• A bull elk bugles in Yellowstone National Park


    National Park ID,MT,WY

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  • Craig Pass Closed for the Season; Mammoth to Norris, Expect 30-minute Delays

    The road linking West Thumb and Old Faithful is closed for the season—traffic should detour through West Thumb, Lake, and Canyon. More »

Cougar References

Biek, R., T.K. Ruth, K.M. Murphy, C.R. Anderson, Jr., and M. Poss. 2006. Examining effects of persistent retroviral infection on fitness and pathogen susceptibility in a natural feline host. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84(3):365–373.

Biek, R., T.K. Ruth, K.M. Murphy, C.R. Anderson, Jr., M. Johnson, R. DeSimone, R. Gray, C.M. Gillan, and M. Poss. 2006. Factors associated with microparasite seroprevalence and infection risk in Rocky Mountain cougars. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3):606–615.

Biek, R., N. Akamine, M.K. Schwartz, T.K. Ruth, K.M. Murphy, and M. Poss. 2006. Genetic consequences of
sex-biased dispersal in a solitary carnivore: Yellowstone cougars. Biology Letters 2(2):312–315.

Hornocker, H.G. and S. Negri. 2009. Cougars: Ecology and Conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Murphy, K. 1994. The long day of a lion hunter (interview). Yellowstone Science. 2(4): 2–9.

Murphy, K. 1994. The Yellowstone lion: The homecoming of a native predator (interview). Yellowstone Science 2(3): 8–13.

Murphy, K.M. 1998. The ecology of the cougar (Puma concolor) in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem:
Interactions with prey, bears, and humans. PhD. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho.

Murphy, K.M., G.S. Felzien, M.G. Hornocker, and T.K. Ruth. 1998. Encounter competition between bears and cougars: Some ecological implications. Ursus 10:55–60.

Murphy, K.M., I. Ross, and M.G. Hornocker. 1999. The ecology of anthropogenic influences on cougars. In T. Clark, S. Minta, P. Kareiva and P. Curlee, ed., Carnivores in Ecosystems. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Ruth, T.K. 2004. “Ghost of the Rockies”: The Yellowstone cougar project. Yellowstone Science 12(1): 13–24.

Ruth, T.K. 2004. Traversing the cliffs: The life and death of male cougar M139. Yellowstone Science 12(1): 25–28.

Ruth, T.K., D.W. Smith, M.A. Haroldson, P.C. Buotte, C.C. Schwartz, H.B. Quigley, S. Cherry, K.M. Murphy, D.
Tyers, and K. Frey. 2003. Large-carnivore response to recreational big-game hunting along the Yellowstone
National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4):1150-1161.

Ruth, T.K., H.B. Quigly, and M.G. Hornocker. 2001. Cougar-wolf interactions in Yellowstone National Park: competition, demographics, and spatial relationships: Cumulative annual technical report. Bozeman, MT: Hornocker Wildlife Institute.

Did You Know?

Fire in Yellowstone Pineland in 1988

The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.