• A bull elk bugles in Yellowstone National Park


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  • Craig Pass Closed for the Season; Mammoth to Norris, Expect 30-minute Delays

    The road linking West Thumb and Old Faithful is closed for the season—traffic should detour through West Thumb, Lake, and Canyon. More »

Bear References

2007. Final Conservation Strategy for the Grizzly Bear in the Yellowstone Area. Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team.

2009. Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Inc. v. Servheen et al. Vol. CV 07-134-M-DWM. US District Court for the District of Montana, Missoula Division.

Barber, S.M., L.D. Mech, and P.J. White. 2005. Yellowstone elk calf mortality following wolf restoration: Bears remain top summer predators Yellowstone Science 13(3): 37–44. (2.4 MB pdf)

Craighead, J.C., J.S. Sumner, and J.A. Mitchell. 1995. The grizzly bears of Yellowstone: Their ecology in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Felicetti, L.A., C.C. Schwartz, R.O. Rye, K.A. Gunther, J.G. Crock, M. A. Haroldson, L. Waits, and Robbins. 2004. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82(3):493–501.

Gunther, K.A. 2008. Management, monitoring, and conservation of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park after delisting. Yellowstone Science 16(2): 30–34. (1.1 MB pdf)

Gunther, K.A. et al. 2004. Management of habituated grizzly bears in North America in: J. Rahm ed., Trans. of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Washington: Wildlife Management Institute.

Gunther, K.A. and T. Wyman. 2008. Human habituated bears: The next challenge in bear management in Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone Science 16(2): 35–41. (1.1 MB pdf)

Gunther, K.A., M.A. Haroldson, K. Frey, S. L. Cain, J. Copeland, and C.C. Schwartz. 2004. Grizzly bearhuman conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1992–2000. Ursus 15(1):10–22.

Haroldson, M.A., K.A. Gunther, and T. Wyman. 2008. Nature notes: Possible grizzly cub adoption in Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Science 16(2): 42–44. (3.3 MB pdf)

Haroldson, M.A., K.A. Gunther, D.P. Reinhart, R.P. Shannon, C. Cegelski, L. Waits, T. Wyman, and J. Smith. 2005. Changing numbers of spawning cutthroat trout in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake and estimates of grizzly bears visiting streams from DNA. Ursus 16(2):167–180.

Haroldson, M.A., C.C. Schwartz, and K.A. Gunther. 2008. Grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: From garbage, controversy, and decline to recovery. Yellowstone Science 16(2): 13–24. (3.3 MB pdf)

Haroldson, M.A., C.C. Schwartz, K.C. Kendall, K.A. Gunther, D. S. Moody, K. Frey, and D. Paetkau. 2010. Genetic analysis of individual origins supports isolation of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 1:1–13.

Herrero, S. 1985. Bear attacks: Their causes and avoidance. New York: Nick Lyons Books.

Herrero, S. 1996. Saving North America's grizzly bear ecosystems (interview). Yellowstone Science 4(3): 14–19. (1.6 MB pdf)

Herrero, S., T. Smith, T.D. DeBruyn, K. Gunther, and C.A. Matt. 2005. Brown bear habituation to people: Safety, risks, and benefits. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(1):362–373.

Hopkins, J.B., S. Herrero, R.T. Shideler, K.A. Gunther, C.C. Schwartz, and S.T. Kalinowski. 2010. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America. Ursus 21(2):154–168.

Meagher, M. 2008. Bears in transition, 1959–1970s. Yellowstone Science 16(2): 5–12. (1.1 MB pdf)

Podruzny, S.R. et al. 2002. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 13:19–28.

Robbins, C.T., C.C. Schwartz, K.A. Gunther, and C. Servheen. 2006. Grizzly bear nutrition and ecology studies in Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Science 14(3): 19–26. (1.3 MB pdf)

Schullery, P. 1992. The bears of Yellowstone. Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company.

Schwartz, C.C. et al. 2002. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1990–2000. Ursus 13:203–212.

Schwartz, C.C., M.A. Haroldson, G.C. White, R.B. Harris, S. Cherry, K.A. Keating, D. Moody, and C. Servheen. 2006. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Wildlife Monographs 161(1):1–68.

Schwartz, C.C., M.A. Haroldson, and G.C. White. 2010. Hazards affecting grizzly bear survival in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(4):654–667.

Schwartz, C.C., M.A. Haroldson, K. West, and et al. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual reports of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, Edited by US Department of the Interior. Bozeman, MT.

Other recent publications from our bear management office.

Did You Know?

Dog Hooked to Travois for Transporting Goods.

Some groups of Shoshone Indians, who adapted to a mountain existence, chose not to acquire the horse. These included the Sheep Eaters, or Tukudika, who used dogs to transport food, hides, and other provisions. The Sheep Eaters lived in many locations in Yellowstone.