traditional diet in contrast to the diabetes-causing diet they have since adopted.]

    1997b                                   Cultures of habitat. On nature, culture, and story. Washington, D.C., Counterpoint. viii + 338 pp. [This book is a gathering of largely previously-published essays, some of them slightly altered for inclusion here. A 74-year-old O=odham farmer mentioned in the book=s first chapter talks about wanting to visit the ocean and hear the songs of sea birds before he dies (pp. 10-11). Also reported are interviews with O=odham children about their knowledge of the desert environment (pp. 65-67, 72); desert knowledge of such O=odham as Laura Kermen, Rosilda Manual, and Daniel Pablo (pp. 75-80); O=odham and their distaste for warfare (pp. 122-125, 128, 132); a Sand Papago and Seri encampment and abandoned Sand Papago settlement (pp. 135-146); O=odham sense of what is wilderness and what is not (pp. 162-163); the O=odham of Quitovac, Sonora, and of southwestern Arizona (pp. 166-183); O=odham and diabetes (pp. 197-206); and Sand Papago and Cúcapa Indian territory and an alliance of borderlands peoples determined to preserve the environmental integrity of the region (pp. 284-293).]

    1997c                                   Where creatures and cultures know no boundaries. Orion, Vol. 16, Spring (15th anniversary issue), pp. 15-17. New York, Myron Institute. [This essay concerns a coalition of Sonoran O=odham, Cúcapa, and Hia C-ed O=odham (Sand Papago) leaders, including Sand Papago Lorraine Eiler, and their efforts to work together with others in the International Sonoran Desert Alliance to work toward preservation of the region=s native plant and animal life. Also see Nabhan (1997b).]

    1999                                     Land of contradictions. Audubon, March/April, pp. 84-89. New York, National Audubon Society. [This color-illustrated article about Quitobaquito Springs and Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in southwestern Arizona briefly discusses the former use of this place by the HiaCed O'odham and describes how their activities there further enhanced the habitat for wildlife.]

    2000a                                   Biodiversity: the variety of life that sustains our own. In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp. 119-126. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [Much of this essay focuses on the biodiversity at Quitobaquito, a one-time O=odham settlement within the boundaries of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Nabhan mentions former Tohono O=odham and Hia c-ed O=odham settlers of the region.]

    2000b                                   Desert walk March 10-21, 2000 raises funds for Native American internships. Seedhead News, no. 67-68 (Spring), p. 6. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Nabhan writes about a 250-mile walk from Desemboque in Seri Indian country on the Gulf of California to the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, one intended to raise money for internships for Native Americans to work with Native Seeeds/SEARCH and other organizations. One of the collaborators in the walk is Tohono O'odham Community Action (TOCA).]

    2000c                                   Interspecific relationships affecting endangered species recognized by O=odham and Comcáac cultures. Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1288-1295. Tempe, Arizona, Ecological Society of America. [ABecause certain indigenous peoples have lived in the same habitats for centuries, their languages often encode traditional ecological knowledge. ... It is clear that O=odham, and Comcáac foragers recognize, name, and interpret ecological interactions among locally occurring species, regardless of whether these species directly benefit them economically. It is demonstrated how their knowledge of ecological interactions involving threatened species may offer Western-trained scientists and resource managers hypotheses to test, and to apply to endangered species recovery efforts.@ The Comcáac are the Seri Indians.]

    2001                                     The village on the other side of White Horse Pass. In Getting over the color green: contemporary environmental literature of the Southwest, edited by Scott Slovic, p. 226. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [This dozen-line poem, dedicated to O=odham Ofelia Zepeda, tells about walking before dawn over White Horse Pass on the Papago Indian Reservation and coming to the village where breakfast was being prepared for them and where dogs greeted them.]

    2002                                     Coming home to eat. The pleasures and politics of local foods. New York and London, W.W. Norton & Company. Map, illus., index. [Much of this relates to desert foods gathered, grown, and consumed by Tohono O=odham and to Nabhan=s experiences interrelating with these people, including his involvement in a saguaro fruit harvest. Included are mentions of such specific O=odham individuals as Danny Lopez, Laura Kermen (misspelled AKerman@ in the book), Juanita Ahill, and Stella Tucker. Also recounted is a Awalk for health@ made by several people from the Seri Indian homeland on the coast of the Gulf of California to San Pedro Village on the Tohono O=odham Nation. Consult the book=s index.]


Nabhan, Gary, editor

    1993             Counting sheep: twenty ways of seeing desert bighorn. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Illus., notes. xx + 261 pp. [Twenty-one essays by nineteen writers have as their common theme the desert bighorn sheep. Many of the essays, as well as the book's dedication, mention or involve O'odham, both Tohono O'odham and Hia C-ed O'odham.]


Nabhan, Gary P.; Cynthia Anson, and Mahina Drees

    1981             Kaicka. Seed saving the Papago-Pima way. Tucson, Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Southwest Program. 35 pp. [A manual on how to care for seeds of corn, beans, peas, squash, melons, chiles, wheat, and other small grains, with information gathered from and directed toward Papagos. There is a brief narrative written in Papago. It is also translated into English and the rest of the booklet is written in English.]


Nabhan, Gary P.; James Berry, Cynthia Anson, and Charles Weber

    1980             Papago Indian floodwater fields and tepary bean protein yields. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Vol 10, no. 2, pp. 71-78. New York, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Inc. [About Papago floodwater farming and the success achieved by traditional methods of raising tepary beans.].


Nabhan, Gary P.; J.W. Berry, and C.W. Weber

    1980             Wild beans of the greater Southwest: Phaseolus metcalfei and P. Ritensis. Economic Botany, Vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 68-85. Bronx, New York Botanical Garden. [Mention is made of Papagos= attendance at the annual Feast of St. Francis of Assisi held in Magdalena, Sonora. Also, Topawa and other parts of the Papago country are indicated on a map as places where P. Ritensis grows.]


Nabhan, Gary P.; Barney Burns, and Charlie Miksicek

    1984             Corn of southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico: history, nutrition, cookery and classification. A selected bibliography. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. 9 pp. [Several entries in this annotated bibliography concern corn among the Papago Indians.]


Nabhan, Gary P., and Richard S. Felger

    1977             Ancient crops for desert gardens. Organic Gardening and Farming, Vol. 24, no. 2 (February), pp. 34, 36, 38-42. Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Rodale Press, Inc. [Photograph of a Papago devil=s claw garden on page 36; mention of Papago corn on p. 38; mention of a Papago devil=s claw on p. 42. Article also has a discussion of the tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius), which is raised by Papagos, although the article does not explicitly state this is the case.]

Nabhan, Gary P., and Gordon Fritz

    1977             Devil=s claw (Proboscidea): cash crop in the Papago basket industry. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science, Vol. 12, proceedings supplement (April), pp. 4-5. Tempe, Arizona Academy of Science. [Abstract of a talk given April 16, 1977 which deals with various aspects of devil=s claw and its economic significance to the Papago.]


Nabhan, Gary P.; Wendy Hodgson, and Frances Fellows

    1989             A meager living on lava and sand? Hia Ced O'odham food resources and habitat diversity. Journal of the Southwest, Vol. 31, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 508-533. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press and the Southwest Center. [The authors discuss various labels for the westernmost O'odham, including "In-the-Sand people," "Sand Root Crushers," "Apache-like nomads," and "Zebra-tailed Lizard Eaters@ and the native subsistence patterns of these peoples. They note that the so-called Hia Ced O'odham carried out small-scale farming and gathered and hunted a wide range of non-domesticated plants and animals.]


Nabhan, Gary, and R. Roy Johnson

    1993             Mesquite habitat conservation and alternative product development. Aridus, Vol. 5, no. 4 (November), pp. 1-2. Tucson, The University of Arizona Desert Legume Program. [This essay concerning threatened mesquite and ironwood habitat in the Sonoran Desert alludes to the fact that, "Other options for producing domestic mesquite are being explored by the Drylands Institute and the San Xavier community of the Tohono O'odham near Tucson. It will likely have a strong specialty market as a native, organically-produced whole food providing health benefits to consumers."]


Nabhan, Gary P., and Jacquie Kahn

    2000             Part I. Tinajas Altas oral histories: documenting a critically important multicultural watering, hunting, and trading grounds. In Draft. Volume I. The only water for 100 miles: the ethnohistory and history of Tinajas Altas [SWCA Cultural Resource Report, no. 98-260], edited by Gayle H. Hartmann, pp. 1.1-1.20. Phoenix, Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.; Tucson, SWCA, Inc. [Most of the oral histories discussed here are those based on interviews with Hia C-ed O'odham.]


Nabhan, Gary; Maynard Nutumya, and Mary Hoskin

    1992             A desert diet demonstration in Utah. Seedhead News, no. 39 (Winter Solstice), p. 1. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [This tells about a trip taken in early January, 1992 by Tohono O'odham health workers and others to the National Institute for Fitness in Utah where the health workers exercised for three to five hours a day and lived on a diet of "slow release" desert foods for two weeks. The test was done to check possible effects on diabetes and obesity.]


Nabhan, Gary, and Amadeo Rea

    1985             AFinal report: >Utilitarian Lexemic Categories in Mountain Pima Ethnobiology,. Mexico.=@ Unpublished report to fulfill requirements of National Science Foundation award number BNS-8317190. 18 pp. [Comparisons between Sonoran Mountain Pima and Papago terms and practices are made throughout.]


Nabhan, Gary P.; Amadeo M. Rea, Karen L. Reichhardt, Eric Mellink, and Charles F. Hutchinson

    1982             Papago influences on habitat and biotic diversity: Quitovac oasis ethnoecology. Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 2, no. 2 (December), pp. 124-143. Flagstaff, Arizona, Center for Western Studies. [A study of the plant and animal life at the oasis of Quitovac, a Papago Indian settlement in Sonora, to show how traditional Papago subsistence and land use affected habitat and biotic diversity. The clearing and leveling of the site in 1981 is mentioned and the results are shown in an aerial photo.]

    2000             Papago influences on habitat and biotic diversity: Quitovac oasis ethnoecology. In Ethnobotany: a reader, edited by Paul S. Minnis, chapter 3. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. [A reprint of Nabhan, Rea, and others (1982).]


Nabhan, Gary, and Helga Teiwes

    1983             Tepary beans, O=odham farmers, and desert fields. Desert Plants, Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 15-37. Superior, The University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Arboretum. [With text by Nabhan and photographs by Teiwes, this is virtually the whole story of the ages-old relationship between Papago Indians and the tepary bean: legend, cultivation, consumption, etc.]


Nabhan, Gary, and Stephen Trimble

    1993             The geography of childhood. Boston, Beacon Press. Illus., bibl. xxv + 184 pp. [Included here is a discussion of surveys made in 1992 among Tohono O=odham and HiaCed O=odham children that indicated most children were getting their environmental education vicariously through television and movies. Most said they had never spent time in a wild place, and 35% of the children had never collected objects from the environment. Nabhan, author of this essay, ruminates on the significance of the findings. Also see Nabhan (1997b).]


Nabhan, Gary; Charles W. Weber, and James W. Berry

    1979             Legumes in the Papago-Pima Indian diet and ecological notes. Kiva, Vol. 44, nos. 2-3 (Winter-Spring), pp. 173-190. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [A discussion of bean pod and seed food utilized traditionally by Papagos and Pimas, especially of the mesquite pod and tepary beans. The nutritional implications of a legume dominated diet are analyzed.]

    1985             Variations in compositions of Hopi Indian beans. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Vol. 16, pp. 135-152. [Authors suggest that one cause of the high incidence of diabetes among the Papago Indians relates to the elimination of the native tepary bean from their diet.]


Nabhan, Gary; Alfred Whiting, Henry Dobyns, Richard Hevly, and Robert Euler

    1981             Devil=s claw domestication: evidence from Southwestern Indian fields. Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 1, no. 1 (May), pp. 135-146. Flagstaff, Arizona, Center for Western Studies. [Much of the discussion concerns the use by Papago Indians of devil=s claw, principally for the black element in their basketry, and their cultivation of this desert plant.]

    2000             Devil=s claw domestication: evidence from Southwestern Indian fields. In Ethnobotany: a reader, edited by Paul S. Minnis, chapter 12. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. [A reprint of Nabhan, Whiting, and others (1981).]


Nabokov, Peter

    1981             Indian running. Santa Barbara, California, Capra Press. 208 pp. [About six pages of this book are devoted to the exploits of Papago long distance runners.]


Nabokov, Peter, and Margaret MacLean

    1980             Ways of Native American running. CoEvolution Quarterly, no. 26 (Summer), front cover-pp. 2, 4-21, outside back cover. Sausalito, California, Point. [An article about the running abilities and running games of North American Indians draws on published information from Ales Hrdlicka and Ruth Underhill in discussing the running of Papago Indians.]


Narcho, Harrington

    1982             Bull roarer. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 8. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Writes Papago student Narcho: "A bull roarer can be dangerous. It can bring dangerous weather and strong winds and I bet Papago people used it to bring rain when they needed it."]


Naroll, Raoul, and William T. Divale

    1976             Natural selection in cultural evolution: warfare versus peaceful diffusion. American Ethnologist, Vol. 3, no. 1 (February), pp. 97-129. Washington, D.C., American Anthropological Association. [The Papago are included in a worldwide survey of forty-nine societies to test the authors= Social Darwinian hypothesis, one which tests warfare as a selection mechanism in cultural evolution. The Papago are listed in a chart on page 107 and in a table on page 115.]


Naroll, Raoul, and Frada Naroll

    1963             On bias of exotic data. Man, Vol. 63, articles 21-42 (February), pp. 24-26. London, The Royal Anthropological Institute. [The Narolls visited the Papagos and the Nahua to check on work by earlier anthropological field investigators to check it for bias and other errors. They spent about five days at Tracy=s Trading Post, Santa Cruz, Topawa, and Supi Oidak, checking specifically on data in Joseph, Spicer, and Chesky (1949). While they laud the general quality of the work, they question the data on settlement pattern, child punishment, and weaning age.]


National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

    1974             Space technology in remote health care. JSC 09161 (August). [Washington, D.C.,] U. S. Government Printing Office. [AThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration=s (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, in conjunction with the Indian Health Service (IHS), of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) is conducting a demonstration program to improve health care delivery - in space and to remote areas on earth - through the application of space technology.

                             AThe program is titled >Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care= (STARPAHC) and is briefly described. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LSMC) has been selected as the NASA systems contractor for assembling the system and supporting the field operations of STARPAHC.@

                             This 16-page report includes a map of the Papago Reservation as well as photographs of the health clinic in Santa Rosa and the Indian hospitals in Sells and Phoenix.]


Navarro, A.C.

    1978             Papago mythical folklore. Tucson, privately printed. 47 pp. [A collection of fourteen Papago folk tales.]

    1980             Coyote after the flood. Cortaro, Arizona, A.C. Navarro. 39 pp. [A gathering of fifteen folk tales collected by Navarro from Papago Indian Chepa Franco on the San Xavier Indian Reservation.]


Naylor, Thomas H.

    1982             The missions as others saw them. In Kino guide II. A life of Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J., Arizona=s first pioneer and a guide to his missions and monuments, by Charles W. Polzer, pp. 51-57. Tucson, Southwestern Mission Research Center. [With a three-paragraph introduction, this is a gathering of twenty historic images, eighteen photos and two engravings, of missions of the Pimería Alta..]

    1985             Le missioni viste da altri. In Eusebio Kino, padre dell=alta pimería, by Charles W. Polzer and translated by Claudia R. Guerrieri, Diana Denver, and Ana Maria Kelly, pp. 95-104. Hermosillo, Gobierno del Esatado de Sonora. [This is the Italian version of Naylor (1982).]

    1986             Ancients & archaeologists. In Tucson: a short history, by Charles W. Polzer and others, pp. 5-20. Tucson, Southwestern Mission Research Center. [Naylor draws on early Spanish-period accounts that describe the native Piman population in the vicinity of Tucson and he speculates that Pimas (including Papagos) are the direct lineal descendants of the prehistoric Hohokam.]


Naylor, Thomas H., translator

    1980             Piety and polygamy along the Bavispe: Father Piñan=s visit to northeastern Sonora. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 21, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 423-436. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [In his introduction to his translation of this 1900 report by Father Piñan, Naylor says Piñan was serving as a missionary among the Papagos in Caborca when called upon by the Bishop of Sonora to pay a visit to communities along Sonora=s Río Bavispe.]


Neabel, Caroline

    1992             Tour garden reports. Seedhead News, no. 40 (Spring Equinox), p. 8. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Reporting from Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada, Neabel says she got only 50% germination of the Tohono O'odham brown tepary bean, and that while the pods formed in 90 days, it was impossible for them to mature.]


Neary, John

    1978             The missions of Father Kino. Americana, Vol. 6, no. 2 (May/June), pp. 22-26. New York, American Heritage Publishing Company. [This article about a half-million dollar conservation project at Mission Tumacacori in southern Arizona places the mission in the larger context of other missions of the Pimería Alta missions founded in the late 17th century among Northern Piman Indians by Father Eusebio Kino. The article is illustrated with photos of missions Tubutama, Magdalena, San Ignacio, Oquitoa, Cocóspera, Caborca, Tumacácori, and San Xavier del Bac.]


Neasham, Aubrey

    1940             An interpretive statement for Tumacacori. Southwestern Monuments Monthly Report, Supplement for November, pp. 325-326. Coolidge, Arizona, Department of the Interior, National Park Service. [Tumacacori Mission is set within the historical context of the other missions of the Pimería Alta, Mission San Xavier del Bac included.]


Neblina, Francisco

    1994             To the Reverend Father Prefect, Fray José María Pérez Llera.. In Selections from A frontier documentary: Mexican Tucson, 1821-1856 [Working Paper Series, no. 22], compiled, translated, and edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 29-30. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center. [Written in Caborca in the Pimería Alta February 28, 1835 by the Piman governor, this letter chronicles the loss of lands and means of livelihood suffered by the O=odham after 1814 when it was decreed that rather than remaining as sharing members of mission communities they should become equal to non-Indians Ain matters of land and possessions.@ He notes that San Ignacio is no longer an Indian community and that the O=odham settlements of Saric, Tubutama, Oquitoa, and even Caborca are headed in the same direction. He cites the preemption of Indian lands by non-Indian settlers and the inability of the missionary to protect them. Were it not for the poverty, he writes, Athese villages would now be filled with baptized Papagos (desert dwellers) B especially in light of their traditional attraction to baptism. Provisioned with the fruit of their harvests B for they are hard workers B they would now be in a position to protect the state against the Apaches and members of their own Papago tribe who prefer to wander in the waterless hills. As it is, however, necessity forces these displaced Papagos to steal cattle and horses from the presidios and ranches.

                             AAs they wander about the state, robbery and other vices gain momentum as baptized Papagos join together with the desert Papagos, free from the control of mission regulations and free from guidance by their native governors. To increase their forces they even kidnap other Papagos, married or unmarried, gentile of Christian. This type of activity was never seen among our people B or even heard of before their contact with the Yaquis. Now, however, with every trace of their Christian teaching gone, they are becoming as rapacious as the Apaches.@]

        1997         To the Reverend Father Prefect, Fray José María Pérez Llera. In A frontier documentary: Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848, translated and edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 26-28. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [A reprint of Neblina (1994).]


Neff, Mary L.

    1912             Pima and Papago legends. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 25, no. 95 (January-March), pp. 51-65. Lancaster, The American Folk-Lore Society. [Included here are legends concerning How the Earth Was Made; Origin Legend; The Fox=s Journey; Ya-che-wol; The Fox and the Ducks; The Eagle; Casa Blanca; The Transformed Grandmother; An Old Woman and Her Grandsons; The Brothers; The First White Man Seen; and The Dog Who Befriended a Fox. These stories were collected by the author from Pima and Papago children attending the Industrial School at Tucson.]


Negri, Sam

    1994a           Basket weaving. The Tohono O'odham unravel an art form. Arizona Highways, Vol. 70, no. 6 (June), pp. 34-37. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Color photos of baskets and basketry material accompany this brief article on the contemporary art of Tohono O'odham basketry. Featured are basketmakers Rufina Morris and Annie Antone.]

    1994b           Legends of the lost. A stock swindle clouds tales of the lost Sopori Mine. Arizona Highways, Vol. 70, no. 1 (January), pp. 48-49. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [According to Tucson mining engineer Harry Winters, "who speaks Tohono O'odham," the word "Sopori" is O'odham for shopolik, which means "short." The Sopori Mine is in southern Arizona.]

    1997             Surrender to the lure of desert trekking on the trail of hope. Arizona Highways, Vol. 73, no. 4 (April), p. 64. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [This account of the Sendero Esperanza Trail in the Tucson Mountains next to Tucson, Arizona, says that "The Tohono O'odham Indians, indigenous citizens in this arid region, regard these saguaros as people to be treated with respect."]

    1998             Tohono O'odham day. Tucson Monthly, Vol. 1, no. 7 (March), pp. 66-69. Tucson, Madden Publishing, Inc. [This article is about the annual spring festivities -- the 3rd Saturday in March -- held in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument by Tohono O'odham and Hia-Ced O'odham. They hold dances and demonstrate crafts, including pottery and basket making.]

    2000             Drawn to the desert after several decades away, a Tohono O'odham returns to Baboquivari Peak and a nineteenth-century way of life. Arizona Highways. Vol. 76, no. 1 (January), pp. 22-23. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [With two color photos by Edward McCain, this is an article about Tohono O'odham Ed Kisto, a Baboquivari Valley rancher who had spent many years of his life in Los Angeles. He was baptized at Mission San Xavier del Bac on November 20, 1925, but was born about four years before then. Kisto returned to the reservation in 1966.]

    2001a           Back road adventure. Arizona Highways, Vol. 77, no. 1 (January), pp. 50-53. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Described here in words, a map, and color photos by Patrick Fisher is a circle drive on the Papago Indian Reservation from Quijotoa to Santa Rosa to Vaya Chin to Hickiwan to Highway 86 and back to Quijotoa. A version of the tale of the children's shrine is recounted; the church at Vaya Chin is shown in one of the photos.]

    2001b           Weekend getaway. Arizona Highways, Vol. 77, no. 2 (February), pp. 50-53. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Illustrated with color photos by David Smith, this article is about the O'odham Tash celebration held annually in Casa Grande, Arizona. Many of the participants are Tohono O'odham from Chuichu, Covered Wells, Nolic, Topawa, and Santa Rosa.]

    2003             Tumacacori Mission to Tubac. Arizona Highways, Vol. 79, no. 3 (March), pp. 32-37. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Illustrated with color photos by Patrick Fischer. This article is about the 4.5-mile route connecting Tumacacori to Tubac, a portion of he Anza National Historic Trail. In recounting some of the history, Negri quotes from a report in which Juan Bautista de Anza, for whom the trail is now named, wrote: AWhen I took over my present command (in Tubac) in 1760, my section of the frontier was faced with an uprising of over a thousand Papagos. ... After launching various campaigns to subjugate them, I attacked them personally on May 10, 1760, and took Ciprian, their captain, and nine others. All the others then capitulated.@ Mention is also made of Fr. Francisco Garcés, the priest at Mission San Xavier del Bac.]


Nelson, Annabelle, and Bisi Lalemi

    1991             The role of imagery training on Tohono O=odham children=s creativity scores. Journal of American Indian Education, Vol. 30, no. 3 (May), pp. 24-32. Tempe, Arizona State University, Bureau of Educational Research and Services of the College of Education. [AAmong 40 second and sixth graders in a Bureau of Indian Affairs (Papago) reservation school, those who participated in six 15-minute sessions of imagery training had significantly higher post-test scores on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, comparted to controls.@]


Nelson, Donald

    1982             The desert. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 13. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [This twelve-year-old Papago student writes an essay about the desert, saying "It is peaceful and there is a nice view. ... Sometimes, I just walk around in the desert."]


Nelson, E.W.

    1885             Arizona and New Mexico. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1884, pp. 20-24. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Nelson went to the Southwest to study and collect birds and other wildlife. He reached the San Xavier Reservation in August, 1884, where he collected samples of Papago pottery for the Bureau of American Ethnology. He provides a brief description of the manufacture and use of ollas (p. 22).]


Nelson, Matt

    1997             Recording review: Southern Scratch Piast Tas "Fiesta Time." Seedhead News, no. 59 (Winter), p. 3. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [This is a review of a cassette recording of Tohono O'odham "chicken scratch" (waila) music.]


Nelson, Sarah M.

    1988             Widowhood and autonomy in the Native-American Southwest. In On their own: widows and widowhood in the American Southwest, 1848-1949, edited by Arlene Scadron, pp. 22-41. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press. [Drawing on data from two of Ruth Underhill=s published sources, the author devoted three-and-a-half pages to a discussion of widowhood among the Papago Indians. The single case is based on that of Chona, the Papago woman who narrated an autobiography to Underhill.]


Nelson, Suzanne C.

    1994a           AGenotype and cropping system effects on cowpea growth and yield.@ Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. 152 pp. [AField experiments were conducted in 1990 and 1991 to examine the effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes and cropping systems on cowpea yield, yield components, biomass, and leaf area. ... In sole crop, >California Blackeye 46' (CB46) yielded more than >Tohono O=odham= (TOC).@ Further data are provided concerning yields with respect to the Tohono O=odham cowpea.]

    1994b           Tohono O'odham cowpea scores well in intercropping test. Seedhead News, no. 45 (summer), pp. 1-2, 4. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [An affirmative report on the success of using the Tohono O'odham cowpea for intercropping (i.e., simultaneous growing of two or more crops in the same field) with pearl millet.]

    1999a           Results of a survey on our free seed policy for Native Americans. Seedhead News, no. 64 (Spring), p. 5. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Among Indians who responded to a questionnaire mailed by Native Seeds/SEARCH to those who had received free crop seeds were three Tohono O'odham.]

    1999b           Toasting el chiltepin! Seedhead News, no. 66 (fall), pp. 1-2. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [An article about the dedication on June 3, 1999 of the Wild Chile Botanical Area within Coronado National Forest in southern Arizona is accompanied by a photograph of people celebrating the occasion, one of whom is Tohono O'odham Angelo Joaquin, Jr., executive director of Native Seeds/SEARCH.]

    2002a           Busy as bees in summer: news from the conservation farm. Seedhead News, no. 78 (fall), pp. 3-5. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [This report on the Native Seeds/SEARCH farm near Patagonia, Arizona, notes that, AThe earliest collection of corn grown this year was collected from Little Tucson on the Tohono O=odham reservation in 1978!@]

    2002b           Hooked on devil=s claw. Seedhead News, no. 80 (Winter), pp. 1-3. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [It=s mentioned that Tohono O=odham and Gila River Pimas Asnacked on devil=s claw seeds regularly, though folklore suggests girls should not overindulge in them because they may bear only male children or their pubic hair may become stiff like the crest on the fruit itself. It has also reportedly been used medicinally, as a treatment for arthritis.@ The Pimas and Tohono O=odham also peeled the black fibers from the claws and wove them into the bottoms of baskets to make them leak proof. AThe Tohono O=odham Basketmakers Association (TOBA) promotes all the traditions associated with basket making including cultivating i:hug, harvesting and preparing the claws for weaving into baskets, and saving seeds for another year=s planting.@]

    2003             Conservation farm update. Seedhead News, no. 83 (Winter), pp. 4-5. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Among the many seeds harvested from the Native Seeds/SEARCH farm in southern Arizona were those of maize from the Tohono O=odham.]


Nelson, William H.

    1927             Alluring Arizona. San Francisco, William Hamilton Nelson. Illus. xiii + 133 pp. [This Arizona travelogue devotes a chapter (3) to ASpanish Explorations in Arizona,@ one that includes an error-filled paragraph on Mission Tumacacori (p. 36) and four paragraphs B and a photo of the southwest elevation of the church B on Mission San Xavier del Bac (pp. 36-38). The discussion is centered on San Xavier=s architecture, one not too bad other than inclusion of the bizarre notion that some of its elements are@Aztec@ in nature.]


Nentvig, Juan

    1856             Descripción geográfica, natural y curiosa de la provincia de Sonora. In Documentos para la historia de México. Continuación de los materiales para la historia de Sonora, Vol. 1, pp. 489-616. México, Vicente García Torres. [This is the first printing in Spanish of a 1764 account by Jesuit missionary Juan Nentvig describing the people, products, and landscape of the province of Sonora, including its Piman (O=odham) population. The authorship is not given here because it was not then known.]

    1863             Rudo ensayo, tentative de una prevencional descripción de la provincia Sonora, sus terminos y confines ... Edited by Buckingham Smith. San Augustin de la Florida [Albany, Munsell, printer]. x + 208 pp. [Said to be from a copy of a manuscript in a collection Anow in the Department of State, Mexico,@ and written by an Aunknown Jesuit,@ a reflection of the state of knowledge in 1863 and until much later. Father Nentvig served at Saric in the Pimería Alta, his station at the time of the Pma Revolt of 1751, and subsequently at the Sonoran missions at Suamca, Tecoripa, and Guasabas. His Arough essay,@ written in 1764, provides what he called a geographic description of the Province of Sonora. Mentions of Papagos, Pimas, and APapapootans@ occur throughout.]

    1894             Rudo ensayo [by an unknown Jesuit priest]. Translated into English from the Buckingham Smith-edited book (Nentvig 1863) by Eusebio Guitéras. Records, Vol. 5. Philadelphia, American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. [See Nentvig 1863.]

    1951             Rudo ensayo. By an unknown Jesuit padre. Tucson, Arizona Silhouettes. Map, illus., index. xii + 151 + 7 pp. [A republication of Nentvig (1894) with an added publisher=s note, introduction, and index.]

    1971             Descripción geográfica. . . de Sonora [Publicaciones del Archivo General de la Nación, núm. 1], with an introduction, notes, and analytical index by Germán Viveros. México, Archivo General de la Nación. Map, indices, 247 pp. [This is a version of Nentvig (1856).]

    1977             El rudo ensayo. Descripción geográfica, natural y curiosa de la provincia de Sonora, 1764 [Colección Científica, Etnología, núm. 58]. Introduction, appendices, and analytical index by Margarita Nolasco A., Teresa Martínez P., and America Flores. México, SEP, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Maps, illus., bibl., index. 202 pp. [This version of Nentvig (1856) has an extremely detailed index as well as illustrations taken from John Ross Browne=s Adventures in the Apache Country (1869). Every effort has been made here to locate places mentioned by Nentvig on a modern map of Sonora.]

    1980             Rudo ensayo. A description of Sonora and Arizona in 1764. Translated, clarified, and annotated by Alberto F. Pradeau and Robert R. Rasmussen. Tucson, University of Arizona Press. Map, indices. xxiv + 160 pp. [This is a new translation of Nentvig (1863). Consult the excellent index for citations to Papagos, Pimas, and Mission San Xavier del Bac and Father Alonso Espinosa, the San Xavier missionary in 1764.]


Nettl, Bruno

    1954             North American Indian musical styles. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, Vol. 45. Philadelphia, American Folklore Society. 51 pp. [Scattered references to Papago music are found on pages 5 (Papago, PIma, and others are located at the meeting points of musical areas); 25 (Pima-Papago musical style is marginal to the Plains-Pueblo area); 32-33 (Pima and Papago music style may be described as a combination of Plains-Pueblo elements with some California-Yuma area, the shared traits being discussed); and 50 (an example of a Papago flute melody is shown).]


Neves, María A.C.

    1981             APhenomenology of prayer.@ Ph.D. dissertation, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Xiii + 467 pp. [Pages 162-65 include a section of Papago Indian religion drawn largely from Ruth Underhill=s Singing for Power and from Underhill and others= Rainhouse and ocean.]


Newberne, Robert E.L.

    1924             Peyote. The Indian School Journal, Vol. 23, no. 6 (February), pp. 149-168; no. 7 (March), pp. 194-214. Chilocco, Oklahoma, United States Indian Training School. [A chart on page 213 lists the population of Papagos on the ASells@ Reservation as being 5,237 and as being totally unaffected by the use of peyote.]


Newcomb, Rexford

    1916             The Franciscan mission architecture of Alta California. New York, The Architectural Book Publishing Company. [Unaccountably, given that it is not an Alta California mission, Mission San Xavier del Bac appears in three photos, all taken by the Los Angeles photo studios of Putnam and Valentine. One provides a closeup view of the church façade and large portions of the adjacent bell towers; another a more distant view of the southwest elevation of the church and portions of the cemetery and convento wing; and a third, a picture of the sanctuary and east transept in a southwest elevation view from the crossing.]

    1937             Spanish-colonial architecture in the United States. New York, J.J. Augustin. Illus. 39 pp. + 130 plates. [Newcomb correctly credits Father Eusebio Kino with founding Mission San Xavier del Bac and Franciscans with building the present church, one completed in 1797 (pp. 18-19). He also writes, A... a visit to San Xavier del Bac is like a voyage to some exchanged land of the Moslems, so oriental is its architecture@ (p. 23). A plan of the mission and photos of its interior and exterior are in plates 47-50.]

    1973             The Franciscan mission architecture of Alta California. New York, Dover Publications, Inc. [This is an unabridged, corrected edition of Newcomb (1916), with illustrations renumbered.]

    1988             Franciscan mission architecture of California. New York, Dover Publications, Inc. Map, illus. xiii + 74 plates. [With a different title, this is a reprint of Newcomb (1973). The three photos of Mission San Xavier del Bac appear in plates 8 and 9.]

    1990             Spanish-colonial architecture in the United States. New York, Dover Publications, Inc. Illus. 39 pp. + 130 plates. [A facsimile reproduction of Newcomb (1937).]


Newhall, Nancy

    1952             The shell of Tumacacori. Arizona Highways, Vol. 28, no. 11 (November), pp. 4-13. Photography by Ansel Adams. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [Accompanied by seven black-and-white photographs of the mission ruins by famed photographer Ansel Adams, this essay by Newhall provides an overview of the mission=s history from its founding among Northern Piman Indians in 1691 to its becoming a national monument in 1908.]

    1954             Mission San Xavier del Bac. Arizona Highways, Vol. 30, no. 4 (April), pp. 12-35. Photography by Ansel Adams. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [A well-illustrated and detailed article on the mission, one with many references to Papagos. Part IV, pages 33-35, is titled APapagos and Franciscans.@ On pages 36-37 there are seven photographic portraits of Papago men, women, and children as well as a picture of Father Bonaventure Oblasser, O.F.M. There are fourteen black-and-white and five color photos by Adams as well as a drawing by Ted De Grazia.]

    1983             Spring comes to desert country. Arizona Highways, Vol. 59, no. 3 (March), pp. 16-25. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [The author writes that in Papago Achants@ saguaros are referred to as being Acopper black.@ Baboquivari is mentioned as being the Ascared mountain of the Papagos.@]

    1985             [Untitled.] Arizona Highways, Vol. 61, no. 4 (April), p. 27. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [This is an excerpt from Newhall (1954), one about the history of Mission San Xavier del Bac and which mentions both Papagos and Sobaipuris.]


Newman, Marshall T.

    1960             Adaptation in the physique of American aborigines to nutritional factors. Human Biology, Vol, 32, no. 3 (September), pp. 288-313. Detroit, Wayne State University Press. [This is an examination of factors, including environmental temperature, that influence body weight among Eskimos and American Indians. Papagos are discussed on pages 302 and 309 and are listed in Table I on p. 289, a table that deals with relationships among weight, stature and environmental temperature.]

Newman, Stanley

    1954             American Indian linguistics in the Southwest. American Anthropologist, Vol. 56, no. 4 (August), pp. 626-634. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [Newman discusses at considerable length the history of and problems connected to classification of languages of Indians of the Southwest. He makes references to work on Papago by J. Alden Mason and Juan Dolores.]

Nicholas, Fr., O.F.M.

    1921             Two timely patrons. Franciscan Herald, Vol. 9, no. 5 (March), p. 138. Chicago, Friars Minor of the Sacred Heart Province. [The AFr. Nicholas@ here may or may not be Fr. Nicholas Perschl, a longtime missionary among the Papago Indians. The article concerns saints Joseph and Patrick and makes no mention of Indians.]

Nichols, Lynn

    1998             ATopics in Zuni syntax.@ Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 280 pp. [A linguistic theory proposed for the Zuni Indian language Ais able to account for certain data from O=odham and Belfast English ... .@]

Nichols, Roger L., compiler and editor

    1985             Arizona directory of historians and historical organizations. s.l., Coordinating Committee for History in Arizona. 156 pp. [Some of the institutions and individuals listed either have collections of Papago material culture or have particular expertise and experience in dealing with Papagos.]

Nickerson, Grace P.

    1929             The giant cactus, sahuaro. Los Angeles, Trade Printing Company. [The Papago uses of saguaro fruit as food are covered on pages 21-23.]

Nickerson, Norton H.

    1953             Variations in cob morphology among certain archaeological and ethnological races of maize. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 40, pp. 79-111. Galesburg, Illinois, Trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden. [Included here is a discussion of the Papago flour race of maize.]

Nicolson, John, editor

    1974             The Arizona of Joseph Pratt Allyn. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Map, illus., bibl. 284 pp. [Published here are letters written by Allyn for the Hartford Evening Press in 1864-65 under then pen name, APutnam.@ They describe his travels in Arizona. Papagos are mentioned on pages 172 (Papagos and Mission San Xavier del Bac); 177 (Papagos protected San Xavier against Apaches); 178 (Papagos and the Papaguería); 210 (Baboquivari Peak was sacred to Papagos); 211 (Allyn=s party passed the abandoned village of San Vicente or Havana Nakya); 215 (Papago chieftain lives at San Xavier); and 216 (Papago women carry water as far as five miles to their ranchos.]


Niethammer, Carolyn

    1974             American Indian food and lore. 150 authentic recipes. New York, Collier Books; London, Collier Macmillan Publishers. Illus., notes, bibl., index. xxx + 191 pp. [Molly Manuel, a Papago living on the San Xavier Reservation, was the Papago informant for the Papago section of this book, one which contains many recipes and uses of native plants. Papago data occur as listed under APapago@ in the index on page 187.]

    1978             Working and feasting. In Sonoran heritage: food on the desert [supplement to the Arizona Daily Star, October], p. 4. Tucson, National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program at the Tucson Public Library. [The author writes about a Sonoran Heritage food course taught in the spring of 1978, one in which, ASan Xavier cooks, Molly Manuel and Agnes McCabe, demonstrated the most ancient of kitchen tools B the hands B while class members tried to pat out and shape fry bread. Many were surprised when their creations puffed up and turned golden brown in the kettle over the fragrant mesquite fire.

                             AArchaeologist Gordon Fritz was the guest lecturer on the subject of hunting. He recounted the early Papago organization of domiciles and the practice of selecting hunters to provide meat for an entire group. He described their techniques and rituals.@]

    1983             Tepary cuisine. Desert Plants, Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 8-9. Superior, Arizona, The University of Arizona for the Boyce Thompson Arboretum. [Niethammer, who offers some suggestions on how to cook teparies, says of these beans that "they will have to be incorporated into a cuisine more contemporary and varied than that relished by a Papago of a hundred years ago."]


Niswander, Jerry D., and Morton S. Adams

    1967             Oral clefs in the American Indian. Public Health Reports, Vol. 82, no. 9 (September), pp. 807-812. Rockville, Maryland, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. [Table 2 on page 810 shows that none of the Papagos studied who live at Sells, Arizona have type AB or B blood groups and none have Rh negative blood.]


Niswander, Jerry D.; K.S. Brown, B.Y. Iba, W.C. Leyshon, and P.L. Workman

    1970             Population studies on Southwestern Indian tribes. I. History, culture, and genetics of the Papago. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 22, no. 1 (January), pp. 7-23. Chicago, The American Society of Human Genetics. [ACultural and historical studies pertinent to a genetic analysis of the Papago Indians are reviewed. Data are presented for 12 genetic systems in the Papago and comparisons with other Uto-Aztecan tribes are made.@]


Nite, Bonaventure

    1962             Papago Christmas. Way, Vol. 18, no. 11 (December), pp. 61-64. San Francisco, Franciscan Fathers of California, Inc. [This is a fictionalized account by a Franciscan brother of real events as these have occurred during the Christmas celebration at San Xavier del Bac. Brother Bonaventure was stationed at San Xavier for many years from 1950 to the mid 1960s.]

    1963             Fr. >Nick= among Indians. Provincial Annals, Vol. 25, no. 1 (January), p. 44. [Santa Barbara, California], Province of Saint Barbara [of the Order of Friars Minor]. [Brother Bonaventure, who arrived to serve at Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1950, reflects on his long and warm association with Father Nicholas Perschl, a Franciscan missionary who first arrived at San Xavier del Bac in 1914. He notes Father Nicholas=s outstanding characteristic: humility.]

    1967             This is a friar: Brother Robert Schuchert. Provincial Annals, Vol. 29, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 49-50. San Francisco, Franciscan Fathers of California, Inc. [This is a tribute to a Franciscan brother by a fellow Franciscan brother, one which acknowledges that the former Ahas built or repaired or remodelled virtually every Papago mission on the Reservation.@ Brother Robert=s life is outlined and a chronological list of his various constructions on the Papago Reservation is given.]

    1980             Papago Christmas. Tucson, The Peccary Press. 20 pp. [Designed by Mark Sanders, this is a hardcover, fine-press edition of Nite (1962).]

    1991             Papago Christmas. [Phoenix], Roswell Bookbinding. 19 pp. [This is a newly-designed version of Nite (1980), also hardcover and fine press.]


Noble, John W.

    1890             Proposed removal of certain Indians. In Senate Executive Documents, no. 71, 51st Congress, 1st session, Vol. 9, p. 2. Washington. Government Printing Office. [The Secretary of the Interior approves the idea of removing the Papagos from the Gila Bend Reservation and relocating them either to the Pima and Maricopa reservation or to the Papago (San Xavier) Reservation. He asks the Commissioner of Indian Affars in this communication dated January 20, 1890, to prepare a draft of legislation to this end to be considered by the U.S. Congress.]


Nolasco A., Margarita

    1965             Los Papagos, habitantes del desierto. Anales, Tomo 17 (45 de la colección), pp. 375-448. México, D.F., Secretaría de Educación Pública, Instituto Nacional Antropología e Historia. [With two maps, 48 black-and-white photos, and bibliography, this is a detailed survey of the Papagos living in northern Sonora, Mexico. It includes a discussion of all traditional aspects of culture and a list of modern villages. Professor Nolasco made the survey on which this study is based in 1963.]

    1969             Notas para la antropología social del noroeste de México. Publicación, núm. 23. México, Instituto Nacional Antropología e Historia. [Statistics for the Indian population of northwest Mexico are given for the years 1960-63, including figures for Sonoran Papagos.]

    1979             Los Pápagos perdimos nuestra cultura. México Indígena, núm. 30 (Septiembre), pp. 9-12. México, Instituto Nacional Indigenista. [Reprinted from Los Universitarios, this is an overview of the contemporary condition of the Papago Indians living in Sonora, Mexico.]


Nolasco A., Margarita; Cecilia Ramírez C., and Sergio Vicanco

    1968             Problemas indigines en las zonas aridus de México. Anuario Indigenista, Vol. 28 (Diciembre), pp. 202-213. México, D.F., Instituto Indigenista Interamericano. [This article deals with the problem of water which the Indians in the arid regions of Mexico encounter. The northern desert of Sonora is one of the arid zones discussed, with Papagos specifically being mentioned on pages 203-04.]


Nordmeyer, Robert L.

    1978             Most Reverend Henry R. Granjon (1863-1922). In Shepherds in the desert, by Charles W. Polzer, Kieran R. McCarty, and Robert L, Nordmeyer, pp. 60-75. Tucson, Silver Jubilee Committee, Diocese of Tucson. [Nordmeyer alludes to the great personal interest Bishop Granjon took in the care and repair of Mission San Xavier del Bac. He quotes Granjon writing in a report on the state of the diocese of Tucson, A... the buildings (of San Xavier) have been completely restored (1905-1910) by the Bishop of Tucson. The Papago Indians, who are under the care of the Mission of St. Francis, have benefitted by the constant interest of the Tucson clergy@ (p. 73). Also noted was a promise by Mother Katharine Drexel to Bishop Granjon of a grant of $1,000 for repair of the convent and school at San Xavier.]


Norman, Rosamond

    1960             A look at the Papago "Vikita." Masterkey, Vol. 34, no. 3 (July-September), pp. 98-101. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [Two black-and-white photos showing costumed dancers in action accompany this descriptive account of a vikita ceremony witnessed by Norman at the Papago village of Santa Rosa in 1921.]


Normark, Don

    1970             Solar telescope at Kitt Peak. Sunset, Vol. 145, no. 1 (July), p. 170. Menlo Park, California, Lane Magazine & Book Company. [This is a travel notes concerning Kitt Peak National Observatory on the Papago Indian Reservation.]


North, Diane M.T.

    1980             Samuel Peter Heintzelman and the Sonora Exploring & Mining Company. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Illus., notes, bibl., index. xvii + 248 pp. [While nothing in the book deals directly with Papagos, Heintzelman offers comments in his journal entries for 1858 on William Walker, the first U.S. Indian agent for the Papagos; a mention of Mission San Xavier del Bac; and on the settlement at Punta de Agua, which after 1874 was included within the boundaries of the San Xavier Reservation (pp. 54-55).]

    1984             AA real class of people@ in Arizona. A biographical analysis of the Sonora Exploring and Mining Company. Arizona and the West, Vol. 26, no. 3 (Autumn), pp. 261-274. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [A discussion of the sociology of the personnel of this early Anglo-period mining company in Arizona makes a few allusions to Papago Indians who, it is said, Alived in harmony with their new neighbors.@ The 1860 census is also cited as indicating some 200 people, mostly Indians, then lived at San Xavier.]


Norris, Alice S., compiler and editor

    1980             When everything was real. An introduction to Papago desert foods. Sells, Arizona, Indian Oasis School District #40. Map, illus., bibl. 68 pp. [This is an easy-to-read compilation of information concerning Papago traditional foods, including foods gathered, foods cultivated, and food hunted. There is also a section of wild game and weapons. Names of plants and animals are given in Papago, common English, and Latin scientific labels.]


Norris, Cheryl

    1982             The maze. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p.26. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [Writes ten-year-old Papago student Norris: "The maze is used by Eetoi. Some say people were chasing Eetoi and he followed the maze and the people didn't catch him."]


Norris, Kevin

    1982             [Untitled.] Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p.34. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [This is an untitled drawing by a twelve-year-old Papago student from Vamori. It depicts an eagle (or vulture) soaring with Baboquivari Peak in the background and with a saguaro, ocotillo, and prickly pear cactus in the foreground.]


Norris, Ned, Jr.

    1999             Message from the board. Your Sunnyside Story, Vol. 34, no. 1 (October), p. 2. Tucson, Sunnyside School District. [Ned Norris, Jr., is a Tohono O'odham who is president of the governing board of the Sunnyside United School District, Tucson, Arizona. He emphasizes the importance of education and calls for parental involvement in their children's schooling.]

    2000             Message from the board. Your Sunnyside Story, Vol. 35, no. 1 (October), p. 3. Tucson, Sunnyside School District. [Norris addresses the areas of drop-out rates, attendance, and parental involvement in their children's educations. His remarks also appear here in Spanish and are accompanied by a black-and-white photo of him.]


Nunez, Austin, and Mary G. Wallace

    1993             Solutions or symbols? An Indian perspective on water settlement. In Indian water in the new West, edited by Thomas R. McGuire, William B. Lord, and Mary G. Wallace, pp. 35-53. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Nunez, chairman of the San Xavier District of the Tohono O'odham Nation, and Wallace summarize the effects of the Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act on the San Xavier Reservation, reviewing the history of water use on the reservation in the process.]


Nunez, Cecilia

    1980a           Da:m ka:cim / sky. In Tohonno O=odham ha cegtoidag c ha=icu a:ga, p. 28. Waitsburg, Washington, Coppei House Publisher for the San Simon School. [Papago and English versions of a poem by a Papago about the sky in relation to night, stars, moon, sleep, and sun.]

    1980b           Pi g >an hu ta:tam; don=t touch. In Tohonno O=odham ha cegtoidag c ha=icu a:ga, p. 32. Waitsburg, Washington, Coppei House Publisher for the San Simon School. [Papago and English versions by a Papago about advice from her grandmother not to touch horned toads.]

    1980c           Sopol esabig masad / August. In Tohonno O=odham ha cegtoidag c ha=icu a:ga, p. 22. Waitsburg, Washington, Coppei House Publisher for the San Simon School. [Papago and English versions of a poem by a Papago about her impressions of the month of August.]     

    1982a           Da:m ka:cim / sky. In Mat hekid o ju; when it rains, edited by Ofelia Zepeda, pp. 44-45. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [A reprint of C. Nunez (1980a).]

    1982b           Pi g >an hu ta:tam; don=t touch. In Mat hekid o ju; when it rains, edited by Ofelia Zepeda, pp. 42-43. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Reprint of C. Nunez (1980b).]

    1982c           Sopol esabig masad / August. In Mat hekid o ju; when it rains, edited by Ofelia Zepeda, pp. 40-41. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Reprint of C. Nunez (1980c).]


Nye, William F., translator

    1861             Sonora: its extent, population, natural productions, Indian tribes, mines, mineral lands, etc., etc. San Francisco, H.H. Bancroft and Company. 190 pp. [Translated from the Spanish of José Francisco Velasco (1850), there is a section on Papagos on pages 100-103. Also see page 141 concerning the history of Quitobac, a Papago settlement next to an oasis northwest of Caborca, Sonora.]