• Winter visitors watching geysers erupting


    National Park ID,MT,WY

Elk References

Barber, S.M., L.D. Mech, and P.J. White. 2005. Yellowstone elk calf mortality following wolf restoration: Bears remain top summer predators. Yellowstone Science 13(3): 37–44. (2.4 MB pdf)

Barmore, W.J. Jr. 2003. Ecology of ungulates and their winter range in northern Yellowstone National Park, Research and Synthesis 1962–1970. Yellowstone Center for Resources.

Beja-Pereira, A., B. Bricker, S. Chen, C. Almendra, P.J. White, and G. Luikart. 2009. DNA genotyping suggests that recent brucellosis outbreaks in the greater Yellowstone area originated from elk. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(4):1174–1177.

Borkowski, J.J., P.J. White, R.A. Garrott, T. Davis, A.R. Hardy, and D.J. Reinhart. 2006. Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coaches. Ecological Applications 16(5):1911–1925.

Garrott, R.A., et al. 2005. Generalizing wolf effects across the greater Yellowstone area: a cautionary note. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1245–1255.

Garrott, R.A., P.J. White, and F.G.R. Watson. 2008. The Ecology of Large Mammals in Central Yellowstone: Sixteen Years of Integrated Field Studies In Terrestrial Ecology Series. London, UK: Academic Press, Elsevier.

Hardy, A.R. 2001. Bison and elk responses to winter recreation in Yellowstone National Park. MS. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University.

Houston, D.B. 1982. The Northern Yellowstone Elk: Ecology and Management. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Kreeger, T.J. 2002. Brucellosis in elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone area. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department for the Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee.

National Research Council. 2002. Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

White, P.J., and R.A. Garrott. 2005. Northern Yellowstone elk after wolf restoration. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:942–955.

White, P.J., and R.A. Garrott. 2005. Yellowstone's ungulates after wolves – expectations, realizations, and predictions. Biological Conservation 125:141–152.

White, P.J. et al. 2003. Evaluating the consequences of wolf recovery on northern Yellowstone elk. Yellowstone Center for Resources.

White, P.J., et al. 2005. Yellowstone after wolves – EIS predictions and ten-year appraisals. Yellowstone Science 13:34–41. (1.25 MB pdf)

White, P.J., K.M. Proffitt, and T.O. Lemke. 2012. Changes in elk distribution and group sizes after wolf restoration. American Midland Naturalist 167:174–187.

White, P.J., R.A. Garrott, K.L. Hamlin, R.C. Cook, J.G. Cook, and J.A. Cunningham. 2011. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk - evidence for predation risk effects? Ecological Applications 21:3–8.

White, P.J., K.M. Proffitt, L.D. Mech, S.B. Evans, J.A. Cunningham, and K.L. Hamlin. 2010. Migration of northern Yellowstone elk - implications of spatial structuring. Journal of Mammalogy 91:827–837.

Williams, E.S., M.W. Miller, T.J. Kreeger, R.H. Kahn, and E.T. Thorne. 2002. Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk: A review with recommendations for management. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):551–563.

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