• An aerial view of Old Faithful erupting taken from Observation Point with the Old Faithful Inn to the side.

    Yellowstone

    National Park ID,MT,WY

Elk References

Barber, S.M., L.D. Mech, and P.J. White. 2005. Yellowstone elk calf mortality following wolf restoration: Bears remain top summer predators. Yellowstone Science 13(3): 37–44. (2.4 MB pdf)

Barmore, W.J. Jr. 2003. Ecology of ungulates and their winter range in northern Yellowstone National Park, Research and Synthesis 1962–1970. Yellowstone Center for Resources.

Beja-Pereira, A., B. Bricker, S. Chen, C. Almendra, P.J. White, and G. Luikart. 2009. DNA genotyping suggests that recent brucellosis outbreaks in the greater Yellowstone area originated from elk. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(4):1174–1177.

Borkowski, J.J., P.J. White, R.A. Garrott, T. Davis, A.R. Hardy, and D.J. Reinhart. 2006. Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coaches. Ecological Applications 16(5):1911–1925.

Garrott, R.A., et al. 2005. Generalizing wolf effects across the greater Yellowstone area: a cautionary note. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1245–1255.

Garrott, R.A., P.J. White, and F.G.R. Watson. 2008. The Ecology of Large Mammals in Central Yellowstone: Sixteen Years of Integrated Field Studies In Terrestrial Ecology Series. London, UK: Academic Press, Elsevier.

Hardy, A.R. 2001. Bison and elk responses to winter recreation in Yellowstone National Park. MS. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University.

Houston, D.B. 1982. The Northern Yellowstone Elk: Ecology and Management. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Kreeger, T.J. 2002. Brucellosis in elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone area. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department for the Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee.

National Research Council. 2002. Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

White, P.J., and R.A. Garrott. 2005. Northern Yellowstone elk after wolf restoration. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:942–955.

White, P.J., and R.A. Garrott. 2005. Yellowstone's ungulates after wolves – expectations, realizations, and predictions. Biological Conservation 125:141–152.

White, P.J. et al. 2003. Evaluating the consequences of wolf recovery on northern Yellowstone elk. Yellowstone Center for Resources.

White, P.J., et al. 2005. Yellowstone after wolves – EIS predictions and ten-year appraisals. Yellowstone Science 13:34–41. (1.25 MB pdf)

White, P.J., K.M. Proffitt, and T.O. Lemke. 2012. Changes in elk distribution and group sizes after wolf restoration. American Midland Naturalist 167:174–187.

White, P.J., R.A. Garrott, K.L. Hamlin, R.C. Cook, J.G. Cook, and J.A. Cunningham. 2011. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk - evidence for predation risk effects? Ecological Applications 21:3–8.

White, P.J., K.M. Proffitt, L.D. Mech, S.B. Evans, J.A. Cunningham, and K.L. Hamlin. 2010. Migration of northern Yellowstone elk - implications of spatial structuring. Journal of Mammalogy 91:827–837.

Williams, E.S., M.W. Miller, T.J. Kreeger, R.H. Kahn, and E.T. Thorne. 2002. Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk: A review with recommendations for management. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):551–563.

Did You Know?

Bison in Yellowstone.

There are more people hurt by bison than by bears each year in Yellowstone. Park regulations state that visitors must stay at least 25 yards away from bison or elk and 100 yards away from bears.