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    The road linking West Thumb and Old Faithful is closed for the season—traffic should detour through West Thumb, Lake, and Canyon. The road from Mammoth to Norris is closed for two weeks—traffic should detour over Dunraven Pass. More »

Wolf References

These are important publications about this resource. The list may include academic publications, government publications, management documents that inform the decision-making process at parks and protected areas, or links to websites that provide additional information relevant to the topic. Click on highlighted links to access copies of the listed document.
 

Peer-reviewed Science Publications

Almberg, E. S., L. D. Mech, D. W. Smith, J. W. Sheldon, and R. L. Crabtree. 2009. A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park's Canid Community. PLoS ONE 4(9): e7042. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007042.

Almberg, E.S., P.C. Cross, and D.W. Smith. 2010. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community. Ecological Applications 20:2058-2074.

Almberg, E.S., P.C. Cross, A.P. Dobson, D.W. Smith, & P.J. Hudson. 2012. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: a case study of Yellowstone's wolves. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367(1604): 2840-2851.

Anderson, T.M., B.M. vonHoldt, S.I. Candille, M. Musiani, C. Greco, D.R. Stahler, D.W. Smith, B. Padhukasahasram, E. Randi, J.A. Leonard, C.D. Bustamante, E.A. Ostrander, H. Tang, R.K. Wayne, and G.S. Barsh. 2009. Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves. Science 323:1339-1343.

Bangs, E.E., S.H. Fritts, J.A. Fontaine, D.W. Smith, K.M. Murphy, C.M. Mack, and C.C. Niemeyer. 1998. Status of gray wolf restoration in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:785-798.

Bangs, E., J. Fontaine, M. Jimenez, T. Meier, C. Niemeyer, D. Smith, K. Murphy, D. Guernsey, L. Handegard, M. Collinge, R. Krischke, J. Shivik, C. Mack, I. Babcock, V. Asher, and D. Domenici. 2001. Gray wolf restoration in the northwestern United States. Endangered Species Update 18(4):147-152

Bangs, E., M. Jimenez, C. Niemeyer, T. Meier, V. Asher, J. Fontaine, M. Collinge, L. Handegard, R. Krischke, D. Smith, and C. Mack. 2005. Livestock guarding dogs and wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 8: 32-39.

Barnowe-Meyer, K.K., P.J. White, T.L. Davis, D.W. Smith, R.L. Crabtree, and J.A. Byers. 2010. Influences of wolves and high-elevation dispersion on reproductive success of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Journal of Mammalogy 91:712-721.

Barsh, G.S., T.M. Anderson, B.M. Vonholdt, S.I. Candille, M. Musiani, D.R. Stahler, J.A. Leonard, B. Padhukasahasram, E. Randi, C.D. Bustamante, E.A. Ostrander, H. Tang, and R.K. Wayne. 2009. How the Gray Wolf Got Its Color Response. Science 325:34-34.

Bradley, E.H., D.H. Pletscher, E.E. Bangs, K.E. Kunkel, D.W. Smith, C.M. Mack, T.J. Meier, J.A. Fontaine, C.C. Niemeyer, and M.D. Jimenez. 2005. Evaluating wolf translocation as a nonlethal method to reduce livestock conflicts in the northwestern United States. Conservation Biology 19:1498-1508.

Brainerd, S.M., H. Andren, E.E. Bangs, E.H. Bradley, J.A. Fontaine, W. Hall, Y. Iliopoulos, M. D. Jimenez, E.A. Jozwiak, O. Liberg, C.M. Mack, T.J. Meier, C.C. Niemeyer, H.C. Pedersen, H. Sand, R. N. Schultz, D.W. Smith, P. Wabakken, and A.P. Wydeven. 2008. The effects of breeder loss on wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:89-98.

Carroll, C., M.K. Phillips, N.H. Schumaker, D.W. Smith. 2002. Impacts of landscape change on wolf restoration success: Planning a reintroduction program using static and dynamic spatial models. Conservation Biology 17:1-15.

Consolo Murphy, S. and D.W. Smith. 2002. Documenting trends in Yellowstone's beaver population: A comparison of aerial and ground surveys in the Yellowstone Lake Basin. Pages 172-178 in R.J. Anderson and D. Harmon, editors. Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

Coulson, T., D.R. MacNulty, D.R. Stahler, B. vonHoldt, R.K. Wayne, and D.W. Smith. 2011. Modeling Effects of Environmental Change on Wolf Population Dynamics, Trait Evolution, and Life History. Science 334:1275-1278.

Creel, S., G. Spong, J.L. Sands, J. Rotella, J. Ziegle, L. Joe, K. Murphy, D. Smith. 2003. Population size estimation in Yellowstone wolves with error-prone noninvasive microsatellite genotypes. Molecular Ecology.

Forester, J.D., A.R. Ives, M.G. Turner, D.P. Anderson, D. Fortin, H.L. Beyer, D.W. Smith, and M.S. Boyce. 2007. State-space models link elk movement patterns to landscape characteristics in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs 77:285-299.

Fortin, D., H.L. Beyer, M.S. Boyce, D.W. Smith, T. Duchesne, J.S. Mao. 2005. Wolves influence elk movements: Behavior shapes a trophic cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320-1330.

Eberhardt, L.L., R.A. Garrott, D.W. Smith, P.J. White, and R.O. Peterson. 2003. Assessing the impact of wolves on ungulate prey. Ecological Applications 13:776-783

Geffen, E., M. Kam, R. Hefner, P. Hersteinsson, A. Angerbjorn, L. Dalen, E. Fuglei, K. Noren, J.R. Adams, J. Vucetich, T.J. Meier, L.D. Mech, B.M. vonHoldt, D.R. Stahler, and R.K. Wayne. 2011. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids. Molecular Ecology 20:5348-5358.

Gipson, P.S., E.E. Bangs, T.N. Bailey, D.K. Boyd, H. Dean Cluff, D.W. Smith, and M.D. Jimenez. 2002 Color patterns among wolves in western North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:821-830.

Gunther, K.A. and D.W. Smith. 2004. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park. Ursus 15:232-238.

Kauffman, M.J., N. Varley, D.W. Smith, D.R. Stahler, D.R. MacNulty, and M.S. Boyce. 2007. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. Ecology Letters 10:690-700.

MacNulty, D.R., N. Varley, and D.W. Smith. 2001. Grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, usurps bison calf, Bison bison, captured by wolves, Canis lupus, in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:495-498.

MacNulty, D.R., L.D. Mech, and D.W. Smith. 2007. A proposed ethogram of large-carnivore predatory behavior, exemplified by the wolf. Journal of Mammalogy 88:595-605.

MacNulty, D.R., G.E. Plumb, and D.W. Smith. 2008. Validation of a new video and telemetry system for remotely monitoring wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1834-1844.

MacNulty, D.R., D.W. Smith, L.D. Mech, and L.E. Eberly. 2009a. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better? Journal of Animal Ecology 78:532-539.

MacNulty, D.R., D.W. Smith, J.A. Vucetich, L.D. Mech, D.R. Stahler, and C. Packer. 2009b. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves. Ecology Letters 12:1347-1356.

MacNulty, D.R., D.W. Smith, L.D. Mech, J.A. Vucetich, and C. Packer. 2012. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk. Behavioral Ecology 23:75-82.

Mao, J.S., M.S. Boyce, D.W. Smith, F.J. Singer, D.J. Vales, J.M. Vore and E.M. Merrill. 2005. Habitat selection by elk before and after wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 69(4):1691-1707

Mech, L.D., M.K. Phillips, D.W. Smith, and T.J. Kreeger. 1996. Denning behavior of non-gravid wolves. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:343-345.

Mech, L.D., D.W. Smith, K.M. Murphy, D.R. MacNulty. 2001. Winter severity and wolf predation on a formerly wolf-free elk herd. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:998-1003.

Mech, L.D., R.T. McIntyre, and D.W. Smith. 2004. Unusual behavior by bison, Bison bison, toward elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus. Canadian Field-Naturalist 118:115-118.

Merkle, J.A., D.R. Stahler, and D.W. Smith. 2009. Interference competition between gray wolves and coyotes in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 87:56-63.

Metz, M.C., J.A. Vucetich, D.W. Smith, D.R. Stahler, and R.O. Peterson. 2011. Effect of Sociality and Season on Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Foraging Behavior: Implications for Estimating Summer Kill Rate. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017332

Metz, M.C., D.W. Smith, J.A. Vucetich, D.R. Stahler, and R.O. Peterson. 2012. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01945.x

Mitchell, M.S., D.E. Ausband, C.A. Sime, E.E. Bangs, J.A. Gude, M.D. Jimenez, C.M. Mack, T.J. Meier, M.S. Nadeau, and D.W. Smith. 2008. Estimation of successful breeding pairs for wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:881-891.

Mitchell, M.S., J.A. Gude, D.E. Ausband, C.A. Sime, E.E. Bangs, M.D. Jimenez, C.M. Mack, T J. Meier, M.S. Nadeau, and D.W. Smith. 2010. Temporal validation of an estimator for successful breeding pairs of wolves Canis lupus in the US northern Rocky Mountains. Wildlife Biology 16:101-106.

Murray, D.L., D.W. Smith, E.E. Bangs, C. Mack, J.K. Oakleaf, J. Fontaine, D. Boyd, M. Jiminez, C. Niemeyer, T.J. Meier, D. Stahler, J. Holyan, and V.J. Asher. 2010. Death from anthropogenic causes is partially compensatory in recovering wolf populations. Biological Conservation 143:2514-2524.

Oakleaf, J.K., D.L. Murray, J.R. Oakleaf, E.E. Bangs, C.M. Mack, D.W. Smith, J.A. Fontaine, M.D. Jimenez, T.J. Meier, and C.C. Niemeyer. 2006. Habitat selection by recolonizing wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:554-563.

Oster, M., J. Pollinger, D.R. Stahler, and R.K. Wayne. 2011. Optimization of RNA isolation and leukocyte viability in canid RNA expression studies. Conservation Genetics Resources, DOI: 10.1007/s12686-011-9465-9.

Peterson, R.O., A.K. Jacobs, T.D. Drummer, L.D. Mech, and D.W. Smith. 2002. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:1405-1412.

Ripple, W.J., E.J. Larsen, R.A. Renkin, and D.W. Smith. 2001. Trophic cascades among wolves, elk and aspen on Yellowstone National Park's northern range. Biological Conservation 102:227-234.

Ruth, T.K., D.W. Smith, M.A. Haroldson, P.C. Buotte, C.C. Schwartz, H.B. Quigley, S. Cherry, K.M. Murphy, D. Tyers and K. Frey. 2003. Large-carnivore response to recreational big-game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:1150-1161.

Smith, D.W., T.D. Drummer, K.M. Murphy, D.S. Guernsey, S.B. Evans. 2004. Winter prey selection and estimation of wolf kill rates in Yellowstone National Park, 1995-2000. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:153-166.

Smith, D.W., R.O. Peterson, D. Houston. 2003. Yellowstone after wolves. BioScience 53: 330-340. Smith, D. W, K.M. Murphy, S. Monger. 2001. Killing of a Bison (Bison bison)calf, by a wolf (Canis lupus), and four Coyotes (Canis latrans), in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 115(2):343-345.

Smith, D.W., L.D. Mech, M. Meagher, W.E. Clark, R. Jaffe, M.K. Phillips, and J.A. Mack. 2000. Wolf-bison interactions in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4):1128-1135.

Smith, D.W., E.E. Bangs, J.K. Oakleaf, C. Mack, J. Fontaine, D. Boyd, M. Jimenez, D.H. Pletscher, C.C. Niemeyer, T.J. Meier, D.R. Stahler, J. Holyan, V.J. Asher, and D.L. Murray. 2010. Survival of Colonizing Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982-2004. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:620-634.

Stahler, D.R., B. Heinrich, and D.W. Smith. 2002. Common ravens, Corvus corax, preferentially associate with gray wolves, Canis lupus, as a foraging strategy in winter. Animal Behavior 64:283-290.

Stahler, D.R., D.W. Smith, and R. Landis. 2002. The acceptance of a new breeding male into a wild wolf pack. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:360-365.

Stahler, D.R., D.W. Smith, and D.S. Guernsey. 2006. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): Lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Journal of Nutrition 136:1923S-1926S.

Stahler, D.R., D.R. MacNulty, R.K. Wayne, B. vonHoldt, & D.W. Smith. 2013. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 222–234

vonHoldt, B.M., D.R. Stahler, D.W. Smith, D.A. Earl, J.P. Pollinger, and R.K. Wayne. 2008. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves. Molecular Ecology 17:252-274.

vonHoldt, B.M., D.R. Stahler, E.E. Bangs, D.W. Smith, M.D. Jimenez, C.M. Mack, C.C. Niemeyer, J.P. Pollinger, and R.K. Wayne. 2010. A novel assessment of population structure and gene flow in grey wolf populations of the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Molecular Ecology 19:4412-4427.

Vucetich, J.A., D.W. Smith and D.R. Stahler. 2005. Influence of harvest, climate, and wolf predation on Yellowstone elk, 1961-2004. Oikos 111: 259-270.

Vucetich, J.A., M. Hebblewhite, D.W. Smith, and R.O. Peterson. 2011. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems. Journal of Animal Ecology 80:1236-1245.

Wilmers, C.C., R.L. Crabtree, D.W. Smith, K.M. Murphy and W.M. Getz. 2003. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:909-916.

Wilmers, C.C., D.R. Stahler, R.L. Crabtree, D.W. Smith, and W.M. Getz. 2003. Resource dispersion and consumer dominance:scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA. Ecology Letters 6:996-1003.

Wright, G.J., R.O. Peterson, D.W. Smith, and T.O. Lemke. 2006. Selection of northern Yellowstone elk by gray wolves and hunters. Journal of Wildlife Management70:1070-1078.

 

Book chapters

Ballard, W.B., L.N. Carbyn, and D.W. Smith. 2003. Wolf interactions with non-prey. Pages 259-271 in L.D. Mech and L. Boitani, editors. Wolves: Ecology, behavior,and conservation. University of Chicago Press.

Bangs, E.E., J.A. Fontaine, M.D. Jimenez, T.J. Meier, E.H. Bradley, C.C Niemeyer, D.W. Smith, C.M. Mack, V. Asher, and J.K. Oakleaf. 2005. Managing wolf-human conflict in the northwestern United States. Pgs. 340-356 in People and Wildlife: Conflict or coexistence? Editors, R. Woodroff, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz. Cambridge University Press.

Berger, J. and D.W. Smith. 2005. Restoring functionality in Yellowstone with recovering carnivores: Gains and uncertainties. Pgs. 100-109 in Large carnivores and biodiversity conservation. Editors, J.C. Ray, K.H. Redford, R.S. Steneck and J. Berger. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Bangs, E.E., and D.W. Smith. 2008. Re-introduction of the gray wolf into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho, USA. In: Global re-introduction perspectives: Re-introduction case studies from around the globe (ed. P.S. Soorae). IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi,UAE, pp. 167–171.

Campbell, B.H., B. Altman, E.E. Bangs, D.W. Smith, B. Csuti, D.W. Hays, F. Slavens, K. Slavens, C. Schultz, and R.W. Butler. 2006. Restoring wildlife populations. Pgs 351-373 in Restoring the Pacific Northwest: The art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia. Editors, D. Apostol and M. Sinclair. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Fritts, S.H., C.M. Mack, D.W. Smith, K.M. Murphy, M.K. Phillips, M.D. Jimenez, E.E. Bangs, J.A. Fontaine, C.C. Niemeyer, W.G.Brewster, and T.J. Kaminski. 2001. Outcomes of hard and soft releases of wolves in central Idaho and the Greater Yellowstone Area. Pages 125-147 in D.S Maehr, R.F. Noss, and J.L. Larkin, editors. Large Mammal restoration: Ecological and sociological challenges for the 21st century. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Garrott, R.A., D.R. Stahler, and P. J. White. Competition and symbiosis – the indirect effects of predation. In: Yellowstone's Wildlife in Transition (eds. P.J. White, R.A. Garrott, and G. Plumb). Harvard University Press, pp. 94-108

Hebblewhite, M., and D.W. Smith. 2010. Wolf community ecology: Ecosystem effects of recovering wolves in Banff and Yellowstone National Parks. In: The world of wolves: new perspectives on ecology, behavior and policy (eds. M. Musiani, L. Boitani, and P. Paquet). University of Calgary Press, pp. 69-120.

Phillips, M. and D.W. Smith. 1996. The wolves of Yellowstone. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, MN, 128 pp.

Phillips, M., B. Miller, K. Kunkel, P.C. Paquet, W.W. Martin, and D.W. Smith. 2010. Potential for and implications of wolf restoration in the Southern Rockies. In: Awakening Spirits: wolves in the Southern Rockies (eds. R. P. Reading, B. Miller, A. L. Masching, R. Edward, M.K. Phillips). Fulcrum Publishing, pp. 197-215.

Smith, D.W. 2004. Wolf behavior: Learning to live in life or death situations. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, ed., Marc Bekoff, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, pgs 1181-1185.

Smith, D.W. 2004. The wolf in fairy tales. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, ed., Marc Bekoff, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, pgs 39-40.

Smith, D.W. 2007. Wolf and human conflicts: A long, bad history. In: Encyclopedia of human- animal relationships (ed. M. Bekoff). Greenwood Press, pp. 402–409.

Smith, D. and M. Phillips. 2000. Northern Rocky Mountain wolf (Canis lupus nubilus). Pp. 219-223, in Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (R.P. Reading and B. Miller, eds.). Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 383pp.

Smith, D., W. Brewster, and E. Bangs. 1999. Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Restoration of a top carnivore in a complex management environment. Pp. 103-125, in Carnivores in Ecosystems: The Yellowstone Experience (T. Clark, A.P. Curlee, S. Minta, and P. Kareiva, eds.). Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 429pp.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, D.S. Guernsey, and E. Bangs. 2006. Wolf Restoration in Yellowstone National Park. In: World Natural Heritage Site Yellowstone and Shiretoko: conservation of wildlife in national parks (eds. D. R. McCullough, K. Kaji, and M. Yamanaka. Shiretoko). Nature Foundation Press, pp. 242-254.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, and M.S. Becker. 2008. Wolf recolonization of the Madison headwaters area in Yellowstone. In: Large mammal ecology in central Yellowstone (eds. R.A. Garrott and P.J. White). Elsevier Academic Press-Terrestrial Ecology Series, pp.283-302.

Smith, D.W., and E.E. Bangs. 2009. Reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park: History, values and ecosystem restoration. In: Reintroduction of Top-order Predators (eds. M. Hayward and M. Somers). Blackwell Scientific, pp. 92-125.

Wilmers, C.C., K. Ram, F.G.R.Watson, P.J. White, D.W. Smith and T. Levi. Climate and vegetation phenology – predicting the effects of warming temperatures. In: Yellowstone's Wildlife in Transition (eds. P.J. White, R.A. Garrott, and G. Plumb). Harvard University Press, pp. 147-163.

 

Books for popular audiences

Smith, D.W. and G. Ferguson. 2006. Decade of the Wolf: Returning the Wild to Yellowstone, Lyons Press, Guildford, CT, 212 pp.

Smith, D.W. and G. Ferguson. (in press). Decade of the Wolf: Returning the Wild to Yellowstone, Lyons Press, Guildford, CT, 2nd Edition

Book reviews

Bishop, N.A. and D.W. Smith. 1998. Wolf country: A review and personal commentary. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 26:993-996.

Smith, D.W. 2002. Wolves and Human Communities: Biology, Politics, and Ethics. Journal of Mammlogy 83:915-918.

Smith, D.W. 2005. Mixed messages about opportunistic carnivores. Conservation Biology 19:1676-1678.

Smith, D.W. 2006. Coexisting with large carnivores: Lessons from Greater Yellowstone BioScience 56:848-849.

Smith, D.W. 2008. Look a wild wolf in the eye: Review of The Last Wild Wolves. BBC Wildlife 26:80.

Published conference proceedings

Bangs, E.E., J. Fontaine, T. Meier, C. Niemeyer, M. Jimenez, D. Smith, C. Mack, V. Asher, L. Handegard, M. Collinge, R. Krischke, C. Sime, S. Nadeau, and D. Moody. 2004. Restoration and conflict management of the gray wolf in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Wildlife Management Institute, pgs. 89-105.

Bangs, E., M. Jimenez, C. Niemeyer, J. Fontaine, M. Collinge, R. Krsichke, L. Handegard, J. Shivik, C. Sime, S. Nadeau, C. Mack, D.W. Smith, V. Asher, S. Stone. 2006. Non-lethal and lethal tools to manage wolf-livestock conflict in the Northwestern United States. Proceedings of the 22nd Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of California, Davis, 7-16., 2006, p. 7.

Madden, J.D., R.C. Arkin, and D.R. MacNulty. 2010. Multi-robot system based on model of wolf hunting behavior to emulate wolf and elk interactions. Proceedings 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Tianjin, China, pp. 1043-1050

Phillips, M.K. and D.W. Smith. 1998. Gray wolves and private landowners in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Transactions of 63rd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. pp.443-450.

Articles for popular audience

Biel Wondrak, A. and D.W. Smith. 2006. Diseases investigated as possible cause of wolf decline. Yellowstone Discovery 21: 6-7.

Biel Wondrak, A. and D.W. Smith. 2005. Yellowstone wolf found near Denver. NPS Natural Resource Year in Review – 2004. National Park Service, U.S Department of the Interior, Washington D.C., ISSN 1544-5429.

Bishop, N.A.and D.W. Smith. 2003. The survivors. International Wolf 13: 4-7.

Cassidy-Quimby, Kira. 2010. The Life of a Lone Wolf. International Wolf 20: 20-22.

Ferguson, G. and D.W. Smith. 2005. A decade of wolves in Yellowstone. Montana Magazine (May-June):16-22.

McIntyre, R. and D.W. Smith. 2000. The death of a Queen: Yellowstone mutiny ends tyrannical rule over Druid pack. International Wolf 10(4):8-11.

Smith, D.W. 1995. The founder wolves. International Wolf, 5:18.

Smith, D.W. 1996. Life with the Yellowstone wolves. Wolf! Magazine, 14:11-12.

Smith, D.W. 1996. Wolf Park provides stepping stone to Yellowstone. Wolf Park News, 23:4.

Smith, D.W. 1997. A wolf tracker in the sky. The Yellowstone Wolf Tracker, 1:4.

Smith, D.W. 1997. Naming wolf packs. The Yellowstone Wolf Tracker, 1:6.

Smith, D.W. 1998. Radio collaring wolves. The Yellowstone Wolf Tracker, 1:3.

Smith, D.W. 1999. Wolf re-introduction in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Re-Introduction News. Newsletter of the Re-Introduction specialist Group of IUCN's Species Survival Commission (SSC) ISSN 1560-3709: Vol. 18:3-5.

Smith, D.W. 1999. The North American wolf today. International Wolf, 9:14-16.

Smith, D. W. 2001. Wildlife Art: Does it make a difference for wolves? Wildlife Art. 20(6):102-105.

Smith, D. 2002. Yukon passion: Paddling down the Wind and Peel Rivers. Nastawgan: Quarterly Journal of the Wilderness Canoe Association 29 (4):1-5.

Smith, D. W. 2002. Wolf #7: The passing of a matriarch. Yellowstone Science 10:18-19.

Smith, D.W. 2002. Wolf Pack Leadership: Doug Smith explores the issue in Yellowstone and Isle Royale. Howlings: The Central Rockies Wolf Project 11(2):10-12.

Smith, D.W. 2005. Ten years of Yellowstone wolves 1995-2005. Points West Magazine, Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Spring:3-6.

Smith, D.W. 2005. Ten years of Yellowstone wolves, 1995-2005. Yellowstone Science 13(1): 7-33 (1.25 MB pdf).

Smith, D.W. 2005. The predator and prey battle. Points West Magazine, Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Spring:7.

Smith, D.W. 2006. Re-introduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone National Park, USA. Re-Introduction News: Newsletter of the Re-introduction Specialist Group of IUCN's Species Survival Commission (SSC) ISSN 1560-3709: Vol. 26:29-31.

Smith, D.W. and K.M. Murphy. 2000. The wolves of Yellowstone. Southeastern Wildlife Magazine.

Smith, D.W., R.J. Anderson, and J. Mao. 2001. Wolf restoration in Yellowstone successful beyond expectations. Natural Resource Year in Review, National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C.

Smith, D.W. and R. McIntyre. 2002. Wolf pack size: How did the Druid Peak pack get to be so big? International Wolf 12(1):4-7.

Smith, D.W., and E. Almberg. 2007. Wolf diseases in Yellowstone National Park . Yellowstone Science 15:17-19 (985 KB pdf).

White, P.J., D.W. Smith, J.W. Duffield, M. Jimenez, T. McEneaney, G. Plumb. 2005. Yellowstone after wolves: Environmental Impact Statement predictions and ten-year appraisals. Yellowstone Science 13(1):34-41 (1.25 MB pdf).

Technical Reports

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, E. Stahler, M. Metz, K. Quimby, R. McIntyre, C. Ruhl, H. Martin, R. Kindermann, N. Bowersock, and M. McDevitt. 2013. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2012. Nation­al Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2013-02.

Smith, D.W., D.R Stahler, E. Albers, R. McIntyre, M. Metz, J. Irving, R. Raymond, C. Anton, K. Cassidy-Quimby, and N. Bowersock. 2011. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2010. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2011-06.

Smith, D.W., D.R Stahler, E. E. Albers, M. Metz, K. Cassidy, J. Irving, R. Raymond, Colby Anton, Nate Bowersock, Hilary Zaranek, and R. McIntyre. 2010. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2009. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2010-06.

Smith, D.W., D.R Stahler, E. E. Albers, M. Metz, L. Williamson, N. Ehlers, K. Cassidy, J. Irving, R. Raymond, E. Almberg, and R. McIntyre. 2009. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2008. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2009-03.

Smith, D.W., D.R Stahler, D.S. Guernsey, M. Metz, E. Albers, L. Williamson, N. Legere, E. Almberg, and R. McIntyre. 2008. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2007. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2008-01.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, D.S. Guernsey, M. Metz, A. Nelson, E. Albers, and R. McIntyre. 2007. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report 2006. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2007-01.

Bangs, E., M. Jimenez, C. Niemeyer, J. Fontaine, M. Collinge, R. Krsichke, L. Handegard, J. Shivik, C. Sime, S, Nadeau, C. Mack. D.W. Smith, V. Asher, S. Stone. 2006. Non-lethal and lethal tools to manage wolf-livestock conflict in the Northwestern United States. Proceedings of the 22nd Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of California, Davis, 7-16.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, and D.S. Guernsey. 2006. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2005. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2006-04.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, and D.S. Guernsey. 2005. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2004. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-2005-02.

MacNulty, D. and D. Smith. 2004. Bison foraging response to the risk of wolf predation in a spatially heterogeneous winter environment: a preliminary assessment. University of Wyoming, National Park Service Research Center, 28th Annual Report, edited by H. Harlow & M. Harlow.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, and D.S. Guernsey. 2004. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2003. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-NR-2004-04.

Smith, D.W., D.R. Stahler, and D.S. Guernsey. 2003. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2002. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-NR-2003-04.

Stahler, D.R., D.W. Smith, R. McIntyre, E. West, B. Phillips, B. Chan, M.Ross, J. Knuth Folts, D. Chalfant, and B. Suderman. 2003. Managing wolves and humans in Lamar Valley: A final report on the Druid road project 2003. YNP report 9pp.

Smith, D.W., and D.S.Guernsey. 2002. Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual report, 2001. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, YCR-NR-2002-04.

Smith, D.W., R. McIntyre, E. Cleere, G. Plumb, B. Phillips, B. Chan, M. Ross, J. Knuth Folts, D. Chalfant, and B. Suderman. 2001. Managing wolves and humans in Lamar Valley: A final report on the Druid road project 2001. YNP report 7pp.

Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, and D.S. Guernsey. 2001. The Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 2000. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, YCR-NR-2000-01. 14pp.

Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, R. McIntyre, T. Zieber, G. Plumb, B. Phillips, B. Chan, J. Knuth Folts, D. Chalfant, and B. Suderman. 2000. Managing wolves and humans in Lamar Valley: A final report on the Druid road project 2000. YNP report, 5pp.

Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, and D.S. Guernsey. 2000. The Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 1999. National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, YCR-NR-2000-01. 14pp.

Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, and D.S. Guernsey. 1999. The Yellowstone Wolf Project Annual Report. Yellowstone Center for Resources, YCR-NR-99-1. 14pp.

Smith, D.W. 1998. The Yellowstone Wolf Project Annual Report. Yellowstone Center for Resources, YCR-NR-98-2. 20pp.

Phillips, M.K. and D.W. Smith. 1997. The Yellowstone Wolf Project: 1995- 1996 Biennial Report. Yellowstone Center for Resources, YCR-NR-97-4. 24pp.

Did You Know?

Summer Crowd at Old Faithful.

At peak summer levels, 3,500 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessioners and about 800 work for the National Park Service.